Disease Index

A Discussion of Gastritis with Keynotes of Leading Homeopathic Remedies

Stomach Cancer

Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.

Stomach-Cancer.jpgGastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:

  • It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
  • It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
  • 85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
  • It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
  • It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
  • It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.


Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.


ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.


CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).

In CHRONIC NON – ATROPHIC GASTRITIS inflammatory cells are restricted to upper one third and glandular atrophy is absent
In CHRONIC ATROPHIC GASTRITIS, infiltration extends much deeper and glandular atrophy (mild, moderate, marked) is present.

Gastric Atrophy, is diagnosed in the absence of inflammatory cells and extensive glandular damage is present(pernicious anaemia)

Endoscopy in the patients with advanced atrophic gastritis shows thinning of mucosa (loss of folds) and prominence of sub mucosal vascular patterns.

Atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands and may be with or without intestinal metaplasia.


With atrophic gastritis, metaplastic changes in the glands – pseudo pyloric in the body mucosa or fundus – may be observed, fundus is inappropriate for location.

Metaplastic changes in the epithelium, intestinal in the antrum, body, fundus inappropriate for location, may be observed.

Intestinal metaplasia may be patchy and most frequently found in the gastric mucosal biopsy from the lesser curvature, near the incisura angularis.

Intestinal metaplasia extends proximately with increasing age and severity of ch. Gastritis.


Type I (enteric): Small intestinal epithelium with microvilli, goblet cells with acidic mucin, paneth cells at the base or incomplete.

 Type II (entrocolic):  Goblet cell with sulphomucin it is closely linked to the intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma, as the genetic abnormalities noted in pt with dysplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia) is observed in them.

Type III( colonic): Goblet cell with sulfomucin it is closely linked to the intestinal Types of gastric adenocarcinoma, as the genetic abnormalities noted in the pt with dysplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia) are observed in them.

Pernicious anaemia is defined as severe vita B12 malabsorption due to a marked intrinsic factor deficiency (‹ 200 units/hr) following a maximal stimulus.

A new definition of pernicious anaemia – the presence of intrinsic factor antibody in the serum or gastric juice with vita B12 malabsorption due to intrinsic factor deficiency was suggested in 1968.

Pt. of ‘pernicious anaemia’ without IFA should be accurately classified as atrophic gastritis, as the essential genetic factor the IFA, is absent in them.

Gastropathy should be differentiated from chronic gastritis by the absence of significant inflammation and the presence of vascular abnormalities.




Damage to the gastric mucosa due to –

Medication – Aspirin, or non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID), cytotoxic drug, iron.

Irritants – Red and green chili, tobacco ingestion, alcohol.

Infections – Bacterial, viral, or fungal.




Etiological factors for acute gastritis vary in developed and developing countries

In developed countries, drugs like Aspirin to prevent arterial thrombosis or NSAID for relief of the pain of arthritis are widely consumed by elderly and the commonest cause of acute gastritis.

Drug induced mucosal damage is predominantly in the antrum.

In acute gastritis, the gastric mucosa is intensely congested both in the body and antrum. The mucosal biopsy shows degenerative changes in the surface epithelium with mucus depletion and heavy infiltration with neutrophils.

Acute gastritis is characterized by sudden onset and quick resolution, at times within 3-4 days. To diagnose erosions, as the cause of haematemesis, gastroduodenoscopy examination should be performed within 48 hrs. In humans, the surface epithelium cells of the gastric mucosa are continuously exfoliated and replaced every 2-4 days – approximately half a million cells are exfoliated every minute and the same number replaced. Erosion occurs when there is an imbalance between the damage and repair of the surface epithelial cells. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of the nuclei of the cells of different tissues is nearly identical. The number of the cells and the number of nuclei exfoliated during a period of time can be estimated by measuring the DNA content in the gastric juice. When the gastric mucosa is exposed to irritants, far more cells are exfoliated than can be replaced, resulting in the breakage of the gastric mucosal lining, causing erosion in the majority and bleeding in a few patients.



Red chili powder and its active ingredient capsaicin were shown to significantly increase the exfoliation of surface epithelial cells of human gastric mucosa by estimating the DNA content in the gastric aspirates. Red chili powder also breaks the gastric mucosal barrier. In any patient with haemetemesis of unknown origin, ingestion of a highly spicy food in the previous meal should be determined.

