Scientific Research

Research in Homoeopathy

119. Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellan-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC. Randomised Controlled Trial of Homoeopathy versus Placebo in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis with Overview of Four Trial Series. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321, 471-476, 19 August. 51 people suffering from allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned either homeopathically potentised allergens or placebo. Those given the medicine experienced significant relief over those assigned the placebo.

120. Trichard M, Chaufferin G, Nicoloyannis N. Pharmaco-economic comparison between homeopathic and antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children. Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 1, 3-9. In this 6 month prospective study involving 499 children suffering from acute rhinopharyngitis, the effectiveness, quality of life and cost of treatment with homeopathic (Group A) versus antibiotic (Group B) medicines, as prescribed by French medical practitioners, were assessed. Effectiveness, as measured by the numbers of episodes occurring subsequent to treatment, was 2.71 for Group A and 3.97 for Group B and quality of life as measured by the ParEnt-Qol scale was 21 for Group A versus 30 for Group B, which indicates a higher quality of life for those in Group A. In regard to costs, average direct medical costs were 88 Euros for Group A and 99 for Group B. Parental sick-leave affected 9.5% of the parents from Group A and 30% for Group B.

121. Tuten C, McLung J. Reducing Muscle Soreness with Arnica Montana. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, December 1999, 5, 6, 369- 372. 23 people were given either placebo or Arnica 6X for the management of delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise. Outcomes were assessed subjectively by the participants themselves, and by creatinine kinase (CK) assays. CK levels are indicative of muscle or connective tissue damage. While there was only a small subjective difference between the 2 groups, the people using Arnica 6X produced less CK than those using placebo, which tends to indicate that those using Arnica experienced less tissue damage on exertion.

122. Tveiten D,  Bruset S, Borchgrevink CFS, Norsch J. Arnica and Muscle Soreness. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Medicine (FACT), 1998, 3 (4), 155-156. 46 competitors in the 3 day 1995 Oslo marathon were randomly assigned either homeopathic Arnica or placebo twice daily and assessed for muscle soreness after the event. Those using Arnica found significant relief with the medicine over the placebo.

123. Tveiten D, Bruset S. Effect of Arnica D30 in marathon runners. Pooled results from two double-blind placebo controlled studies. Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):187-9. In this study combing the effects of two clinical trials on homeopathic Arnica D30 (30X), the homoeopathic remedy was compared to placebo in 82 Oslo marathon runners for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine (indicating cell damage) and the subjective control of muscular soreness. Those runners taking Arnica experienced less muscle soreness when compared to placebo, but there was no difference between both groups for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine.

124. Van Erp VM, Brands M. Homoeopathic Treatment of Malaria in Ghana. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1996, April, 85, 2, 66-70. In a randomised double blind trial with limited numbers of subjects, homoeopathic treatment was compared to treatment by Chloroquine. The group using homoeopathic medicines experienced an 83.3% improvement, while the group using Chloroquine experienced a 72% improvement within the same time period.

125. Van Haselen RA, Fisher PA. A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology, 2000, Jul, 39, 7, 714-9. In this controlled double-blind trial, 172 people with radiographically confirmed symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either piroxicam gel (a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory gel) or a gel containing 3 homeopathic ingredients (Symphytum, Rhus tox and Ledum). At the conclusion of the trial it was found that the gel containing the homeopathic ingredients was at least as effective as the piroxicam gel.

126. Van Wasserhoven M., Ives G. An Observational Study of Patients receiving Homeopathic Treatment. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 3-11. 782 people suffering from a wide range of diseases who had visited 80 general medical practices in Belgium were treated with individualised homeopathic medicines over an average period of 9 years and 2 months. Most of these people had previously been treated using conventional drugs. The outcomes from this treatment were assessed both by the patients and the practitioners via questionnaires. 13% of the patients assessed in the study expressed satisfaction with previous conventional treatment and 89% of patients expressed satisfaction with their homeopathic treatment.

127. Von Gasssinger C. A., Wunstel G., Netter P. A Controlled Clinical Trial for Testing the Efficacy of the Homoeopathic Drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in the Treatment of Common Cold. Arzneimittel Forschung, 1981, 31, 4, 732-736. In this trial, 53 people suffering from the common cold were given either acetylsalicylic acid or Eupatorium perfoliatum 2X. Eupatorium was shown to be as effective as the acetylsalicylic acid in its ability to provide benefit to those suffering from the common cold.

