Homeopathy Papers Organon & Philosophy

A Dummy’s Guide to LM Potencies

What are LM potencies?

The LM potencies were the last scale of potencies (serial agitated dilutions of homeopathic medicines) developed by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1842), the founder of Homeopathy. They are also known as Q-potencies and 50 Millesimal potencies. The scale represents a serial dilution of 1:50,000 with each subsequent potency.

Remember, there are two other scales in Homeopathy:

Decimal Scale (X): was created by C. Hering (1800-1880) and has a dilution ratio of 1:10

Centesimal Scale (C or K or CH): was created by Hahnemann and has a dilution ration of 1:100

Who created the LM Scale?

I told you, it was Christian Frederick Samuel Hahnemann, the person who started the system of medicine that we know as Homeopathy.


Between 1837 to 1842, in Paris.


During his Paris years, Hahnemann found that many of his patients were unusually sensitive and aggravated (homeopathic aggravation) even with the 30C of the centesimal scale. He also felt the need for frequent repetitions in cases with persistent pathology but the dry centesimal doses were not ideal for this. To avoid the aggravations and to find a method effective for frequent repetition, he started diluting the globules in water before administering and gave a part of the liquid as a dose. These experiments later resulted in the development of the LM potencies.

What’s in the name?

Hahnemann mentioned his new potencies by name: divisions infinitésemales (infinitesimal dilutions). He called these preparations  medicamens au globule, to distinguish them from the old centesimal potencies, called medicamens a la goutte (medicines of the drop).

Dr. Pierre Schmidt of Geneva termed this new scale as “50 Millesimal”. Rudolf Flury (1903-1977) gave the abbreviation ‘LM’  – ‘L’ for Roman ’50’ and ‘M’ for Roman ‘1000’. However, this denotation is technically incorrect, as the Roman numeral LM would denote the number 950 rather than 50,000. The name ‘Q-potency’ is derived from the Latin word ‘quinquagintamilia’, which literally means 50,000 and was introduced by Jost Kunzli (1915-1992). So ‘Q’ is the correct abbreviation for the 50 Millesimal potencies. However, in spite of being the incorrect abbreviation, ‘LM’ is still in popular use.

What is the range of available LM potencies?

The LM potencies are usually available in dry globules and the potency range is from LM1 to LM 30.

Why is it limited to LM30?

Hahnemann found this range sufficient for most patients. But this is not an absolute limit and many pharmacies will make it for you in dilutions beyond LM30 on custom order.

How are the LM potencies denoted?

The LM potencies are usually written as ‘0/potency number’ like ‘0/1’, ‘0/2′ …’0/30’.

This method of noting this new scale comes straight from Hahnemann’s case records. Hahnemann did not mention anywhere what the small zero or ‘o’ meant. Many historians feel that it denotes the small globule used to dispense the potency.

Many people also denote these potencies as LM1, LM2 …LM30. And some even use the Q as Q1, Q2 …Q30.

Where did Hahnemann describe the LM potencies?

Footnote to aphorism 270 in the 6th edition of Organon of Medicine. See Appendix.

How to make the first LM potency?

Unlike the mother tinctures that are used to prepare the first Decimal and Centesimal scale potencies, the first LM potency is prepared from the 3C trituration of the original drug substance.

So if you want to prepare the LM potencies yourself, you can buy the 3C trituration of the desired medicine from the market or you can do the trituration yourself using the crude drug substance. Remember for preparing the trituration, you will need one part of raw drug substance and 99 parts of sugar of milk. The mixture has to be triturated for 1 hour according to the guidelines given in the Organon to prepare the ‘1C’. To prepare the 2C, you take one part of 1C and 99 parts of sugar of milk and triturate for another hour. Repeat the process with 2C to get the 3C.

So once you have the 3C potency with you, you can start preparing the LM1:

–              Take a grain in weight (0.062gm) of the 3C powder and dissolve it in 500 drops (30ml) of 20% alcohol making a 1:500 dilution of the 3c.

–              One drop of this solution is then further diluted in 99 drops of 95% alcohol, filling two thirds of a glass vial, giving a (1 in 500 x 100 = 50,000) solution of the 3c powder.

–              This tube is then succussed 100 times against a firm but elastic object (like a leather bound book) to create the LM 1 medicating liquid.

–              The LM 1 liquid is then poured onto some poppy-seed granules of which a hundred weigh 1 grain (0.06gm). The granules are so small that one drop of the alcoholic LM 1 liquid can completely wet at least 500 of them. Thus just one granule absorbs at least a 500th of a drop.

–              Many homeopaths use globules of size 10, instead of the smaller ones recommended by Hahnemann.

