The author would like to acknowledge Prof. Dr. S. K. Nanda, Director, National Institute of Homoeopathy for allowing us to carry out the study successfully in his institution and the author would also acknowledge Dr. Saroj Kumar Kayal, Reader Dept. of Homoeopathic Repertory, National Institute of Homoeopathy for guiding me to achieve success.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT:
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
ROLE OF FUNDING SOURCES:
The authors received no external funding for the study. There was no institutional influence on the design, conduct and results reflected from the study.
The Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire
Patient name: File Date:
Please read instructions: When your back hurts, you may find it difficult to do some of the things you normally do. Mark only the sentences that describe you today.
- I stay at home most of the time because of my back.
- I change position frequently to try to get my back comfortable.
- I walk more slowly than usual because of my back.
- Because of my back, I am not doing any jobs that I usually do around the house.
- Because of my back, I use a handrail to get upstairs.
- Because of my back, I lie down to rest more often.
- Because of my back, I have to hold on to something to get out of an easy chair.
- Because of my back, I try to get other people to do things for me.
- I get dressed more slowly than usual because of my back.
- I only stand up for short periods of time because of my back.
- Because of my back, I try not to bend or kneel down.
- I find it difficult to get out of a chair because of my back.
- My back is painful almost all of the time.
- I find it difficult to turn over in bed because of my back.
- My appetite is not very good because of my back.
- I have trouble putting on my sock (or stockings) because of the pain in my back.
- I can only walk short distances because of my back pain.
- I sleep less well because of my back.
- Because of my back pain, I get dressed with the help of someone else.
- I sit down for most of the day because of my back.
- I avoid heavy jobs around the house because of my back.
- Because of back pain, I am more irritable and bad tempered with people than usual.
- Because of my back, I go upstairs more slowly than usual.
- I stay in bed most of the time because of my back.
- The patient is instructed to put a mark next to each appropriate statement.
- The total number of marked statements are added by the clinician. Unlike the authors of the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Roland and Morris did not provide descriptions of the varying degrees of disability (e.g., 40%-60% is severe disability).
- Clinical improvement over time can be graded based on the analysis of serial questionnaire scores. If, for example, at the beginning of treatment, a patient’s score was 12 and, at the conclusion of treatment, her score was 2 (10 points of improvement), we would calculate an 83% (10/12 x 100) improvement.
SCALES FOR OUTCOME ASSESSMENT
- QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE (QOL)
Please read each item and circle the number that best describes how satisfied you are at this time. Please answer each item even if you do not currently participate in an activity or have a relationship. You can be satisfied or dissatisfied with not doing the activity or having the relationship.
|1.||Material comforts home, food, conveniences,|
|2.||Health – being physically fit and vigorous||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|3.||Relationships with parents, siblings & other|
relatives- communicating, visiting, helping
|4.||Having and rearing children||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|5.||Close relationships with spouse or|
|7.||Helping and encouraging others,|
volunteering, giving advice
|8.||Participating in organizations and|
|9.||Learning- attending school, improving|
understanding, getting additional knowledge
|10.||Understanding yourself – knowing your assets|
and limitations – knowing what life is about
|11.||Work – job or in home||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|12.||Expressing yourself creatively||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|13.||Socializing – meeting other people,|
doing things, parties, etc
|14.||Reading, listening to music, or observing|
|15.||Participating in active recreation||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|16.||Independence, doing for yourself||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
- CLINICAL GLOBAL IMPRESSION- Scale
- Clinical Global Impression –Improvement- Scale
Rate patient’s improvement on this seven point scale
1 – Patient very much improved
2 – Much improved
3 – Minimally improved
4 – Unchanged
5 – Minimally worse
6 – Much worse
7 – Very much worse
- Clinical Global Impression- severity- scale
Rate patient’s severity of illness on this seven point scale
1 – Normal, not at all ill
2 – Borderline ill
3 – Mildly ill
4 – Moderately ill
5 – Markedly ill
6 – Severely ill
7 – Among the most extremely ill
|SL. NO.||NAME||AGE/SEX||RELI||REG. NO.||DATE OF 1ST VISIT||MEDICINE||D M||OUTCOME MEASURES|
|4.||RM||38/M||H||69342||24/06/14||RHUS TOX||PSORA||NOT IMP|
|31.||JK||52/M||H||136944||05/09/14||NAT. MUR||SYCOSIS||NOT IMP|
- Charles W. Webb, Francis G. O’Connor: Low Back Pain in Primary Care: An Evidence-Based Approach. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Family Medicine., 3e Chapter 24. The McGrawHill Companies Inc. 2011;257.
- Allen HC. Key Notes and characteristics with comparisons of the Leading Remedies of the Materia Medica. Reprint of 8th edition. New Delhi: B Jain publishers Pvt. Ltd.; 2004.
- Allen JH. The Chronic Miasms Psora and Pseudo-Psora. New Delhi: B Jain publishers Pvt. Ltd.; 2004.
- Bernoville F. Chronic Rheumatism. Reprint edition. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; 1998.
- Clarke JH. Rheumatism & Sciatica. 2nd revised & enlarged edition. London: James Epps & Co. Ltd; 1904.
- Kent JT. Repertory of Homoeopathic Materia Medica. New edition. Calcutta: Modern Homoeopathic Publication; 1995.