128. Walach H, Moellinger H, Sherr J, Schneider R. Homeopathic Pathogenetic Trials produce More Specific than Non-Specific Symptoms: Results from Two Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):543-52. Professor Harold Walach of the University of Northampton and his colleagues have made something of a habit of carrying out provings of homeopathic medicines (particularly Belladonna) within fairly rigidly controlled settings. In this instance the researchers set up 2 studies, both of which were carried out in blinded conditions. The first of these compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone with the effects of a placebo used in the same way. The second test compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone and Iridium, used individually, with the symptoms seen from the use of placebo. On analysis, the results showed that both Ozone and Iridium, when used under proving conditions, produced a statistically significant level of symptoms specific to the original provings for the homeopathic preparation.

129. Waldschütz R, Klein P. The homeopathic preparation Neurexan Vs. Valerian for the Treatment of Insomnia: An observational study. Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20; 8: 411-20. This German study, conducted across 89 clinics, compared the effects of a homeopathic combination preparation to valerian on sleep latency (the time take to fall asleep), sleep duration, the quality of sleep, and daytime fatigue, over a period of 28 days. 409 people were enrolled in the study and analysis of the results found an improvement from both medicines with a reduction in latency time (37.3 minutes for the combination versus 38.2 minutes for valerian) and increase in sleep duration (2.2 hours for the combination versus 2 hours for valerian). The primary difference between the 2 interventions appeared to be that the homeopathic combination resulted in less daytime fatigue than valerian- 49% versus 32%.

130. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2004, Feb, 56, 2, 189-97. In this well-controlled trial, where the practitioners, trial subjects and data analysts were all blinded to the group assignments until the end of the data collection period, individualised homeopathic prescriptions were compared to placebo in 79 people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (as determined by the Oxford criteria for CFS). The trial was carried out over a 6 month period with monthly observations used to determine clinical progress according to the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) as a primary measure and the Fatigue Impact Scale and Functional Limitations Profile as secondary measures. On the primary MFI measure, those using the individualised homeopathy had significant improvement over placebo.

131. Weiser M, Clasen BPE. Controlled Double Blind study of a Homoeopathic Sinusitis Medication. Biological Therapy, 1995, 13, 1, 4- 11. In a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial, 155 people suffering from sinusitis were given either a placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Euphorbium compositum). Subjective responses showed a greater improvement in those using the homoeopathic combination than those given placebo.

132. Weisser M, Strosser W, Klein P. Homeopathic vs Conventional Treatment of Vertigo. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1998, Aug, 124, 8, 879-885. A study group of 119 people suffering from vertigo were treated either with betahistine hydrochloride (acting as an active control, commonly prescribed by medical authorities for this condition) or a homoeopathic complex. Both of the interventions were equally successful in relieving vertigo.

133. Weiser M, Gegenheimer LH, Klein P. A Randomised Equivalence Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray with Cromolyn Sodium Spray in the Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, 1999, 6, 142-148. In this trial, 146 people suffering from hay fever were treated with either Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray (a homoeopathic combination product) or with Cromolyn Sodium Spray (a pharmaceutical drug commonly prescribed for hay fever). The treatment outcomes were measured according to a quality of life scale and both medicines provided the same level of remission of the condition, which was rapid and persistent.

134. Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, Melzer J. Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomised, double-blind study. Rheumatol Int. 2007 Apr;27(6):585-91. Using a double-blind protocol, 204 people suffering from radiologically confirmed and symptomatically active osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to receive either topical arnica or topical ibuprofen to be applied to the area where the condition was active. The success or failure of the treatments was assessed according to functional ability of the affected part and pain intensity in this area after 21 days of continuous treatment. Assessment of the results at the end of this period found that topical arnica was as successful as topical ibuprofen for the management of osteoarthritis.

135. Wiesenauer M, Haussler S, Gaus W.  Pollinosis therapy with Galphimia glauca. Fortschritte der Medezin, 1983, 101, 17, 811-814. Using a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre design in this trial, 86 people suffering from hay fever were treated for 5 and a half weeks with either homeopathic Galphimia glauca 4X or placebo. Therapeutic success was seen in 83% of those using the Galphimia and 47% of those using placebo.

136. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Haussler S. Treatment of Pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Allergologie, 1990, 10, 359-363. 54 practitioners treated 201 people suffering from hay fever either with placebo or homeopathic Galphimia glauca. Assessment at the end of the 5 week treatment period found that nasal symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 46% of those using placebo and eye symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 51% of those using placebo.

137. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W. Proof of the Effectiveness of a Homeopathic Preparation in Chronic Polyarthritis. Erzten Akt Rheumatol, 1991, 16, 1-9. In this randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 111 people being treated by 6 general practitioners for rheumatoid arthritis were given either placebo or a combination of homeopathic Berberis, Bryonia, Ledum, Nux vomica and Ledum. Using pain, stiffness, inflammatory signs, fatigue and a functional index to determine clinical outcomes, at the end of the 12 week treatment period it was found that the homeopathic combination provided superior results to those of placebo.

138. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov, 3, 5, 115. In this study, 3981 patients being treated in private homeopathic medical clinics in Germany and Switzerland were assessed for the effectiveness of their homeopathic treatment over a 2 year period. When compared to baseline assessments taken immediately before treatment had begun, the adults in the study experienced a reduction in disease severity of 52% and children by 64%.

139. Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun;13(2):79-86. This cohort study, carried out in Germany, examined the outcomes of homeopathic treatment compared to the orthodox medical treatment of 493 people suffering from a range of chronic illnesses including headache, lower back pain, insomnia, depression, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. The patients’ assessments, taken at 6 months and 12 months from the beginning of the treatment, found that homeopathy provided a greater level of improvement in their illnesses than orthodox medical intervention. This difference appeared to be more pronounced in children than in adults. In regard to the cost of each type of therapy, this study showed these costs to be similar to each other.

140. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Mengler N, Willich SN. How healthy are Chronically Ill Patients after Eight years of Homeopathic Treatment? – Results from a long term observational study. BMC Public Health 2008, 8:413. German academic and researcher Professor Claudia Witt has been responsible for a number of excellent papers on homeopathy and in this, she and co-workers drew data from 103 Swiss and German homeopathic medicine clinics in an effort to determine the level of change to the health status of patients over periods of 2 and 8 years, as a result of homeopathic intervention, over these times. Data was collected from 3709 patients who were asked to assess the level of change to the severity of their medical complaints and quality of life, at the time of first consultation, at 2 years, and at 8 years from that point. The data from adults and children were assessed separately and the former experienced an average reduction in disease severity from 6.2 at baseline to 2.9 at 2 years to 2.2 at 8 years. For children, a reduction from a baseline disease severity of 6.1 to 2.1 at 2 years was noted and then to 1.7 at 8 years. Physical and mental quality of life scores for both groups increased significantly over the study period and interestingly, researchers found that, within the confines of this study, the younger the patient and the more severe the medical condition, the better the potential for the therapeutic success of homeopathy.

141. Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, Heger M. Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003 Oct;10(5):242-7. In this trial homeopathic Arnica D12 (12X) was compared to placebo, to determine its effect on the size and pain of bruising after surgery. Arnica was used once prior to surgery and then 3 times a day for 2 weeks after surgery. 60 people participated in the trial and on completion it was found that Arnica reduced the size of the bruising by 76% compared to 72% for placebo and pain was reduced by 43% from arnica and by 28% from the placebo.

142. Yakir M, Kreitler S, et al. Homoeopathic Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome. British Homoeopathic Journal, July, 1995, 84, 164-184. In a double blind randomised placebo controlled trial carried out in an Israeli hospital, 19 women suffering from clinically diagnosed PMS were treated with individualised homoeopathy or placebo. The homoeopathic treatment provided significant improvement over placebo.

143. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z. Effects of Homeopathic Treatment in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome: a Pilot Study. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 148-153. 20 women suffering from PMS were enrolled into this randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to receive one of 5 symptomatically selected homeopathic remedies, or placebo. Using daily menstrual distress scores before and at the end of the trial, improvement greater than 30% was experienced by 90% of those using the homeopathic medicine and 37.5% of those using the placebo.