–              The globules are then dried and filed in glass vials. This gives you the first LM potency that you get from the market.

Why do you attain the dilution of 1:50000 using (500) globules and alcohol (100 drops)? Why not just use liquid for the dilution?

One could theoretically dilute with one drop to 50,000 drops. Since 100 drops of 95% alcohol equal 3.6mls, 50,000 drops would mean 1.75 liters.  The bottle to be succussed 100 times would need to be at least 2 liters in size – not a practical size for the average human being to work with! But there are some pharmacies that make their LM’s with the alcohol only and without using the globules.

How do you make the subsequent LM potencies?

–              Take one granule of LM1 and dissolve it in a drop of water

–              Add 99 drops of alcohol to the bottle/vial.

About the author

Manish Bhatia

Manish Bhatia

- CEO, Hpathy Medical Pvt. Ltd. - Homeopathy physician. - Lecturer of Organon & Homeopathic Philosophy. - Founder Director of Hpathy.com - Editor, Homeopathy 4 Everyone - Member, Advisory Board, Homeopathic Links - Member, Center for Advanced Studies in Homeopathy - Co-author - Homeopathy and Mental Health Care: Integrative Practice, Principles and Research - Author - Lectures on Organon of Medicine

Leave a Comment


  • Thank you for this wonderful article, Manish. I typically have the patient take a dose and call me in 2 days so that I can assess the action of the remedy and decide on dosage frequency. However, now I am going to prescribe repeated dosing until a positive change happens. I’m curious as to how it will work.

  • Respected Dr,
    read your article thanks for such a nice article ,i am in govt dispensary posted in punjab and need your experiences so that masses get benifit
    of homoeopathy and homoeopathy flourshes all around.

  • Dear Manish. Thank you very much for the wide explanation about the LM-Q scales.
    Yes LM-Q potencies are great tools in my practice and I am using them mainly with flourishing results.
    Its a shame and pity at the same time, how little most of the “western” homeopaths, even “homeopathy teacher” know about its use. I think its cuz only a few homeopaths ever read ORGANON 6th edition, (if any edition at all).
    However I try to explain its beneficial effect whenever I lecture…….
    Keep going with such a good articles.
    With best wishes

  • Dear Sir,
    Thank you for the lecture with its instructions as to the production. However, as in all dealings concerning the psyche and physis there are different opinions. During some seminar years ago a 35ish practioner got up and entreated the audience in future only to use LM potencies. And lately I met a much sought after homeopath who told me with the same urgency to use an LM potency only once.
    kind regards
    Witte Wolff-Moore

  • Dear Sir,

    I read in the materia medica in some cases that certain remedies work well together. Is it possible to use LM potencies and alongside use C potencies? Ie Staphysagria in LM and Causticum in 30C? Or perhaps Thuja in LM and Medorrhinum in 30C alongside?

    Kind regards

    • @Rebecca
      Like if there is a genuine ACUTE (e.g. physical strain or bruising) after a higher potency remedy has been recently prescribed? Accidents and Emergencies do happen!
      You have to check the compatibility very carefully before prescribing on top of a well indicated ‘acting’ remedy or the situation can very quickly and very seriously deteriorate.

      This is the kind of uncertain situation we dread most of all!

  • Hi I did a very strong drug proving of LM1 given to me by a homoeopathic practioner. After 20 days daily dose I phoned her and told her I was feeling the effects a lot she told me to keep taking it . On the 29th day I took very ill a few days later I was in a deep proving like electricity running all through me.This continued for weeks I felt very ill. I new I was doing a proving. I called her a ********** she got uppity at this and told me she wrote books on homoeopathy. this proving effects of lasted at least 2 years,with no inprovement to me . What a waste of life force. So people be careful. Thanks

    • Hello like to tell you that you problem was not properly deal with should be better to have medical test and underline where the problem was .dr helbert torres .

    • Hello just read what you are saying you must have a more deep problem just look at what you were doing mentaly as the way you describe you symptoms it looks like you were taken drugs and trying to make people feel wrong ..maybe was poorly diagnosed but the way you write is a bit to much….feel is a lot of anger with in you mind.
      Dr helbert torres.

  • Dear Mr. Bhatia,

    I love your work, you are very good at explaining complex matters. This article is just another proof.

    I am courious about one point in the administering the LM. LM o/1 is already in diluted form. Then the granul is already dissolved and succussed in aprox 200 ml liquid. Then one teasppon of this is used. BUT why further diluting in a glass again is necessary?

    Would not it be simpler to use 300 ml to dissolve the granul and drink one teaspoon from it instead?

    Some homeopaths put the granul in pet bottle and simply advise drink one cap from it directly. Is this wrong?

