The dismal scenario of groundwater arsenic intoxication in third world countries –
Prolonged exposure to arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid, has caused various illnesses in millions of people globally distributed over some 20 countries. In Bangladesh and its adjoining part of West Bengal (India) alone, about 100 million people are at risk1 of As poisoning from drinking contaminated groundwater with concentration of As ranging from 60 to 560.23 µg/l (even exceeding 3000 µg/l at certain spots). This greatly exceeds the maximum permissible limits of 10-20 µg/l for some advanced countries and 50 µg/l for developing countries as laid down by both WHO2 and the US Environmental Protection Agency3. The problem of arsenic poisoning in third world countries is compounded by poor diet as well as prevailing health and hygiene conditions, especially in the rural areas. The attempts made so far by both Governmental and Non-Governmental organizations to provide As-free drinking water to the highly affected areas remain grossly inadequate. Various attempts are still being made to procure arsenic-free drinking water at an affordable cost. Serious effort should also be directed to remove As after it enters the body, because As also enters body through other sources. However, such efforts through orthodox medicines (e.g. chelating agents like DMSA, DTPA etc and some anti-oxidants) have not yet been reported to be successful by and large 1,4,5.Chronic exposure generally leads to various ailments and dysfunctions of several vital organs like liver, kidney, lung etc.6, more so when there is an accompanying nutritional/dietary deficiency7. Therefore, the overall situation is extremely gloomy in the arsenic contaminated areas, particularly in the developing third world countries. Unless something can be done, which is affordable by a large population of poor people, millions of them have to die a slow but sure death. In such a scenario, our efforts are directed to find a remedy that is cheap, easy to administer, effective in low doses and has no toxic effect of its own. Potentized homeopathic remedies in general fit the bill. The encouraging results of early attempts made8-9 to mobilize As in rats through micro doses of Arsenicum Album, and of our own studies in mice10-16 in this regard suggested that Arsenicum Album-30C and Arsenicum Album 200C have the potential to be used for alleviating As toxicity in humans as well. With financial support from the Boiron Laboratory, Lyon, France, a human trial was conducted to study some of the important aspects of arsenic toxicity and the efficacy of Arsenicum Album 30C and 200C in ameliorating symptoms of arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic 17-21 was tested.
Protocols of the study:
The following protocols of study were used:
(i) Assay of arsenic mobilization through urine from blood, and cytotoxicity in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic, as revealed from several toxicity biomarkers like acid and alkaline phosphatases, alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate amino transferases (AST), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), gamma-glutamyl-transferase in (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT) activities etc. in their sera;
(ii) Assay of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Hb content, blood glucose, total and differential count (T.C./D.C), packed cell volume(PCV), cholesterol (HDL/LDL), urea/BUN, bilirubin, creatinine, albumin, triglyceride etc. of blood samples , lymphocyte viability tests (apoptosis) ;
(iii) Immunoassay through use of ANA, dsDNA, Scl-70 antibody titer tests deploying ELISA READER etc.
(iv) Assay of expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in blood sera of humans living in risk prone zones (and also p53 and Bcl2 gene products) and DNA damage through Ladder/Comet assay.
What exactly was under focus?
In suitable placebo controlled animal experiments, the effects of sub-lethal doses of arsenic trioxide on an animal model were tested. Mice have been studied and the efficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album-30 (and 200th potency) in ameliorating arsenic toxicity has been assessed by analysis of data collected from some of the protocols mentioned above. These are all scientifically accepted protocols for determining the patho-physiological status of animals and humans.
In the subsequent human trial, a periodic survey of arsenic content of urine and blood samples has been made, before (to get baseline data) and at different periods after administration of the homeopathic remedy, keeping suitable placebo controls. Similarly, several enzyme toxicity biomarkers have also been analyzed from blood samples periodically before and after drug administration, using initially a few placebo fed controls for a limited period, to be sure that the drug showed a positive response as compared to controls. The “verum fed” group of subjects showed considerable improvement in appetite, digestive ability, energy level (arsenic affected people are extremely morose, frustrated and devoid of motivation and energy to work) and in their general health condition.
Similarly, periodic monitoring of other blood parameters, including ANA tests, were made before and after administration of the homeopathic remedy. These tests supported the visibly noted improvement in general appearance of and statements made by the patients taking the homeopathic remedies. There was amelioration of their joint and muscle pains, and noticeable improvement in their liver functions and other sufferings.
What results were significant?
The results were encouraging. There was clear indication of the ability of the homeopathic remedy to ameliorate arsenic toxicity in terms of both urinary arsenic excretion and corresponding positive modulations as revealed from the several toxicity biomarkers analyzed in randomized populations. An alarmingly high frequency of ANA positive cases had been recorded in two arsenic infested villages, Ghetugachhi and Dakshin Panchpota (under Chakdaha Block, Nadia, West Bengal) among random populations. Even some 9-13 year old children tested ANA positive. Many of them were also showing higher levels of blood glucose. Results showed that the potentized homeopathic remedy could reverse ANA positive cases to ANA negative ones. Even symptoms of arsenicosis (particularly of skin lesions and liver ailments) showed signs of improvement. Blood glucose levels, which were generally found to be high in people inhabiting high-risk arsenic contaminated areas, showed signs of amelioration and in most, the glucose level could be brought down to normal or near-normal levels by the administration of these remedies. The efficacy of a millesimal potency (Ars Alb 0/3) has also been tested to yield positive results (unpublished).