Oral diseases are the most common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and affect people throughout their lifetime, causing pain, discomfort, disfigurement and even death.
The Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 estimated that oral diseases affected half of the world’s population (3.58 billion people) with dental caries (tooth decay) in permanent teeth being the most prevalent condition assessed.
Common Oral Diseases
Almost everyone has ulcers in the mouth from time to time. The lining of the mouth may be damaged by jagged teeth, very hot food or drink, or strong antiseptics or mouthwashes. These ulcers usually heal quickly without treatment. Other mouth ulcers are usually caused by infections.
Some ulcerative mouth affections are described below:
Traumatic causes of oral ulceration may be physical or chemical. Physical damage to the oral mucosa may be caused by sharp surfaces within the mouth, such as components of dentures, orthodontic appliances, dental restorations, or prominent tooth cups.
Erosive lichen planus
Lichen planus is one of the more prevalent Mucocutaneous disorders. The cause of lichen planus is not known, although it is immunologically mediated and resembles in many ways a hypersensitive reaction to an unknown antigen. T-lymphocyte-mediated destruction of basal keratinocytes and hyperkeratinization produces the characteristic clinical lesions. Lichen planus characteristically presents as white patches or striae that may affect any oral site.
Very few patients escape dental cavities, which the World Health Organization (WHO)estimates 60 to 90 percent of school children have and almost all adults. Caries are caused mainly by the buildup of plaque on teeth, which produces acid that destroys the tooth enamel.
Stomatitis refers to any inflammatory reaction affecting the oral mucosa, with or without ulceration that may be caused or intensified by local factors.
Normal oral pigmentation
Melanin is a normal skin and oral pigment produced by melanocytes. Increased melanin deposition in the oral mucosa may occur in various diseases. The pigmentation is more prominent in areas of pressure or friction and becomes more intense with aging.
Leucoedema – leucoedema is a normal anatomical variant of the oral mucosa due to increased thickness of the epithelium and intracellular edema of the malpeghian layer. Clinically, the mucosa has a grayish white color with slight wrinkling, which disappears if the mucosa is distended by pulling or stretching of the cheek.
Homeopathic treatment of diseases of mouth
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat diseases of mouth but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat diseases of mouth that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. There are following remedies which are helpful in the treatment of diseases of mouth:
pain due to the inflamed gums or the membrane of the socket; worse at night and in damp weather; teeth feel elongated and sore, soreness becoming worse from warmth and affecting the whole jaw; painful ulceration at the root of the teeth; gums swollen, ulcerated and retracted, with offensive odor from the mouth.
Abscesses in roots of the teeth, or dental fistulae, pains are worse from eating warm food, or when cold air gets into the mouth; worse at night; teeth feel loose.
Acrid saliva, pricking, splinter-like pains, aphthae and whitish gums, raw places in the mouth, corners of the mouth excoriated, the gums are unhealthy, bleed easily and have a foul odor. Its mouth symptoms are closely allied to those of Mercurius. Mercurial stomatitis. Muriatic acid. This remedy has deep bluish ulcers in the mouth having dark edges; the mucous membrane is denuded. The salivary glands are swollen and tender.
teeth feel elongated, sore and sensitive to touch; cheeks swollen; pains are periodic, easily excited and affect the sound teeth; worse lying on affected side; sometimes stabbing and boring pains become severe.
The gums are unhealthy and are retracted. the teeth have a tendency to decay an turn black; gnawing sensation in the roots of the decayed teeth.
Useful after extraction of tooth.
It removes the severest pains due to cold; the pain is often relieved by cold iced water. it is the best remedy for stinging, jerking pains.
For persons who drink much coffee; for pains in decayed teeth after taking cold during perspiration, or if the decayed tooth is too long and loose.
for pains which cause restlessness, the patient running about with the disposition to cry; when pain radiates from one tooth in all directions; worse during the night or after going to bed, in the open air, after meal and when touched, or biting, when hot liquids come in contact; and the throat is dry with great thirst.
when the teeth seem loose and elongated with jerking and throbbing pains, worse when touched, when lying on the affected side, and when at rest, and also from cold, better by heat of the stove, by hot applications, by sitting up in bed; it is suitable when pains are very weakening, or when the patient feels feverish, and when the finger tips are cold.
Aphthous inflammation of the mouth which is very hot and dry; mucus membrane bleeds easily; child starts up in fright, throws his arms about, is pale and livid and looks shriveled up; offensive breath; puffy, indebted tongue. Also indicated in thrush when located on the inner surface of the cheek; may be also on tongue and fauces. This is the great remedy in mouth affections. It has aphthous inflammation of the mouth; the mouth is very hot and dry, mucous membrane bleeds easily; the thrush is more often located on the inner surface of the cheeks, although also on tongue and fauces. Child starts up in a fright, throws its arms about, is pale and livid and looks shriveled up: offensive breath, puffy, indented tongue. The mother will notice the hot mouth of the child when it nurses.
Aphthae with increased saliva. cankers with yellowish- red edges.
One of the best remedies for aphthous stomatitis in poorly nourished children; the membrane is full of ulcers and the tongue is coloured yellow, or is large and flabby with imprints of teeth; excessive secretion of thick tenacious mucus.
Common, painful and depressed sores.
Indicated in parasitic stomatitis or thrush; condition in which blood oozes from the gums, which is dark red and offensive; great foetid salivation; gums ulcerated, tongue is cracked and mouth is exceedingly offensive; mucus membrane is in a most unhealthy condition. Produces a low adynamic conditions, in which the blood oozes from the gums, which are dark red and offensive ; great foetor, salivation. Gums ulcerated,the tongue is cracked and the mouth is exceedingly offensive. It is also useful in mercurial stomatitis. Mercurial stomatitis in nursing women, or with exhausting diseases, phthisis, Bright’s etc. The more offensive the breath, the more indicated; the mucous membrane is in a most unhealthy condition.
This is also indicated in thrush; sore mouth with salivation; tendency to ulceration of all forms, especially flat and superficial ulcers; the presence of diarrhoea is an essential indication; gums are spongy and swollen; the glands about the neck are also swollen. Gangrena oris ; heat in mouth or black sloughing ulcers. The aphthae become livid or bluish and the gums livid and bleeding. It corresponds especially to severe forms of sloughing ulcers and aphthous sore mouth when occurring in exhausting diseases.
Blisters on the inflamed tongue, which change into ulcers.
Mouth and tongue covered with blisters and ulcers; breath offensive and gums are white.
Acute oedema; tongue fiery red, swollen, sore, and raw with vesicles; tongue trembling, gums swollen.
Tongue pale, swollen, dry, leathery, paralyzed; deep bluish or hard lumpy ulcers on tongue; foetid breath.