Magnesia carbonica. [3(MgCo3) Mg (OH)2 4H2O.] Trituration. Magnesia muriatica. (MgCl2.) trituration. Solution. Magnesia phosphorica. (MgHPO4 7H2O.) Trituration. Magnesia sulphurica. (MgSO4 7H2O.) Trituration. Solution.
It has been shown by Meltzer that when the magnesium salts are injected hypodermically or intravenously they cause complete anaesthesia, resembling or intravenously they cause complete anaesthesia, resembling that of chloroform, and in fatal cases cause death by paralysis of the respiratory centre. This arises by direct action on the central nervous system. Calcium opposes the action of magnesium and immediate recovery follows injection of a calcium salt. A 25 per cent, solution of a magnesium salt when applied to a nerve trunk acts like cocaine, paralysing first the afferent and later the efferent fibres, and if injected into the intradural space causes complete anaesthesia of the lower part of the body. It has been used as a substitute for cocaine in surgical operations and in the treatment of tetanus; several cases of tetanus treated with subdural injections of magnesium (0.02 grm. per kilogram of body weight) have recovered.
Magnesium tends to lower the excitability of the vagus but has no other effect on the he4art. It reduces the irritability of the intestines and seems to have a depressing effect on the myoneural receptors in muscles. The above effects are not noticed when magnesium salts are taken by the mouth because absorption from the bowel is slow and excretion by the kidneys rapid, so that a sufficient quantity of the salt does not accumulate in the blood to produce them.
In the stomach and intestines the carbonate acts as an antacid, like the potassium and sodium alkalies, and being decomposed by the gastric juice gives off carbonic acid, which is sedative to the stomach. All the salts of magnesium act as purgatives in virtue of their salt action, magnesium sulphate being the most powerful in this respect.
General Effect.-Magnesium carbonate may be taken as typical of the group of magnesium salts, and it will be convenient to give in detail the symptoms produced by it, and interpolate in the narrative those peculiar to the other salts. Magnesium carbonate produces in the prover a state of great tiredness and sensitiveness , he feels worn out, his muscles are lax, the whole body feels tired and painful; if a baby his body smells sour (rheum.); he emaciates, exertion of any kind quickly wearies him, especially in the legs and feet, and yet he is restless, is both bodily and mentally sensitive, sensitive especially to touch and cold air, he is chilly and cannot wash in cold water, is irritable and anxious (hysterical with mag.mur.) and made worse by talking or mental exertion. Pain are neuralgic, lightning-like boring (mag. mur.). or cramping (mag. phos.), they are insupportable during repose and the patient must get up and walk about; they are relieved by warmth, aggravated by cold, cold air, touch and light pressure, and are usually relieved by hard pressure.
Head.-There are pressing or lancinating headaches, which are worse from mental exertion or when among many people, and congestions of blood to the head, which are relieved by wrapping up of the head (sil.) and by strong pressure. The hair falls out and by strong pressure. The hair falls out and there is dandruff on the scalp, which itches in wet and rainy weather.
Eyes.-The eyes are inflamed with burning and redness of the sclerotics, they water on looking at the light and the lids are agglutinated in the morning.
Ears.- There are hardness of hearing and whizzing, fluttering and buzzing in the right ear; inflammation of the external ear occurs with redness and great soreness. The deafness is a nervous deafness from nerve exhaustion and is worse in a noise and when the patient is tired.
Face.- Face-ache is a prominent symptom of all the magnesium salts, especially of the carbonate and phosphate; it is mainly on the right side and is of spasmodic, lightning-like character or is boring or cramping; it may be supra-orbital, infra-orbital, in the malar bone, in the lower jaw or in the teeth; it is worse from cold and better from warmth, comes on principally at night and drives the patient our of bed to walk about the room for relief. The teeth are decayed at the roots and sides, in the dentine rather than the enamel, but neuralgia may occur in perfectly sound teeth; it is worse from eating and from drawing cold air into the mouth and also from a change of weather to damp and cold. it is especially apt to come on during pregnancy and menstruation.
The complexion is pale and earthy or alternately pale and red.
Digestion.- The mouth is dry, the taste bitter or sour, the saliva tinged with blood, soreness of the tongue and inside of the cheeks makes eating painful, burning in the throat and a sensation as if an awn were lodged in the causes a constant inclination to swallow, there is a desire for fruit and acids, a craving for meat and thirst for water. Mag. mur. created an appetite for sweets. There is a sore pain in the stomach which is sensitive to pressure. With mag. phos. hiccough is very frequent, and with mag. mur. there are eructations, regurgitations, nausea and faintness. Milk is not digested well and appears in the stools in white putty-like masses. Eating warm food causes anxiety and warmth through the body, especially the head.
The abdomen is distended with flatulence which cause colicky pains which, with mag. Phosphorus, are extremely severe, are cutting or cramping, radiate from the navel, are relieved by bending double and pressing the abdomen hard with the hand and by the application of warmth (coloc.).
With mag. mur. there is tenderness in the right hypochondrium and enlargement and hardness of the liver. Colic is relieved by passing flatus or stool. The stools are sour- smelling, grass-green in colour, or like the “scum on a frog pone.” frothy, or with white floating lumps like tallow (phos.). The mag. phos. and mag. sulph. stools are watery and light brown, or may be bloody and dysenteric. Constipation may be present with frequent, ineffectual urging and small stools. With mag. mur. the constipated stools are characteristically knotty. like sheep’s dung, hard, crumbling at the anus, and may be covered with mucus and streaks of blood.
The urine is increased and may pass involuntarily while walking or on rising from a seat (mag.carb.), or it can only be passed by straining down with the abdominal muscles (mag.mur.), or it passes only by drops with a sensation of something always remaining behind; these symptoms indicate paresis of the muscles of the bladder, either of the detrusor, the sphincter, or both.