The approximate amount of red chili powder per meal by Indian subjects, significantly increased gastric acid secretion – the effect of red chili powder on gastric acid secretion was studied by preventing reflux of H+ ions from the lumen, as the gastric mucosal barrier is also broken by the chilies. The DNA content of gastric aspirates significantly increased with intragastric infusion of black paper, asafetida, ginger, garlic. Substances such as red chili powder, aspirin, alcohol, which can break the gastric mucosal barrier, as well as stimulate acid secretion are likely to give conflicting results on acid secretion, depending upon the amount of gastric irritant used and the method employed to measure acid secretion.



Tobacco contains carcinogens such as nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polonium, and 19- nitrosamines. Tobacco is used throughout the world for smoking but in two states of India, Maharashtra and Gujarat, it is ingested with or without pan or used as snuff or for cleaning teeth. In patients regularly chewing tobacco, the prevalence of gastric erosion on gastroduoendoscopy was as high as 20% . Further more, half an hour after the ingestion of 200 mg tobacco or one hour after the ingestion of 400 mg tobacco, per 50 patients., gastric erosions were observed in 35% and 38% patients. respectively.



7% alcohol stimulates acid secretion but 12% and 16% alcohol fails to stimulate acid secretion. This is because the higher concentration of alcohol damage the gastric mucosal barrier, resulting in the loss of H+ ions from the lumen.



Stress induced acute gastritis with erosion, is observed in the intensive care unit in patients with severe trauma, head injury, burns, sepsis, shock, ventilatory support etc. Inflammation plays a late and secondary role in its pathogenesis and hence may be termed ‘Stress gastropathy’.



Acute viral hepatitis causes damage to the gastric mucosal barrier in 70% of patients.




Environmental factors causing chronic gastritis may be:

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection
  2. Non helicobacter pylori infection


Various classifications of chronic gastritis based on vitamin B12 absorption, pathology, topography, immunology and endoscopic observations. In 1957 patients were separated in atrophic gastritis and pernicious anaemia on the basis of degree of vita B12 malabsorption. Those with ≥ 5 % excretion on the Schilling test were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis and those with severe B12 malabsorption ≤ 5 % excretion as pernicious anaemia.

In 1972 classified according to:

  1. The site of mucosa involved: pyloric, body, cardiac, transitional, interminate.
  2. The grade of gastritis: superficial or atrophic.
  3. The activity: quiescent or active.
  4. The presence of metaplasia: pseudo pyloric in the body mucosa, fundus or intestinal in the antrum, body or fundus mucosa.


The earliest immunological classification of chronic gastritis was reported in 1973. This classification was based on the immunological parameters, parietal cell antibody (PCA), intrinsic factor antibody (IFA), divided chronic gastritis into three types:


TYPE I:      Absence of both PCA and IFA in serum, e.g. post operative or corrosive gastritis.

TYPE II:     Presence of PCA and absence of IFA in the serum- superficial or atrophic gastritis

TYPE III:    Presence of both PCA and IFA in the serum- pernicious anaemia




H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa because of:

  • Its motility with flagella
  • Capacity to produce abundant urease to form ammonia “ cloud” for its survival in intra luminal acid
  • Special affinity to adhere to the gastric epithelium and its ability to cause transient achlor or hypochlor hydria on initial exposure to the gastric mucosa


In the human stomach, H. pylori lies close to the intercellular junction of the gastric epithelial cells, underneath the surface mucus and within the gastric pits.

This location protects it from the intra luminal acid, to which it is sensitive.

Though H.pylori is non invasive, cytopathic changes are observed where it attaches to the gastric epithelial cells.

After colonization, H.pylori induces both a humoral and cellular inflammatory response.

For tissue injury important cytotoxins blamed are:

  1. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA)
  2. Cytotoxin – associated gene A (cagA)
  3. Induced by contact with epithelium (iceA)
  4. Outer membrane inflammatory protein A(oipA)
  5. Bacteria adhesion

Various genotypes and their polymorphisms are identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

  • Helicobacter heilmanni
  • Glaucomatous
  • Eosinophilic
  • Lymphocytic
  • Collagenous
  • Reflux (reactive)
  • Corrosive
  • Post- irritation
  • Tobacco induced
  • Menetrier’s disease



  1. Helicobacter Heilmanni:

It is another gram negative spiral bacteria causing mild chronic gastritis.

