Scientific Research

Conduction of Alternating Current in Water – A Plausible Explanation

Ruhul Amin and Biplab Chakraborty present research that explores the conduction of electrical energy in water. They find the mechanism to be delocalization of electrons through orientation of water molecules.

The mechanism of potentization in homeopathy relates to typical electrical properties of water. One such property is conduction of electrical energy through water. The current ionic theory for electrical conduction in water (or aqueous solution) states that conduction of electrical energy takes place due to migration of ions to the electrode of opposite polarity. I.e. cations move towards the cathode and anions to the anode. We have shown previously in several papers, the limitations of the above theory in explaining electrical conductions in water. In our experiments we specifically used a DC (direct current) source, i.e. current from a battery or an adapter1. Thus conduction of Alternating current (AC) in water remained unexplained. Moreover, in some of our papers we have shown the effects of EMR (Electromagnetic Radiation) in water of a living body2 and its effect while preparing homeopathic imponderabalias3 ( X-ray , Luna etc ). Therefore, as EMR is able to induce AC (alternating current) in water2, we are now conducting experiments with AC (alternating current), to find a logical mechanism behind conduction of AC in water.

Experiment 1:

A step down transformer is used to step down 220 volts AC to 18 volts AC. One of the terminals of the transformer at the step down end is connected to a Graphite electrode (Gr A) placed in distilled water. The other terminal being connected to GrBat a distance of about 10 cm from Gr A, through a meter and an LED as shown in fig1 (A). The LED is found to glow and the current through the circuit is found to be about 22µA. The LED glows even when its polarity is reversed in the circuit. Leads of the LED are reversed and the current through the circuit is 23µAfig1 (B) .

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Observations: The LED emits light when connected to a source of alternating current through distilled water irrespective of its connection of leads to the source.

Discussion: An LED is essentially a P-N junction that emits visible light only when forward –biased. It emits no light when reverse biased (Forward biased means that the positive lead and negative lead of an LED are connected to the positive & negative terminal of a battery respectively). It is therefore clear that AC emf is also able to forward –bias the LED for each half of a cycle for any particular connection of its leads to the AC source. Though no bubbles are seen at the electrodes Gr A & Gr B, emission of light by the LED confirms the passage of electrical energy through water. As the LED emits light only when forward –biased, it is clear that GrB acts as an electron rich zone whereas GrA acts as electron deficient zone for emission of light by the LED (Fig1A), while alternately, GrA acts as electron rich zone whereas GrB acts as electron deficient zone for emission of light by the LED (Fig1B).

Therefore as per existing theory of conduction of electrical energy through water, it is ions that conduct the electrical energy through water between two electrodes (GrA & GrB) i.e: H+ ions and OHions moving towards electron rich zones & electron deficient zones respectively, while conveying electric current.

 

Experiment 2: Five graphite electrodes are placed in a glass bowl containing about 30 ml of distilled water at a distance of about 5cm apart as shown in figure 2A. A step down transformer is used to step down 220 volts AC to 18 volts AC. The two terminals of the transformer generating 18 volts AC are now connected to GrA & GrB.

Observations: The AC emf shown by all possible pairs are measured and recorded in table 1

Table 1

Sl no.Electrode pairEmf in volts (AC)
1GrC—GrZ2.5
2GrZ—GrD3.2
3GrC—GrD5.3
4GrZ—GrC2.4
5GrD—GrZ3.1
6GrD—GrC5.2

 

The emission of light by two LEDs (i.e. LED1 &LED2) are noted for different conditions as mentioned below

Condition 1: The negative leads of each of LED1 and LED2 are connected to GrC and Gr D respectively while positive leads of LED1 and LED2 are connected to each other through connecting wires. None of the LEDs are found to emit light. But on connecting junction “α” of the positive leads of the LEDs to GrZ through a connecting wire (α β) both the LEDs are found to emit light quite reasonably. Thus, GrC & GrD act as electron rich zones (ERZ) for LED1 & LED2 respectively while GrZ acts as electron deficient zone (EDZ) for both LED1 & LED2 (Fig2A).

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Condition 2: The positive leads of each of LED1 and LED2 are connected to GrC and GrD respectively while negative leads of LED1 and LED2 are connected to each other through connecting wires. None of the LEDs are found to emit light. But on connecting junction “α” of the negative leads of the LEDs to GrZ through a connecting wire(α β) both the LEDs are found to emit light quite reasonably. Thus GrC & GrD act as electron deficient zones (EDZ) for LED1 & LED2 respectively while GrZ acts as electron rich zone (ERZ) for both LED1 & LED2 (Fig2B).

