Allopathic anatomy and physiology is all about matter and biochemical processes, not at all about true physiology.
The universe consists of matter, substance and essence. The realm of physiology is that of substance, the next level up from matter. Substance is manifested in powers, forces and energies, namely the domain of the Dynamis, Living Power, Life Force and Life Energy, all mentioned by Hahnemann as the basis for his living approach to medicine in particular and healthcare in general. The operation of powers, forces and energies results in various functions, which involve a living polarity or relationship between two powers, with their force and energy fields, that are either identical or opposite.
The essential nature of a function is a dynamic unity wherein exists a distinction between the direction of forces from two poles or tendencies that are intimately related such that the one could not exist without the other; they are functionally identical in a dynamic way. Power is also a functional polarity between force and energy. Life is a function, then, of the interplay between various forces and systems of forces, which generate more or less energy. Each function derives from a common principle of which the two powers are constituents. In Hahnemann’s system, the Living Power or Dynamis is characterized by the polarity between the sustentive side and the generative side. In turn, the disease function engages this polarity: the initial action sees the dynamic disease agent impinge on the generative side of the Dynamis of the individual, which is the disease proper, and this is followed inevitably by the counter or back action of the sustentive side, which produces the various symptoms and characteristics we associate with disease. Equally, remedial function involves the initial action of the remedy (acting on the generative power of the Dynamis), which we term cure, as well as the counter or healing action, of the sustentive power of the Dynamis.
As has been set out in the overview article on Heilkunst, the whole nature of disease and remediation (restoration of health) is a living, dynamic one, and, thus, there must be a living, dynamic understanding of the human being that goes beyond the limits of a the material world. Hahnemann provided a foundation for understanding this supersensible dimension of man in speaking of Geist, Seele, Sinn, Gemüt, Leib, and Wesen.
Geist: the spiritual aspect of man. Hahnemann connects the Geist with pure intelligence or pure reason. It is one of two supersensible (not directly perceivable by the senses) presences that permeate the organism, the other being the Wesen.
Seele: the soul, which partakes of the Geist on the one hand and of the sense (sentience) on the other. It is the seat of feeling and conscience and includes the world of morals and ethics. It is the functional opposite of the Leib. Hahnemann uses the term Leib und Seele (body and soul) frequently.
Sinn: the mental aspect of sense involving the intellect and reason. This involves the discursive (reasoning), as well as the intuitive aspect of the Mind. The term often used by Hahnemann is here too, as Geist in German has the meaning of mental operations in the world of sensibilia (intellect) and mind operating at the supersensible level of pure reason (when unclouded by beliefs).
The organism: the physical vehicle for the members, consisting of solid, fluid, gaseous and thermal elements.
Gemüt: the emotional mind. It is instinctual rather than intelligential (Sinn). It is the basis of knowledge derived from emotional reactions relating to the activity of the life energy (Leib). It is the Leib function raised up into various gradations of consciousness. A certain part of the functional energy of various organs of the Leib give up some of their life energy to develop the supersensible organ of consciousness. This is the basis, along with Geist as sense (Sinn), for the reference Hahnemann uses to the Geistes-und Gemüths-Organe (§216), the organs of knowledge (both emotion and reason, instinct and intellect), which relates to what we call “mind” in English. Each of these has a functional relationship within a hierarchy and all relate to the organism, which is the vehicle with respect to which all these members operate together at various levels of harmony or disruption.
Leib: the action or organised activity and functions of the Wesen. The Wesen manifests as the Living Principle in the individual and the Leib is the primary realm of its action. The Leib is not the organism, but the bodily activity perceptible through effects and appearances and discernible in phenomena. It relates to the old concept of body, meaning activity of the Living Principle: cf. the body politic – a body (a political entity) which has activity that you can see in its effects and appearances, but which is also more than the outward appearances.
Wesen: the pure instinct, the wise Dynamis in the organism. It is that entity which is the unchanging quintessence of something. It is not material, yet it is real. It permeates the whole of something and cannot be considered as separate from that something.
In addition to this complex and profound insight into the higher functioning of man provided by Hahnemann, we also know that around the turn of the 18th century he was an important part of an effort in science, particularly medicine, to come to terms with animate nature, following on the earlier hard-won success in the realm of inanimate nature – the astronomy, physics and chemistry of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Boyle and Lavoisier, to name the most prominent (noting also that Hahnemann himself was a noted chemist in his day, one of his early works being used as a textbook in higher education in Germany).
While there was already a tendency in science to carry over the understanding (laws, principles) of dead matter to living “matter” (substance), Hahnemann as well as his contemporaries, Dr. John Hunter, Dr. Richard Saumarez, Dr. John Brown, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, not to mention the works and influence of Wolfgang von Goethe (who several times pointed to Hahnemann’s writings and practice as being an example of the application of his scientific ideas), forcefully resisted this tendency and sought at the same time to provide a secure basis for a true science of life in the form of physiology. Whereas material science reduced substance to matter and living functions to dead chemical processes, these members of what Coleridge termed the Dynamic System of Thought or the Dynamic Method of science, developed an entire system of principles of biological life that could provide the basis for a better understanding of health and disease, illness and disorders, as well as of the manner in which health can be maintained and restored, by means of a therapeutic system that respected these principles (see Aphorism 2), and, thus, life itself, so that we would have a true healthcare system instead of the disease and disorder management system of allopathy.