It is probably transmitted from domestic pets. Less than 1 % of chronic gastritis results from this bacterial infection.


  1. Glaucomatous Gastritis:

It is diagnosed by the presence of granuloma in the mucosal biopsies which may vary in location, number, size and structure. Granuloma may occur with crohn’s disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, syphilis, cryptococcal infection and post operative (structure material). The clinical radiology, endoscopy, histology and serology observations help to establish the etiology. In crohn’s disease, the focal active gastritis is present; the glaucomatous lesion is usually in antrum and may cause gastric outlet obstruction. In India, tuberculous granuloma should be excluded by staining for acid fast bacilli, performing polymerase chain reaction and/or culture.


  1. Eosinophilic Gastritis:

It is believed to be an allergic manifestation and may be a part of eosinophilic enteritis. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastric mucosa (20 eosinophils per high power field) with or without peripheral eosinophilia. Antral infiltration is common and may even cause an ulcer or a granuloma causing pyloric obstruction. A parasitic infection should be excluded.


  1. Lymphocytic Gastritis:

It is more often present in women and is usually asymptomatic; anorexia and weight loss occasionally occur. It is diagnosed by the presence of 30 or more lymphocytes / 100 epithelial cells (normally 3-8 intraepithelial lymphocytes). It is usually a pangastritis but occasionally affects the body mucosa only. On endoscopy, giant folds with some nodules and a few central apthous ulcer may be seen. It is associated with H.pylori infection (20%) or celiac disease (50%) and eradication of H.pylori or gluten withdrawal respectively, results in gradual improvement. In the absence of these conditions, MALT lymphoma or adenocarcinoma should be excluded.


  1. Collagenous Gastritis:

It is rare and is characterized by the presence of subepithelial collagen. Endoscopy shows erosions in the antrum and body mucosa and biopsy detected collagen deposition in the subepithelial region.


  1. Reflux (reactive) Gastritis:

It is due to reflux of duodenal contents especially bile in the gastric lumen, following operations on stomach – gastrojejunostomy, pyloroplasty or partial gastronomy.


  1. Corrosive Gastritis:

Corrosive ingestion, accidentally or with a suicidal intent of strong alkali or acid may result in acute gastritis mucosal damage causing erythema, oedema, erosions and ulcerations. The damage is determined by the concentration, volume, and duration of exposure and the occurrence of vomiting. Chronic gastritis and its complications – stricture may follow.


  1. Radiation Gastritis:

Acute gastritis may occur within a week of radiation on exposure. It usually occurs with higher doses of 4500 to 5900 CGY but may occasionally occur even with a low dose of 1800 CGY. With the availability of linear accelerator, the risk of gastritis with radiation has significantly reduced. Chronic gastritis and its complication, stricture and malignancy are observed in few patients.


  1. Tobacco:

Chronic gastritis has been reported in tobacco chewers. On electron microscopy, ultra structural changes fragmented basement membrane with reduction in hemidesmosome and widened intercellular spaces, similar to those observed in experimental carcinogenesis, were observed in the gastric mucosal biopsy of tobacco chewing patients.


10. Menetrier’s Disease i.e. Giant Hypertrophic Gastritis:

It is an uncommon disease in which gastric folds in fundus-body mucosa are prominent with occasional nodularity. The patient may present with edema of feet (protein losing enteropathy), diarrhea or weight loss. The histology shows elongation and dilation of gastric pits with reduction of gastric glands. Endo-sonography is helpful to differentiate prominent gastric mucosal folds, due to lymphoma, zollinger-ellison syndrome or gastric varices. Hypochlorhydria is usually present in this while basal, maximal acid output and serum gastrin are markedly elevated in patients with zollinger-ellison syndrome. The risk of malignancy is marginally increased.




In humans the absence of H.Pylori in the gastric mucosa is associated with a higher prevalence of endoscopic oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

The presence of H.pylori in the gastric mucosa causes diseases such as:

Chronis gastritis

Duodenal ulcer

Gastric Ulcer

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

‘Epidemic’ achlorhydria

Non Ulcer Dyspepsia(some patients)




The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.

H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.




The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.

A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.



Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.

Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.



The patient with gastric malignancy presents with loss of weight, abdominal pain after food, nausea, vomiting, anaemia, haemetemesis and/or malena. Intestinal metaplasia is an important intermediary step in the development of gastric adencarcinoma (intestinal type). In India, intestinal metaplasia is uncommon in patients of atrophic gastritis and Type III (colonic) is rare, hence the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma is low in South Asian population, despite a high prevalence of H. pylori in them. The exact cause for the low prevalence of intestinal metaplasia is not known but dietary factors are considered important.