144. Zambrano OC. The Effects of a Complex Homoeopathic Preparation on Aerobic Resistance, Aerobic Capacity, Strength and Flexibility. Biomedical Therapy, 2000, 18, 1, 172- 175. 25 people were assessed before and after exercise for the effects of a homoeopathic combination (Rendimax) on their cellular oxygenation rate, lactate accumulation, and recovery time after exercise. These were compared with the same parameters for 25 people who had undergone the same exercise regime without the use of this medication. Those using the homoeopathic combination exhibited improvement in all parameters measured.

145. Zell J, Connert WG, Mau J, Feuerstake G. Treatment of Acute Sprains of the Ankle. Biological Therapy, 7, 1, 1989, 106. Under double blind placebo controlled trial conditions, patients using an ointment containing  homoeopathic ingredients for soft tissue injury found significant relief with the medicine when compared to the effects of placebo.

Animal studies

1. Aboiutboul R. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats. Homeopathy, 2006 January, 95, 1, 15-19. An Israeli veterinary clinic compiled case records involving Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats taken over an 8 year period. 20 cases of the condition were seen during this period and details of 15 of these cases were recorded. EGC is a syndrome characterised by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. The cases recorded involved the use of homeopathic snake remedies (the most frequently used being Lachesis) and in all 15 cases, reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

2. Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Comparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic trioxide in Mice. Pathobiology. 2008;75(3):156-70. This subject has had previous attention by Datta, Kundu and others, and in this randomised controlled trial, 6C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album (Arsenic trioxide) were given to mice prior to exposure to material doses of arsenic trioxide, as a means of determining whether or not the potentised Arsenicum album had any influence on the effects of arsenic. Mice were divided into 6 groups with 1 group receiving 6C Arsenicum album, another group receiving 30C Arsenicum album, and the remaining 4 groups receiving various control substances. Cellular and various biochemical parameters such as acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were assessed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days from the beginning of the study. On analysis of these results it was found that both the 6C and 30C potencies of Arsenicum album provided protection against the effects of arsenic trioxide, with the 30C providing a slightly better level of protection than the 6C.

3. Bhattacharjee N, Pathak S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Amelioration of Carcinogen-Induced Toxicity in Mice by Administration of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200. Evid Based Complement Alternat Medorrhinum 2009, 6, 1, 65-75. Researchers at India’s University of Kalyani, expanding on work that had been previously been done in area, designed a trial to discover whether or not the homeopathic product, Natrum sulph 200C was able to protect mice against the effects of liver carcinogens, when compared to controls. Using various enzyme assays and other tests to determine the effects of the product, Natrum sulph 200C was found to reduce genomic and other carcinogenic effects as well as liver tumor formation caused by hepatocarcinigens, and to also increase the in-vivo levels of glutathione.

4. Berchieri A Jr, Turco WC, Paiva JB, et al. Evaluation of isopathic treatment of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr, 95, 2, 94-7. 180 chickens were divided into 4 groups. 2 of these groups were given pre-treatment with placebo and 2 were given different pre-treatment with preparations of a homeopathic nosode made from an antibiotic resistant strain of Salmonella enterica (Enteritidis) at a 30X potency, over a 10 day period. On day 17 the chickens were challenged with a culture of the same species of Salmonella from which the nosode was made. Cloacal swabs taken twice daily from the chickens at this point revealed that the birds that received the nosode showed a reduction in the growth of the bacteria compared to those given placebo.

5. Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004, Jul, 42, 7, 698-714. In this study, groups of mice were given substances that would normally be expected to induce the formation of liver cancer. At the same time, selected groups of these mice were given either homeopathic Chelidonium in 30C or 200C potencies or a placebo control. Both potencies of chelidonium provided a significant protective effect against the formation of liver cancers and favourably modulated some of the haematological markers normally associated with hepatotoxicity.

6. Biswas SJ, Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Carcinosin 200, fed alone and in combination with another drug, Chelidonium 200, in amelioration of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. J Altern Complement Medorrhinum 2005 Oct;11(5):839-54. Mice suffering from liver cancers were given either homeopathic Carcinosin 200C, or a combination of Carcinosn 200C and Chelidonium 200C over a period of 120 days, and the ability of these to ameliorate the cancers was compared to the effects of potentised alcohol over the same period of time. After the results were analysed it was found that both of the homeopathic remedies were effective in ameliorating these cancers. In addition, they were both individually effective in protecting against the development of any further hepatocarcinogenesis and the combination of the 2 homeopathic medicines were slightly more so.

