Nitro-glycerine. Trinitrate of glycerine. [C3H5(NO3)3] Dilutions with alcohol.
NITRO-GLYCERINE is not decomposed in the stomach, but is absorbed unchanged into the blood, where it is rapidly broken up by the alkalis there into glycerine and a mixture of nitrates and nitrites; a very small quantity has been found unaltered in the urine.
The physiological action of nitro-glycerine is caused by the NO2 radicle, as is the case with amyl nitrite, but its action is more powerful and more prolonged than is the case with that medicine. Possibly the minute quantity of nitro-glycerine that remains unchanged in the system has a specific influence in causing a much more intense headache than amyl nitrite produces. The NO2 radicle, when released in the blood, acts with great rapidity and immediately depresses unstriped muscular fibre, especially that of the blood-vessels, with the consequence that they are dilated and the blood-pressure is lowered. The heart- beats are accelerated and the pulse becomes quick and jerking, while the respiration is increased in frequency. These effects are owing to diminished pressure in the arteries of the medulla causing the cardiac inhibitory and respiratory centres to be deprived of their normal amount of pabulum.
With large doses loss of consciousness and convulsions occur from disturbance of the cerebral circulation, but these effects are usually transient; the nervous tissue itself is not affected by the NO2 radicle. Very small doses, a fraction of a drop of nitro-glycerine, are sufficient to produce physiological symptoms. The taste of glonoin is sweet, pungent and aromatic.
Head-In about thirty seconds after a drop or portion of a drop has been placed upon the tongue a bursting, throbbing sensation is felt in the head, especially in the temples, the arteries of which visibly pulsate. This increases till it becomes a severe pain located in the whole head, but mostly in the forehead, temples and Occiput, in the latter situation extending down the neck as a painful tension. In time the scalp becomes sore with the pain. The pain is worse from moving or shaking the head and from the ;least jar, the patient feels he must keep the head still by holding it between his hands,, it is worse from bending the head backwards, after lying down, from ascending stairs, in the sun, from heat,.. the writing or exertion of the mind; it is better from lying with the head high and from cold and cold applications. With the headache there is vertigo, a balancing sensation, with difficulty in keeping the head erect; the head feels enormously expanded and too full of blood, as if the patient was hanging his head downwards.
Circulation-The cardiac region feels as if contracted, blood seems to surge to the heart, there is violent palpitation, worse on stooping, and the patient must lie with his head high. The pulse is quickened by 20 to 40 beats per minute and is mounding, full and dicrotic. Throbbing is felt in the arteries to the tips of the fingers and all over the body, and may be so violent as to tender efficient writing impossible, from the pulsations jerking the fingers that hold the pen.
Face-There is a sensation of fulness and turgidity in the face which may be hot and flushed, especially about the eyes and forehead, or alternately flushed and pale. Sweat may collect on the face.
Eyes- Sparks or flashes of slight are seen before the eyes and objects seem to move up and down with every pulsation; the pupils are usually dilated and the eyes protrude.
The ears feel full:piercing, throbbing pain may be felt, ringing sounds are heard in the head or an audible pulse. The carotids throb violently, the neck feels constricted and all clothing must be loosened.
Digestion-In some provers these symptoms of the head and neck were accompanied with a swollen sensation in the lower lip, dryness of the mouth, great nausea and vomiting, which relieved the headache, pains in the hypochondria and rumbling in the bowels followed by copious loose stools.
Respiration- The breathing is accelerated, laboured and oppressed, as from a feeling of weight, the chest feels constricted, as if laced, there is sighing with desire frequently to take a deep breath.
Back and Limbs-The neck feels stiff and hot sensations run down t he back and between the scapulae, and pain is felt down the entire spine. The arms are heavy, numb and weary, pulsation is felt in the fingers, the lower limbs are weak and in th knees are pricking pains and a sensation that they will give way. All the extremities are cold, pale and perspiring.
Sleep is restless and there are confused dreams.
Mind-In some patients the headache was associated with confusion of mind, and such symptoms occurred as “on walking the streets all objects appeared strange, the houses did not seem to be in their right places, the way home seemed three times longer than usual,” or the pain may be so severe as to drive the patient frantic and he may attempt to jump out of the window. The effects of glonoin soon wear off, in most cases in a few hours; they are seldom felt beyond a couple of days; the headaches are the most persistent.
It will be evident from the above that the glonoin is homoeopathically related to states of cerebral hyperaemia of purely circulatory origin. There are a great many illness that arise from this condition and for which glonoin is the indicated remedy. For example, in plethoric women severe congested headaches may occur from sudden suppression of the menses, or from the after parturition. Hyperaemia of the brain may even cause convulsions in the puerperium and in other cause threaten or complicate apoplexy. Glonoin will help to relieve the hyperaemia and mitigate the condition. It will be useful for rushes of blood to the head occurring at the climacteric. The same congested state of the head may be brought on by exposure to a chill, or may result from cold air blowing on the head after the hair has been cut. Hyperaemia of the brain arising from sunstroke or a less degree of exposure to the heat of the sun’s rays, or from sitting under the heat of gas-light, or from becoming overheated before a fire or stove, is suitable for treatment by this drug. It is useful for congestive headaches when the arteries throb much, at any age, if the distinctive modalities of glonoin are present, and will often give relief with great rapidity. The modalities indicative of headaches suitable for treatment are the fulness and tension and the throbbing and bursting character of the pains, which are made worse by lying with the head low, by heat, jar or movement of the head, by noise, light, and the weight of head-covering, and the headaches are ameliorated by lying perfectly still with the head high in cool air, by external pressure and by a long sleep.
Circulatory-Glonoin is a remedy for some functional disturbances of the heart , such as palpitation and dyspnoea caused by slight exertion, especially by ascending. It is useful, administered antipathically, to reduce high arterial tension; its more prolonged action renders it more suitable than amyl nitrite for this purpose. It is also used; like amyl nitrite, in angina pectoris, but, as it act less rapidly, is not so suitable for the paroxysms, but the longer duration of its influence for the paroxysms, but the longer duration of its influence makes it more efficient, when given regularly, to prevent them.
Glonoin has been given with some success for neuralgia characterized by much throbbing, but the mode of its action is doubtful.
(1) Suddenness and rapidity of attacks.
(2) Bursting, expansive sensations.
(3) Throbbing and congestive fulness of the head.
(4) Aggravation from heat.
(5) Complaints brought on from exposure to heat; sunstroke.
(6) Loss of sense of location.
(7) Cerebral hyperaemia from suppressions; climacteric disturbances of the circulation.
(8) Florid, plethoric persons,. especially women]
From movement, jar, noise, light,. lying low, ascending, warmth, sun, damp weather, wine and stimulants, weight and tightness of clothing.
From lying with the head high, external pressure, cold air and cold applications, holding head with hands (headache).