    I am a student of homeopathy and about to complete my 2 year study but we mainly use C potency in Turkey except few homeopaths from German ecole. Though I did experiement on myself, diluting aC potency granule in pet bottle and drink one cap everyday until a reaction starts, seemed ok and did work for me. (I did succussions, too)



  • @ Hector – Sorry for the trouble you went through! Your homeopath clearly knows way too little about homeopathy. Hope your case serves as a restraint for all Homeopaths.

  • hi! all, i have a server proving of causticum lm potency fropm past 16 months i went throught hell …now when i realised i went t my doc he says it can be a proving but i dont have nay trust in him now …kindly hlep me with a solution ..thanks n regards

  • I’m so glad I read this thread. We do tend to think LM’s are much gentler and therefore safe to repeat ad infinitum. I wonder how this myth started?

    As the article says you have to STOP at the first sign of a reaction. Then be very patient. Timing of the next dose is crucial. Its easy to say in retrospect, since there is no magic x-ray device to tell you if the initial reaction has finished… but don’t rush it; if you have had signs of a good initial reaction all you could/should do is let it run and run, and then some!

  • Reflection

    Where do you go if one dose of LM1 is too high in potency for a patient? If you are prescribing a naturally poisonous substance how can you go further towards the toxic ‘mother’ substance?

    If you are using a non toxic substance you CAN go towards the mother tincture … after all, Aqua pura, Sacharaum album, Bambusa arundinacea or Coffea Cruda are in a different category than substances like Causticum, or Ammonium carbonicum, which are related to industrial drain cleaners.

    • Have you tried dissolving the lm1 in a far larger volume of water say 800ml or even a 1000ml. you could then use a 1 second olfaction of this. the duration of an olfaction is just as long as a teaspoonful. if you get reaction one dose will do. observe well. this is for super hypersensitves. thanks

  • Hey Rita …..
    Nux LM1 is the best anti dote in this case; since you havent given any symptoms or what exact problem you are going on.
    this is verified clinically that if a substance x has caused some strong aggravation which are against the line of treatment in the y poteny in the z scale then you will have to use the closest resembling anti dote in the y potency in the z scale.

    Dr Amit

  • Where can I find blotting paper for this use? The only type available in the US is for cosmetic use.. Which kind/type is best? Is there an overseas brand that you use for your homeopathics?

  • I keep looking for this info but finding it nowhere. I am wondering about cups, spoons, bottles and other items used for homeopathic remedies. What are the ways to clean them and remove potency from them so they can be used again? Thanks in advance for anyone who can explain

    • Eru, it’s because you CAN’T “clean a remedy away” that you have to use disposable-everything when working with remedies. If you have Lycopodium 30C in an amber dropper bottle and want to jump to 200C, you have to buy a new bottle! You can’t rinse out your 30C bottle and start over. That bottle will always be Lyc. 30C. People tell me, “I ran out of my remedy!” I say, “Just fill the bottle back up, the remedy will be back!” My recommendation: Buy a packet of 12 or 24 8-ounce bottles of spring water, it brings the cost of each bottle to roughly 25 cents. Pour half out, drop in a pellet of your remedy, succuss 5 times, pour a capful into half a plastic cup of water, swish the cup or stir with a straw or plastic spoon, take a sip. Everything in use is disposable and very cheap so that you’re not even concerned about re-using bottles.

      • Oh, so I can use plastic? I thought I could only use dark tinted glass, and that’s hard to find in retail (wish I could buy new ones! I don’t need many anyway)… I needed to dissolve pellets in something and needed a 100ml bottle so I bought a small bottle of wormwood liquor 100ml and washed it well. Wish I could have taken brandy but they were all transparent… Is there seriously no way to remove potency? I mean how do the pharmacists do it with their mortars and pestles aka machines nowadays? How do they triturate various medicines if they can’t remove traces of remedies…

  • I am completely confused about potency. I read several articles that say the higher the dilution the more potent and that the X remedies are a good place to start if you’re not sure which one is the right one and you don’t want to aggravate.

    Then I read that LM is the one to use to avoid aggravations but it is 1/50,000 === which should be, if the other articles are correct MORE potent and more likely to aggravate than even 30 C.

    HELP!!!! aggravations are very serious from my observation and make it almost impossible to tell which remedy to use. in the past I have diluted Q or LM in up to 100 cups of water in order to avoid aggravatkion – -that is EXHAUSTING — I got good results with a VERY serious set of symptoms – THEN the healing seemed to reverse and the aggravations start all over again.

    I don’t personally have an issue with aggravations, but trying to help someone who does can be a nightmare and this conflicting info is not helping at all.

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