Blood pressure is the pressure or force of blood exerted upon the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. Blood pressure is measured as systolic and diastolic. Normal value of blood pressure in adults is 120/80 mm.Hg. (120-systolic, and 80- diastolic). When the circulation of blood is too low to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to organs or tissues of the body, it is referred as low blood pressure. Although low blood pressure is not a common cause of concern but if blood pressure is markedly low, it can produce many abnormal symptoms, low blood pressure can be a result of any disorders. Such as hemorrhage, endocrine disorders, dehydration, cardiovascular diseases. There is no specific threshold for defining low blood pressure, it is considered too low when it produces abnormal symptoms. Usually when it reaches below 90/60 mmHg considered as low blood pressure.
Causes of low blood pressure
Hemorrhage – excessive bleeding due to any injury or accident reduces amount of blood in the body, causes severe reduction in the blood flow and ultimately leads to low blood pressure
Endocrinal disorders – endocrine disorders like hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can alter blood pressure, causes low blood pressure, other disorders such as adrenal insufficiency, diabetes, hypoglycemia can also cause low blood pressure.
Cardiac complaints – certain heart complaints like valvular disorders, heart failure, bradycardia theses conditions interrupt the proper circulation of blood in the body which ultimately leads to low blood pressure.
Certain medication – medications, like tricyclic antidepressants, antihypertensive drugs, narcotics, beta blockers can cause fall in blood pressure.
Pregnancy – there is fall in the blood pressure during pregnancy due to expansion in the female circulatory system.
Dehydration – whenever there is excessive fluid loss from the body it causes sudden fall in blood pressure and reduction in the amount of oxygen to the tissues as well. The condition becomes fetal when it turns to hypovolemic shock.
Hypotension due to infections – when infection reaches to flowing blood it produces septicemia which can cause severe and life threatening fall in blood pressure.
Anemia – in which there is lack of production of red blood cells, and lack of oxygen to the tissues of organs which ultimately leads to low blood pressure.
Allergy or allergic reaction – allergic reaction or anaphylaxis can be a major factor which can induce sudden and severe fall in blood pressure.
Symptoms of low blood pressure
- Chest pain
- Heaviness in the eyes
- Tachycardia or rapid heart rate
- Irregular heart beat
- Decreased urine output
- Blurred vision
Some serious symptoms caused due to low blood pressure mainly include:
- Chest tightness
- Chest pain
- Blueness of lips
- Patient may get unconscious
- Unresponsiveness on stimulation
- Dyspnoea or shortness of breath
- Swelling of the face, tongue, and lips
Diagnosis of low blood pressure
To evaluate the cause of low blood pressure proper, examination of the patient. Examination of pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and respiratory rate should be examined frequently; completely history of the patient including medication, injury or an accident, eating, allergic reaction should be taken with proper attention.
Specific testes mainly include:
- Complete blood count
- Blood electrolytes measurements
- Chest X-ray
- Holter monitoring
- Cortisol levels to evaluate Addison’s disease
- X-ray abdomen
- CT scan of the chest
- Blood culture
Homeopathic treatment of low blood pressure
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat low blood pressure but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat low blood pressure that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. There are following remedies which are helpful in the treatment of low blood pressure:
Cactus – low blood pressure, due to cardiac disease; pulse feeble, irregular, quick, without strength; angina pectoris, cold sweat and iron band feeling all the time; endocarditis with mitral insufficiency; temperature subnormal; endocardial murmurs, excessive impulse.
Camphor – low blood pressure, pulse small and weak, sudden sinking of the strength, icy coldness of the whole body, precordial distress; suffocative dyspnoea; anguish; great weakness.
Carbo veg – disintegration and imperfect oxidation is the keynote of this remedy; low blood pressure; persons who have never fully recover from the effects of some previous illness.
Crataegus – it is a heart tonic; prevents sudden fall in blood pressure; extreme dyspnoea and weakness; very feeble and irregular heart action.
Radium brom – lowered blood pressure; great weakness; hypotension due to severe pain in different parts of the body; severe aching pains all over, with restlessness, better moving about
Kali phos – considered as brain tonic, great nervous exhaustion; low blood pressure due to nervousness; great prostration and weakness.
Natrum mur – heat of sun is unbearable; patients with great craving for salt; great debility and weakness felt in the morning in bed; hypotension may arise from anemia; oversensitive to all impressions; corrects low blood pressure symptoms due to Addison’s disease.