7. Cazin JC, Cazin M, Gaborit JL, et al. A Study of the Effect of Decimal and Centessimal Dilutions of Arsenic on the Retention and Mobilisation of Arsenic in the Rat. Human Toxicol, 1987, 6, 315-320. Radioactively labelled arsenious anhydride was administered to 60 rats. The rats were then given various homeopathic potencies (10X to 30X and 5C to 15C) of arsenicum album or a potentised water control. All of the potencies successfully increased the excretion rate of the radio-labelled arsenious anhydride when compared with the control, with the highest level of excretion being produced by the 14X and 7C potencies.

8. Chakrabarti J, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Cytogenetical Effects of Sonication in Mice and their Modulations by Actinomycin D and a Homeopathic drug, Arnica 30. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2001, December, 39, 12, 1235-42. Mice were exposed to ultrasonication (high frequency shaking) and assessed for the effects of the ultrasonication after the administration of either Arnica 30 or Actinomycin D. These interventions were assessed against controls for parameters such as chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly and micronucleated erythrocytes. In comparison the control mice, the mice that were given Arnica 30, had appreciably reduced effects from the ultrasonication, indicating that Arnica 30 can ameliorate the cellular and subcellular damage resulting from this form of physical trauma.

9. Chaudhuri S, Varshney JP Clinical management of babesiosis in dogs with homeopathic Crot. horridus 200C. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):90-4. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease suffered by dogs. It’s associated with infestation by Babesia gibsoni and is normally transmitted by ticks. In this clinical case comparison the effects of Crot. horridus 200C on dogs suffering from this condition were compared with the effects of the standard pharmaceutical treatment, diminazine aceturate. At 18 days after the medications were given results were assessed and on the clinical scores for the various symptoms produced by the dogs in response to the protozoa, it was found that Crot. horridus 200C provided the same level of clinical recovery from the illness as did diminazine aceturate.

10. Datta S, Mallick P, Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdoses. Complement Ther Medorrhinum 1999 Sep;7(3):156-63. This study, carried out at the University of Kalyani in India’s West Bengal, was part of an ongoing series of trials looking at the use of homeopathically potentised arsenic to protect against the effects of exposure to material doses of arsenic, this latter being a serious health issue in several parts of India and elsewhere. The efficacy of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C have already been demonstrated to be effective against the toxicity from arsenic in previous experiments and in this particular study, the influence of the DNA transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, on the protective effects of the homeopathic medicines was assessed. Compared to controls it was found that the use of the actinomycin D did inhibit the protective effects of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C against arsenic toxicity.

11. Datta SS, Mallick PP, Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh AA. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium sulphuricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study. BMC Complement Altern Medorrhinum 2001;1:9. In a similar study to that described above, researchers again tested the hypothesis that the homeopathically potentised version of a potentially toxic substance could protect against the effects of the substance from which it’s derived. In this case, the protective effects of homeopathic Cadmium sulph 30C and 200C were used in an attempt to control the genotoxic effects of cadmium in mice exposed to this element. When the results of this study were analysed it was found that the homeopathic medicine did provide a statistically significant protective action against the effects of cadmium.

12. Daurat V, Dorfman P, Bastide M. Immunomodulatory activity of low doses of interferon alpha,beta in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 1988;42(3):197-206. This was a placebo controlled study designed to ascertain what effects, if any, divided doses of interferon alpha,beta, potentised to 10X, had on specific immune responses of mice, in particular the cytotoxic activity of allospecific T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The authors of the study found that, compared to the controls, mice given Interferon alpha,beta 10X produced a statistically significant increase in all of the specific immune response variables measured.

13. Day C. Stillbirth in Pigs. Veterinary Record, 1984, 9114, 216. 20 sows were randomly assigned to receive either homeopathic Caulophyllum 30C or placebo, to determine if the former had any affect on reducing the number of stillbirths experienced by these sows. On analysis, it was found that the sows given Caulophyllum had a stillbirth rate of 11.5%, and those given placebo had a rate of 26%, showing quite clearly that the homeopathic medicine successfully reduced the rate of stillbirths.