H.pylori infection increases the risk for the development of MALT lymphoma by 6-50 fold. In response to H. pylori infection, B and T lymphomas are attracted to the gastric mucosa. Monoclonal expansion and malignant transformation of B cells results in MALT lymphoma. H. pylori eradication usually cures MALT lymphoma in 70% of patients.



H. pylori has been blamed for the transient ‘epidemic’ hypo or achlorhydria at onset of infection, as it helps in its colonization in the gastric mucosa. Initial acid inhibition occurs due to a protein inhibition and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1B. Subsequently, acid output gradually increases over the next few months.



Non ulcer dyspepsia (functional dyspepsia) was initially defined as upper abdominal discomfort in the absence of an ulcer on endoscopy or barium meal.

It was later defined as ‘upper abdominal or retro-sternal pain, discomfort, heartburn, nausea,or vomiting or other symptoms considered to be referable to the proximal alimentary tract and lasting for more than 4 weeks, unrelated to exercise and for which no focal lesion or systemic disease can be responsible.’Chronic gastritis is diagnosed in about 70% of patients of non ulcer dyspepsia.




(a)     Presence of H. pylori and GERD

In patients with oesophagitis and control subjects, the presence of H.pylori infection in the gastric mucosa was not different, indicating H. pylori (alone) in the gastric mucosa, does not affect the incidence of oesophageal mucosal damage.


(b)     Presence of H. pylori corpus gastritis and GERD

There is a reduced risk of endoscopic oesophagitis in the presence of corpus gastritis. The presence of the most pathogenic H.pylori in the gastric mucosa causing corpus gastritis protects the development of GERD complications.




(a)     Lack of exposure

In serum, helicobacter pylori antibody (HPA:IgG) prevalence was 50% in the population, at the age of 5 yrs in developing countries and at the age of 50 yrs in developed countries. With continuous improvement of sanitation in developed countries during the last four decades, the prevalence of H.pylori in the gastric mucosa is decreasing and the lifetime risk of exposure is only 10 %. The decreasing prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma and the increasing prevalence of endoscopic oesophagitis and its complications, indicates the decreasing exposure to H. pylori.



  • Gastric mucosal Biopsy
  • Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
  • Co vita B12 excretion test
  • Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
  • Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
  • H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods



Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.

By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.

Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.

Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.

In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.


Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium

Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation

Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion

Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food

Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action

Wants to lie down all the time



Pain in stomach always comes on after eating

Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach

Great craving for food at noon and night

Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco

Sour eructation



Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer

Cancer of stomach

Sour eructation

Vomits every kind of food

Heartburn and water brash


Concomitants – Profuse salivation

Intense burning thirst

Haemorrhage from bowels

Great prostration.



Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Duodenal ulcer; All gone sensation when stomach is empty, > by eating, during the process of digestion

Apt to choke while eating and drinking

Swallows food and drink hastily

Pain usually two hours after eating, with a dull epigastric pain extending to the back of the trunk

Always better after eating

Concomitants – Ineffectual desire for stool, rectum seems to be plugged up

Sensation of a band or hoop around a part

Sudden loss of memory

Ulceration of stomach with radiating pains

Gnawing, burning splinter like pains

Belching accompanies most gastric ailments

Nausea, retching, vomiting of glary mucus

Flatulent dyspepsia, stomach distended as if it would burst with wind

Diarrhoea, green mucus like chopped spinach < eating candy, sugar, sweets, ice creams

Diseases from unusual or long continued mental exertion




Cause – Gastric derangements after fruits, ice creams, beer, strong cheese, alcohol

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains in abdomen, burns like fire, as if hot coals were applied to the parts

Vomiting of bile, blood, brown black mucus mixed with blood

Gastralgia < at mid day and mid night

Severe, burning pain and exhaustion; pain immediately after eating food and a lack of appetite

Modalities – > by heat, hot drinks

Keynotes – Cannot bear the smell or sight of food

Excessive thirst for warm drinks at short intervals

Fear, anxiety, restlessness




Chronic stomach affections

Paroxysms of gastric pains

Vomiting of all food



Great dryness of throat, almost impossible to swallow



Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastralgia, pain from stomach through to spine