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Condition 3: The negative lead of LED1 and positive lead of LED2 are connected to GrC and Gr D respectively while positive lead of LED1 and negative lead of LED2 are connected to each other through connecting wires. Both the LEDs are found to emit light quite reasonably. Further on connecting junction “α” of the positive lead of LED1 and negative lead of LED2 to GrZ through a connecting wire, no effective change could be noticed. Thus here GrC acts as electron rich zone (ERZ) for LED1 & LED2 respectively while GrD acts as electron deficient zone (EDZ) for both LED1 & LED2 (Fig2C).

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Discussion: The relative electron density (i.e. electron rich or deficient) of graphite electrodes GrC , GrD & GrZ for all the three mentioned conditions is shown in tabular form

Sl NoConditionElectrode acting asElectron rich zoneElectrode acting asElectron deficient zone
1Condition 1GrC&GrDGr Z
2Condition 2Gr ZGrC&GrD
3Condition 3Gr CGrD

 

It thus appears that, as per existing theory of conduction of electrical energy in water through ions, approach and consequent release of electrons by OH ions at GrC & GrD in condition 1 makes it behave as an electron rich zone (ERZ) while subsequent acceptance of electrons by H+ ions at GrZ makes it behave as an electron deficient zone (EDZ). But in condition 2, the case is reversed, wherein approach and consequent release of electrons by OH ions at GrZ makes it behave as an electron rich zone, while subsequent acceptance of electrons by H+ ions at GrC & GrD makes it behave as an electron deficient zone. Whereas in condition 3 it appears that approach and consequent release of electrons by OH ions at GrC makes it behave as an electron rich zone, while acceptance of electrons by H+ ions at GrD makes it behave as an electron deficient zone.

The existing theory fails to explain how the approach of ions to any particular electrode can be optional, i.e. how electrodes accept ions based on the arrangement of the external load (i.e. here LED). In this experiment we see that all the three electrodes behave as electron rich zone for some conditions and electron deficient zone for other conditions. Thus none of the three electrodes can be designated as an electron rich (i.e. Cathode) or electron deficient zone (i.e. Anode) as their electrical character seems to depend on external applied conditions!

 

Experiment 3:

Case1: In this experiment six graphite electrodes are placed in a glass bowl containing about 30 ml of distilled water at six vertices of a hexagon with sides of about 3.5cms (as shown in figure 3A). Graphite electrode GrB is directly connected to one of the terminals of a step down transformer generating emf of about 18 volts AC, while GrA is connected to the other terminal through two parallel connected LED’s with reverse polarity (as shown in figure 3A). The remaining graphite electrodes are numbered from 1 to 4. For each combination of electrodes:

i)  the emf is recorded in table below

ii)  it is tested whether the emf generated for different combinations are able to light an LED or not.

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Case 2: The AC source in the previous experiment is replaced by a DC source (9 volt battery) to see whether the LEDs emit light irrespective of bias or not.

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Observations: Case 1: On allowing Current (AC) to pass through the circuit (fig 3A) it is found that both the LED1 and LED2 glow with reasonable brightness. The emf shown by various combinations are recorded in the table below.

Table:3

Electrode Combination(+)     ()emf in volts (AC)Condition of LEDElectrode Combination(+)     ()emf in volts (ACCondition of LED
Gr1—Gr21.8emit faint lightGr2—Gr11.1emit faint light
Gr1—Gr34.4reasonably brightGr3—Gr14.4reasonably bright
Gr1—Gr45.6reasonably brightGr4—Gr15.4reasonably bright
Gr2—Gr32.6reasonably brightGr3—Gr23.3reasonably bright
Gr2—Gr43.8reasonably brightGr4—Gr24.3reasonably bright
Gr3—Gr41.2emit faint lightGr4—Gr31.0emit faint light

 

About the author

Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty

Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty

Dr. Ruhul Amin MD is a Homeopathic physician & mental health professional, performing research work on homeopathy since 1998. The first work being on Diabetes Mellitus Type II and its homeopathic treatment, followed by Parkinsonism, Respiridone & Homeopathy and for the last eleven years concentrating strictly on the Homeopathic Dilution and its Scientific basis, along with chemist Biplab Chakraborty M Sc. Visit their http://aminchakraborty.blogspot.com/

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Biplab Chakraborty,M.Sc is a chemist from Calcutta University, previously a serious Critic of Homeopathic Dilution. . With this view he started research work along with Dr. Ruhul Amin for the last eleven years, finally being converted into a serious supporter of homeopathy. He along with Dr. Md.Ruhul Amin published papers on Homeopathic Dilution & its scientific Basis. These papers clearly reflect the contradiction within the modern science itself.

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