14. de Paula Coelho C, D’Almeida V, Pedrazzolli-Neto M, Duran-Filho C, Florio JC, Zincaglia LM, Bonamin LV. Therapeutic and pathogenetic animal models for Dolichos pruriens. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul, 95, 3, 136-43. This study was designed to determine the effect of various homeopathic potencies of Dolichos pruriens on artificially induced itch in laboratory rats, and also to determine if these potencies could elicit a proving effect in normal rats. In the first part of this study (performed blind) the rats with the induced itch were given ascending potencies of the remedy over a 30 day period and the results compared to placebo controls. It was found that all potencies of the remedy provided a therapeutic effect against the induced itch. In the second part of the study, also performed blind, no proving effects were seen.

15. Dos Santos AL, Perazzo FF, Cardoso LG, Carvalho JC. In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus toxicodendron. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):95-101. This study was essentially designed to do 2 things; to determine which homeopathic potency of Rhus tox provides the most effective anti-inflammatory action, and to reconfirm the results of previous studies aimed at demonstrating any anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus tox. Of 6C, 12C, 30C and 200C potencies of this remedy, 6C was found to provide the highest level of activity, and, using an in-vivo inflammation model, researchers confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the remedy by interfering with inflammatory processes involving histamine, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators, when compared with controls.

16. Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Belon P, et al. Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirin. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2005;34(1):29-34. Researchers in this controlled study attempted to determine the effects of potentised aspirin on rats exhibiting reduced platelet aggregation associated with portal hypertension. Given that material doses of aspirin are known to be associated with a reduction in platelet aggregation, one of the aims of the study was to confirm that the reverse of this would be the case with if potentised aspirin were used. The researchers did, in fact, confirm this in their results which showed that, compared to controls, Aspirin 14C normalised deficiencies in platelet aggregation in the rats involved in this study.

17. Endler PC, et al. Pretreatment with Thyroxine 10-8 Enhances a Curative Effect of Homeopathically prepared Thyroxine 10-13 on Lowland Frogs. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2003, 10, 137-42. In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial carried out simultaneously by 3 independent researchers, tadpoles were exposed to an equivalent of a 13X potency of thyroxine. This hormone, normally responsible for promoting metamorphosis, was found to inhibit this process when potentised into a homeopathic medicine.

18. Epstein OI, Pavlov IF, Shtark MB. Improvement of Memory by Means of Ultra-Low Doses of Antibodies to S-100B Antigen. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006 December, 3, 4, 541-545. Antigen S-100B of nervous tissue affects the mechanisms of nervous system plasticity and memory. In this trial, 28 rats were given either a placebo, or Antigen S-100B, at a 6C potency to determine the effect of either on three learning behavioral models; inhibitory avoidance, choosing of bowls with sucrose, and feeding behavior cessation after auditory signal. For all three tasks, parameters of reproduction of the learned skills improved after per oral administration of potentiated antibodies to S-100B antigen immediately after learning when compared to placebo.

19. Graunke H, Endler PC, Scherer-Pongratz W, Spranger H, Frass M, Lothaller H. Treatment of lowland frogs from the spawn stage with homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10(-30)). Scientific World Journal. 2007 Oct 22;7:1697-702. In this project, performed at the Interuniversity College for Health and Development in Graz, Austria, lowland frog spawn were exposed to thyroxine potentised to 30C to determine the effect, if any, of this remedy of the development of the spawn into 2 and then 4 legged frogs, when compared to controls. It would be normal for the development of frog spawn to be accelerated by exposure to material levels of thyroxine. In this instance, exposure to 30C thyroxine produced a statistically significant reduction in the speed of development from spawn to 4 legged lowland fogs.

20. Guajardo-Bernal G., Searcy-Bernal R., Soto-Avila J. Growth Promoting Effect of Sulphur 201C in Pigs. British Homoeopathic Journal, January, 1996, 85, 15-16. In a blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sulphur 201C was given to pregnant sows every 10 days, and extending into the feeding period after birth. By day 30 the piglets fed by the sows given the active remedy exhibited a higher final weight, mean total and daily weight gain, indicating that not only was the remedy effective, but that its effects were transmitted through the sows milk.