Vomiting of water as soon as it reaches the stomach, food retained longer, of enormous quantities at intervals of several days when food has filled the stomach

Pressure in stomach as from a load in one spot, alternating with burning, pain crampy, spasmodic



Acidity of the digestive tract, sour eructation, sour vomiting, sour stool, sour odour of the whole body

Ravenous hunger

Pit of stomach swollen like an inverted saucer, painful to pressure

Aversion to milk and meat, craving for eggs

Habitual constipation, stool has to be removed mechanically

Leucophlegmatic, fair, obese persons



At every attempt to eat, colicky pain in stomach

Heart burn

Much flatulence

Craving for bacon, ham, salted or smoked meat

Flatulence temporarily > by sour eructation

Easy vomiting

Green, hot, spluttering diarrhea

Sunken, flabby abdomen

Feeble digestion

Anemic, thin, spare subjects

Ailments from grief, disappointed love

Feels complaints more when thinking about them



Burning and cutting pains in stomach


Persistent vomiting, violent nausea, retching, vomiting of black, coffee ground matter, of blood

Severe prostration

Black offensive clots of blood from bowels

Chilliness and coldness



Weak digestion, simplest food disagrees, excessive accumulation of gas in stomach and intestines (upper abdomen), sensation as if abdomen would burst

Eructations give temporary relief

Haematemesis and malena

Bad effects of fatty food, pork, butter, late supper, debauch, salted meat, spoiled fish or meat

Frequent involuntary cadaverous smelling stools

Carcinoma of stomach, late stages of disease

Complaints from loss of vital fluids, broken down constitution



Hyperacidity, vomiting of undigested food

Hungry with out appetite

Excessive flatulence of stomach and bowels (lower abdomen), fermentation, belching gives no relief

Colic at a certain hour, each day, periodical< night, eating fruits, touch

> Hard pressure, bending double

Diarrhoea painless at night, undigested food particles

Haematemesis and malena

Hemorrhage long continued

Ulcers with persistent suppuration

Longing for sour things

Broken down constitution, loss of vital fluids

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastric ulcer, carcinoma of stomach

Constant burning pains

Vomiting of food, burning behind sternum, where food seems to stick

Stricture of esophagus

Chronic gastric catarrh

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastric ulcer, cancer of stomach

Vomiting of bloody slimy mucus

Black or coffee ground vomiting

Violent vomiting of food

Concomitants – Haematemesis and malena

Chronic alcoholism

Intolerance of clothing around stomach

Diarrhoea, stool black, offensive, like coffee grounds. Black, dark, fluid, non coagulable blood

Tongue fiery red, smooth and polished

Prostration, broken down constitution

Catarrhal gastritis with profuse secretion, tendency to ulceration and passive hemorrhage

Lessens the vomiting in gastric ulcer

Vomiting of blood

Atonic, foul ulcers

Constant desire to go to stool, with inability to pass anything for sometime



Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Duodenal ulcer; Chronic constipation, stool hard knotty with lumps united by mucus threads

Modalities – > – after eating, drinking hot milk

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastric ulcer, gastric pains associated with splenic congestion

Nausea and retching


Hyperemia of gastric mucus membrane

Dullness and pain in left hypochondria

Paresis of pneumogastric

Gastritis with asthmatic symptoms

Constitution – Old debilitated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastro duodenal catarrh

Carcinoma of stomach

Cachetic or malignant dyscrasia

Ulcerations, profuse discharge of thick yellow stringy mucus

Atonic dyspepsia

Concomitants – Chronic constipation

Enlarged liver, jaundice

Cancer pains

Broken down by excessive use of alcohol



Constitution – Emaciation, loosing flesh while eating well

Scrofulous diathesis
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Duodenal ulcer; Empty eructation, as if every particle of food was turned in to air

Constipation > by drinking cold milk

Ravenous hunger,

Modalities- > – while eating or after eating

Hyperacidity, burning of the whole alimentary canal

Vomiting sour, bloody, biliary

Nausea, profuse salivation

Deficient appetite

Diarrhoea stools watery with burning of anus



Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Gastric ulcer; punched out or round ulcer of stomach

Pain in small spots, can be covered with the point of finger; appears and disappears suddenly, rapidly shifting

