Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in immune system called lymphocytes, lymphoma occurs when there is uncontrolled multiplication and growth in lymphocytes. The cause of lymphoma is unknown however, in some cases lymphoma develops in people who have weakened immune system.
Mainly there are two types of lymphoma first is HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA and other is NON HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA.
This is a malignant neoplasm of lymphoreticular system. Thus it can involve the lymph nodes, spleen, liver etc.
Clinical features of Hodgkin’s lymphoma
It presents as generalized lymphadenopathy. Generalized lymphadenopathy means when more than one group of lymph nodes are enlarged and are significant.
Abdominal pain can occur due to hepato-spleenomegaly, which are smooth and firm with round borders.
Para-aortic nodes are felt in the umbilical region, more so on the left side. Its clinical features are
- Firm to hard mass
- Fixed mass
- Does not move with respiration
- Being retroperitoneal, the mass does not fall forward on knee elbow position.
There may be ascites
Intermittent fever is sometimes seen. Skin rashes can also be seen
Multiple bony pains can occur due to secondary deposits, especially in the lumber vertebrae.
Superior vena cava and caval obstruction indicates enlarged mediastinal nodes. This is tested by asking the patient to rise the hand above the head. Enlargement of the veins indicates obstruction and the test is said to be positive.
- Complete blood picture – peripheral smear to rule out leukemia. Anemia indicates wide spread metastasis.
- Elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen – indicate uretral obstruction or due to the direct involvement of kidneys.
- Chest X-RAY – is taken to rule out mediastinal lymph nodes, mediastinal widening, pleural effusion.
- Intravenous pylography – is done to look for hydronephrosis as a result of back pressure caused by para-aortic node mass pressing on the ureter and to asses the function of kidney.
- Abdominal USG – to look para-aortic nodes, to rule out secondriasis in the liver, to look spleenomegaly
- Lymph node biopsy – incision biopsy is done and a neck node is usually removed.
- Mediastinoscopy – is done if peripheral nodes are not available.
Etiology of NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA
Age and sex
- Small lymphocytic lymphoma – elderly patients
- Lymphoblastic lymphoma – male adolescents and young adults
- Follicular lymphoma – mild adult age group
- RNA virus – human immuno deficiency virus produces AIDS. These patients can develop high grade B cell lymphoma
- DNA virus – Epstein – Barr virus can produce Burkitt’s lymphoma
- H.pylori – gastric extra nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas of MALT type
Immuno deficiency states
- Organ transplantation
Treatment of lymphoma
Role of homeopathy in treatment of lymphoma – Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat lymphoma but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several homeopathic remedies are available for lymphoma treatment that can be selected on the basis of cause, symptoms, sensation and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. Some important remedies are given below for lymphoma treatment:
- Arsenic Album – pallor, debility, shortness of breath, action of heart weak, profound blood changes, glandular enlargements. Its characteristics are restless – after noon, and after midnight aggravation, nervous apprehension and anxiety.
- Ferrum Phos – anaemia with hemorrhage and general debility and constipation. Chlorosis in young girls with delayed menses.
- China – when the periodicity of fever and chill with enlargement of spleen is marked. Bowels disturbed and the skin is hot and dry.
- Phosphorous – remarkable medicine for lymphoma treatment in cases where the patient is very much relaxed and debilitated. Palpitation of heart and shortness of breath on; least exertion. Loose and offensive stools with complete exhaustion thereafter.
- Natrum Mur – very well marked medicine for lymphoma treatment where the complexion is pale, earthy; skin greasy; anaemia with chilliness, cold feet and chills down the back.
- Calcaria Carb – excellent medicine for lymphoma and especially indicated when the lymphatic glands especially cervical glands are involved. Exhaustive sweat and perspiration.
- Ceanonthus – excellent medicine for disease like lymphoma. Enlargement of spleen resulting in anaemia.