21. Herkovits J, Perez-Coll CS. Could Potentized Microdoses of Cadmium change the Toxicological Effect of this Heavy Metal? Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Report from the 4th Giri Symposium, 1991, June, 1, 3, 171. Toad embryos were exposed to Cadmium in 4X, 8X and 10X potencies. Either immediately or 24 hours later, the embryos were exposed to a (normally lethal) solution equivalent to 1mg/l of Cadmium. Both on immediate and delayed exposure, the potencies of cadmium exerted a statistically significant protective effect against the actions of the cadmium solution.

22. Jonas WB, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, et al. Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth? Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):343-9. This US study examined the effects of the homeopathic remedies Thuja, Sabal, Conium and Carcinosin (made from the specific prostate cancer cell line used in this trial) in vitro on prostate cancer cell cultures and in vivo on 100 rats, all of which were suffering from prostate cancer. A double blind randomised design was used for this latter part of the study. The rats were given all 4 homeopathic medicines on a sequential basis over a period of 5 weeks. The in vitro part of the study, carried out over a period of 96 hours and assessed according to tumor cell viability and gene expression, showed that the cancer cell lines were unaffected by the homeopathic medicines. When the researchers assessed the results from the in vivo aspect of the study, it was found that, compared to the controls, the rats given the homeopathic medicines showed a 23% reduction in tumor incidence and a 38% reduction in the size of prostate tumors.

23. Kumar KH, Sunila ES, Kuttan G, et al. Inhibition of chemically induced carcinogenesis by drugs used in homeopathic medicine. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jan-Mar;8(1):98-102. In this study, carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in India’s Kerala State, rats and mice were treated for the development of liver tumors using homeopathic Hydrastis, Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Ruta or Thuja. Assessment was made on the basis of the development of tumors and their corresponding biochemical markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum and in liver. Of the 5 medicines tested, Ruta (in a 200C potency) and Phosphorous (in a 1M potency) provided the most benefit.

24. Kuzeff RM, Mecheva RP, Topashka-Ancheva MN. Inhibition of (-)-propranolol hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice–a placebo-controlled randomized study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004 Feb;11(1):14-9. Researchers in this trial from Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne examined the effects on toxicity from (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride of a homoeopathically prepared optical isomer version of the same substance. When used in mice prior to exposure to (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride, a remedy made from (R)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride was found to reduce the toxicity resulting from its isomer.

25. Labrecque G., Guilleminot J. Effect of Bryonia on Experimental Arthritis in Rats. Berlin Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 3, 1991, 169, (Congress Report Poster). In this study, 35 male rats suffering from arthritis were treated with placebo or 4X, 4C or 9C potencies of homeopathic Bryonia for 15 days and assessed at various stages using grip strength body weight as assessment criteria. At the end of the treatment period, all of the Bryonia potencies had improved the condition when compared to placebo, with Bryonia 4C providing the best outcomes.

26. Lingg G, Endler PC, Frass M, Lothaller H. Treatment of Highland Frogs from the Two-legged stage with Homeopathically prepared Thyroxin (10-11 – 10-21). Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20;8:446-50. Researchers working in Austria conducted this study to determine the effects of thyroxine, homeopathically potentised to 11X and 21X, on the metamorphosis rates of highland frogs (Rana temporaria) when compared to controls. The assessment of the effects of these remedies was done on the basis of the number of 2 legged tadpoles that develop into frogs with 4 legs over fixed periods of time. 90 animals in all acted as the subjects in this trial. As would be expected, given that thyroxine would stimulate development, thyroxine 11X and 21X, when compared to controls, were found to suppress the development of tadpoles into frogs over the observation period.

27. Macedo SB, Ferreira LR, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy. 2004 Apr;93(2):84-7. Researchers in this study evaluated the protective effect of Arnica 6C on the acute inflammatory effects in mice of carregeenin and the chronic inflammatory effects of Nystatin. Arnica was given prior to the induction of both forms of inflammation and it was found to provide a protective effect against Nystatin, but not carrageenin induced inflammation.