Pain in the epigastric region

Burning or shooting abdominal pain

Weight in pit of stomach, flatulence, vomiting of stringy, ropy mucus and blood

Loss of appetite

Modalities- < – immediately after eating, after midnight



Gastric ulcers; Carcinoma of stomach

Vomiting of food several hours after eating, vomiting of sweetish water with ptyalism

Haematemesis and malena

Flow passive, dark, oozing

Diarrhoea offensive, dark brown, bloody stools

Corrosive fetid ichorous discharges from mucus membranes



Constitution – Carbo-nitrogenoid constitution

Intellectually keen but physically weak

Upper part of body is emaciated, lower part semi-dropsical. Unhealthy complexion looks older than he is

Cause – Dyspepsia due to farinaceous and fermentable food, cabbage, beans, etc.

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – After eating, pressure in stomach, with bitter taste in mouth

Eating even little causes fullness

Immediately after a light meal there is bloating and fullness of stomach

Incomplete burning eructation

Sour eructation

Rolling of flatulence

Food and drink regurgitates through nose

Wakes at night feeling hungry

Concomitants – Aversion to bread

Desire for sweets

Likes to take food and drink hot

Excessive hunger

Stool hard, difficult, small, and incomplete.

Keynotes – Right side complaints

Fan like movement of alae nasi

Half open eyes in sleep.

Modalities –

< – 4 to 8 p.m., right side, heat except throat and stomach.

> – warm food and drink, loosening the garments, open air.



Excessive acidity, sour eructation, sour vomiting, spits mouth full of food

Gastritis, Flatulence

Yellow creamy coating at the back part of tongue and roof of mouth



Gastric ulcer; Pain in stomach while or immediately after eating

Eating a little too much causes headache

Abdomen enormously distended after every meal

Flatulent dyspepsia

Diarrhoea, stool white, fetid

Great dryness of mouth without thirst

Women, hysterical temperament, drowsiness, sleepiness, inclination to faint



Constitution – Thin people, with dark hair and dark complexion, who lead a sedentary life, nervous, extremely sensitive to external impressions

Cause – Dyspepsia from drinking strong coffee, high living, alcohol, highly spiced seasoned food, irregular diet, and long continued mental or physical stress, excessive intake of medicines.

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Nausea in the morning and after eating

Weight and pain in stomach which is worse some time after eating

Nausea and vomiting, with much retching

Epigastrium bloated, with pressure as of a stone, several hours after eating

Sour, bitter eructation

Concomitants – Region of stomach very sensitive to touch

Desire for stimulants

Loves fat and tolerates them well

Constipation, with frequent ineffectual urging; passing small quantity at each attempt; feeling as if part remained unexpelled. Throat: rough, scraped feeling

Tickling after waking in morning

Other keynotes – Oversensitive to all external impressions

Extremely irritable

Aversion to cold air

Irresistible desire to sleep in the evening

Modalities –

< – morning, mental exertion, after eating, stimulants, spices, cold, dry weather

> – in evening, damp wet weather



Duodenal ulcer; Ravenous hunger, must rise at night to eat

Pain abdomen > by constant eating <empty stomach, eating cabbage

Heartburn, nausea

Diarrhoea only in day time

Symptoms appear and disappear suddenly.



Burning pains in stomach > by cold drinks, ice creams, juicy refreshing things

A weak empty all gone sensation in entire abdomen

Vomiting, water is thrown up as soon as it gets warm in stomach

Vomiting of blood

Carcinoma of stomach

Bleeding ulcers, frequent, profuse

Discharge of blood from rectum during stool

Diarrhoea, stool involuntary, watery, sago like particles, coffee ground



Pain in stomach an hour after eating

Pain with chilliness, rapidly shifting, appear suddenly, goes gradually

Vomiting of food eaten long before

Eructation, taste of food remains a long time

All gone sensation in tea drinkers

Complaints from eating rich food, cake, pork, sausage

Thirstlessness with dry mouth and tongue

Diarrhoea only at night, greenish yellow, very changeable



Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Intensely acrid eructation.