About the author

Robert Medhurst

Robert Medhurst

Robert Medhurst BNat DHom DBM DRM DNutr is a qualified Naturopath & Homoeopath with 28 years of clinical experience and currently practices in the Adelaide Hills in South Australia. He has written many articles and lectured on homeopathy throughout Australia and the U.S. Robert previously operated several natural therapies practices in Sydney and was involved in teaching and research. He was formerly the Expert Advisor on Homeopathy to the Federal Government of Australia, Dept. of Health & Ageing. He specialises in homeopathy and is the author of The Business of Healing, the definitive guide for clinical practice establishment and management. For more information see Robert Medhurst is author of the recently released : The Concordant Clinical Homeopathic Repertory

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  • The fact is that we do not need further proofs that homeopathy works, because the scientific basis to explain why homeopathy works exists already.

    Sadly the cause of the skepticism is not grounded in science, but in money money money … pharmaceutic lobbies denies everything which reveals a great threat to their profits.
    This is also the reason why the so called “modern medicine” is still antiquated in contrast to the electrifying discoveries made in physics in the last 100 years.

    Skeptics are not scientists, or not good scientist at least. I propose to ignore the dogs and concentrate on further research and teaching.

  • I am glad, more and more studies are published for homeopathic medicines and its applications to humans. I myself would want to have clinical studies on my experiences on my practice in homeopathy.

    Thank you for your studies and I will be utilizing them not just as literatures to studies and research but also as evidences of effectivity of homoepathic management to diseases.

  • Dear Colleague and Homeopath Robert Medhurst

    Thank you so much for what we need to do much more than before, i.e.

    Research,Research and research. What a useful article. You deserve many

    thanks. You have mentioned so many valuable researches in one article. Well

    done. I confirm true effectiveness of the Divine method of Healing,

    Hahnemannian Homeopathy,too.

    God Help you in healing your patients, S.Sadeghi Hom.Pysician

  • Dear Doctor.
    Thank you for your nice work. I believe anyone who read this will appreciate it.
    Well,from my point of view, is it necessary to prove how homeopathy works, to the allopath? And is it possible to prove in double blind method, the method they accept?
    The answer is No. Why? because it will not change any thing. Unless and untill Homeopathy unable to give commerce to them they will not accept it.
    The only reason to find answer of this question is to satisfy ourselves.

    Sorry if I hurt any one.

    Dr.Nazmul Hasan.

    • Homoeopathy does not deal with the names of the disease instead it individualises the patient
      on the basis of totality of symptoms subjective and objective ie Mind, general and modalities
      of the complaints. Diseases are grouped as occupational diseases and corporeal diseases. This
      is not body becomes sick but the will, intelligence and memory are the dynamic planes the
      chronic diseases oroginates dynamically. Miasms Psora, Syphilis and sycosos are the three
      ills responsible for the chronic diseases. There is a universal law action and reaction are equa
      and opposite. Under this law only all the events are happening in this universe. We are using
      thee most advanced softwares and repertorising the cases. Please do write me. Thanks.

  • Look at the first half dozen studies:

    1. Small sample size and a subjective pain study.
    2. Small sample size and a subjective pain and agitation study.
    3. The treatment matched placebo. Not a positive result!
    4. Small sample size and no placebo control.
    5. Placebo controlled???
    6. Small sample size and a preliminary study.

    I would hope that the first studies listed would be quality, but no. The first principle of science is to try not to fool yourself, yet these studies seem to be trying to do so, no?

  • This is a useful exercise but a depressing one. Look at us throwing out our ‘First do no harm’ principle for our gentle healing art and including experiments done on lab rats and mice. Over 3/4 of the Animal Studies you have included need to be discarded in my view. A big debate is raging in UK about the problem with ‘sciencifying’ our art and forgetting our Hahnemannian roots which remind us that our science is practised and proved on healthy individuals – not cadavers or stressed lab animals. Humanely husbanded farm animals and companion animals (pets) – if treated homoeopathically and not ‘experimented on’ – can add their powerful vital forces to our arguments but NEVER should we stoop to the torture of sentient beings in laboratories as done by the so called ‘homeopathic’ researchers. Such studies can never be called ‘positive’. The only studies that deserve that description are those that demonstrate homeopathy returning diseased people and animals to health – real homeopathy in other words, not a version of it that involves suffering, harm and distress.
    Let’s just simply say no to referring to or the publication of these trials. They lower our aspiration and will surely destroy us.