Nausea, with sour eructation

Profuse vomiting of an intensely sour fluid; acrid and greenish vomiting

Great distension of stomach and bowels

Flatulent colic

Incarcerated flatus

Sour stools

Acidity in children; child smells sour

Nightly burning pains in stomach with constipation with urgent desire

Concomitants – Frontal headache, dull, throbbing; worse motion and reading



Burning pains in stomach < at night, warm food and drinks

Weak empty all gone sensation at about 11 am > by eating, cannot wait for lunch

Acidity, sour eructation

Desire for sweets

Diarrhoea, driving out of bed early in the morning

Constipation stools hard, dry as if burnt, painful

Redness of external orifices

Chronic alcoholism

Nervous temperament, scrofulous diathesis



Hyperacidity, heartburn, sour eructation, sets teeth on edge

Sour vomiting

Haemorrhage of black blood from bowels

Ulcers bleed easily

Water causes coldness of stomach, must be mixed with alcohol

Pains come gradually and go suddenly

Tremor and weakness



Gastric and duodenal ulcers


Stimulates the growth of epithelium on ulcerated surfaces



Gastric and duodenal ulcers

Ravenous appetite, eating followed by flatulence

Boring pain in pyloric region

Excessive thirst, nausea, vomiting

Burning pains

Abdomen distended

Great emaciation, debility

Diabetes, ascites, nephritis, hypertension, degeneration of liver



Prevention of H.pylori Infection –

In developing countries, the major mode of transmission of H.pylori infection is the faeco-oral route due to contaminated water or food, poor sanitation and personal hygiene. If a pure water supply is guaranteed, the risk of H. pylori infection dramatically decreases. Supplementation of vitamins A and C have positive impact.

The most serious complications of peptic ulcer – haematemesis and /or malena and perforation, can be prevented by avoiding drugs like NSAID’s, Aspirin etc. in all patients with active or past history of peptic ulcer.

Proper diet regimen can help in prevention peptic ulcer formation. It also helps in speedy recovery and arrests the further progression of complications. Dietary and regimen measures that should help are as follows:


The food should be masticated well and swallowed.

The food should be taken in a relaxed manner, without any hurry.


Easily digestible, oil free diet to reduce the workload of the stomach and intestines. Frequent small meals should be encouraged.

Water is to be taken before and after meals.

Nutritious diet should be taken at regular intervals.

Diet rich in fiber, like green vegetables and fruits which are good for digestion and also for the general health should be consumed regularly.

Foods containing flavonoids, like apples, celery, cranberries (including cranberry juice), onions, and tea may inhibit the growth of H. pylori.


Smoking, drinking alcohol, chewing tobacco and overeating which increases acid secretion of the stomach.

Hunger – which denotes acid load, avoid it by taking small meals often.

Full meal, oily diet, pickles and fatty snacks before bed time.

Food containing spices like chilies and pepper.

Dry bread, cakes and cookies.

High fat content nuts and biscuits.

Aerated drinks, coffee and tea.

Milk products.

Stress by the regular use of relaxation techniques such as yoga, tai chi, or meditation.

Cabbage, onions, garlic, cauliflower, tomatoes – if not tolerated

Drugs like NSAIDs – pain killers (for example. – aspirin)



  • http:// www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/
  • http://www.niddk.nih.gov/
  • http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic820.htm
  • http://www.diagnosishealth.com/ulcer.htm
  • http://www.dietsite.com/Diets/
  • Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed, McGraw-Hill
  • Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine, 17th ed, 1996, Churchill Livingstone
  • New Manual of Homeopathic Materia Medica & Repertory, William Boericke, 2nd revised ed., 2001, B. Jain
  • A Concise Repertory of Homeopathic Medicines, S.R.Phatak, 3rd ed, B. Jain
  • The Prescriber, Clarke, reprint ed, 1998, B. Jain
  • Practical Homeopathic Therapeutics, Dewey, reprint ed, 1993, B.Jain

About the author

Devika Kishorebhai Mehta

Dr. Devika Kishorebhai Mehta DHMS, MD lives and works in Gujarat. In 1996 she received her D.H.M.S. from the Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine and then her MD from H.N.G.University, Patan in 2011. From 2009 to the present she has been associated with Jawaharlal Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College as a reader and Head of Department of Organon of Medicine. Dr. Mehta has also worked as lecturer at Swami Vivekananda Homoeopathic Medical College, Bhavnagar and Rajkot Homoeopathic Medical College as a tutor. She is experienced in handling both OPD and IPD in homoeopathic hospitals. Her articles have been published in various periodicals, including the Vital Informer and on B. Jain’s website.


  • DEAR DR,

  • kindly accept my sincere thanks for writing a beautiful article on gastritis with lot of information on etiology, pathology,diagnosis and homoeo treatment with appropriate drugs.

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