Sexual.-The menses are late and scanty or premature and copious, the flow is acrid, dark and pitch-like, it comes most profusely during the night, more when at rest than when moving about, and in the intervals between the pains, not during them; it is accompanied by bearing down and dragging pains in the abdomen and groins which are relieved by hard pressure. There are various concomitants of menstruation, such as fainting, headache, sore throat and toothache; with mag.mur. there may be hysterical manifestations; with all the salts there is great weakness. White corrosive leucorrhoea occurs and is preceded by cramps in the abdomen, which extend to the thighs, or there may be leucorrhoea after every stool (mag.mur.).
Respiration and Circulation.- A spasmodic cough occurs at night from tickling in the larynx; in the morning there is expectoration of thin or of tough mucus or of dark blood, tasting salt. There may be a sensation of soreness in the chest and over the cardiac region, and with mag.mur. palpitation, which comes on white sitting and disappears on moving.
Limbs.-Rheumatic pains are felt in the limbs, especially in the shoulders, they are worse at night and better from heat. The skin of the hands chaps, and blisters spread on the hands and fingers ; the legs are restless and cramps occur in the calves at night. Sensation like streaks of electricity coursing down the limbs and leaving the muscles sore are felt with mag.phos. The limbs generally are weak and relaxed, especially the feet, when seated; neuralgic, lightning-like pains occur and are better from movement. Shocks are felt through the body.
Skin.- The skin is dry and itches much ; nodosities from under the skin, accompanied with shooting pains; nettle-rash, with much swelling of hands and feet, may appear; blood-boils form.
Sleep.- Sleep at night is unrefreshing and the patient is as fatigued in the morning as before going to sleep in the evening, he has mane anxious dreams, of fire, flood, &c., from which he wakes frightened; he wakes at 2 or 3 a.m. and cannot fall asleep again. There is inclination to sleep during the day.
Chill, Fever, &c.- The patient is usually chilly and there is also external coldness in the evening, which goes off gradually in bed and is followed by internal heat and restlessness but with aversion to uncover. The sweat is greasy, sore smelling and stains yellow.
Digestion.- Magnesia carbonica has been used largely for the gastric disorders of puny children who waste, refuse milk and get pain in the stomach if they take it, who have sour vomit, colic and diarrhoea of watery stools in which are jelly-like lumps that sink to the bottom of the vessel and are of the colour of white clay, and frothy green matter, described as like frog-pond scum, floating on the top. The stools smell sour, as do the eructations and vomit. There may be aphthae and sore mouth. In tuberculous children and those of tuberculous parentage there may be an inordinate craving for meat, and this would be an additional indication for the drug.
Magnesia phosphorica is pre-eminently a remedy for severe abdominal colic, with or without diarrhoea, when the pains are of a cutting or cramping character and are relieved by hard pressure and warmth. With the acid dyspepsia of mag.carb. there is often associated neuralgia of the face, and for this affection also the drug is a good remedy.
Face.-The distinguishing features of the facial neuralgia are lightning-like pains, aggravated at night, and great restlessness, so that the patient cannot lie still but must get up and walk about the room and obtains a certain amount of relief by doing so. neuralgic toothaches having the same modalities are cured by magnesia; they often occur during pregnancy and menstruation, or may be caused by cold winds, draught, or filling of the teeth. Dr.Clarke has related the case of a tumour of the malar bone and antrum on the right side, in a sea captain cured by magnes. carb., the indications for prescribing it were its site, extreme restlessness with the pain and great sensitiveness to cold winds and cold weather.
Sexual.- Magnesia carbonica is a remedy for dysmenorrhoea when the flow follows the pains, comes on mainly during rest, ceases during movement and is dark, like pitch. It is useful for menorrhagia when the flow is worse at night in be, also for leucorrhoea preceded by cramps in the abdomen, but mag. mur. is the salt most indicated for this, as it is for dysmenorrhoea in hysterical subjects, with fainting and other concomitants, and for metrorrhagia with backache relieved by hard pressure to the back.
Liver.- Magnesia muriatica is also the most suitable magnesium salt for hepatic derangements with hard, enlarged and sensitive liver, distended abdomen and constipation; the breathe is offensive and the face yellow. The constipation is of hard, conglomerated, small balls, knotty or crumbling at the anus, as if burnt. It has been useful in cirrhosis and in ascites from hepatic disease.
Ears.- Magnesia carbonica curative in some cases of nervous deafness, worse from noise, anxiety and fatigue.
Eyes.- it has removed the cicatrices left by corneal ulcers. magnesia phosphorica has been found useful in cases of strabismus, nystagmus and ptosis associated with photophobia, lachrymation and twitching of the eyelids.
The phosphate is an excellent remedy for spasmodic hiccough and valuable in spasmodic retention of urine from passing a catheter, for violent spasmodic cough and for tic doloureux, with twitching of the facial muscles; it causes more spasm than any other magnesium salt. It will relieve gastralgia and also the burning pains, persistent vomiting and hiccough of gastric cancer.
Head.- Mag.mur. is a remedy for neuralgic headaches, especially round the eyes; the head feels as if it would burst, is worse from motion and cold air, and better from wrapping the head up tightly; these headaches are often associated with the liver or uterine complaints for which mag.mur. is indicated.
It is a remedy for melancholia and for conditions of brain fag, as in children who are too tired to study and have headache from attempting to apply themselves to mental work.
Magnesia sulphurica has been very successfully used in material doses in bacillary dysentery.
(1) Neuralgic pains with restlessness, necessitating movement, worse at night, and from cold, better from warmth; toothache.
(2) Sourness : of breath, eructations, taste, stools, sweat.
(3) Colic relieved by warmth and pressure (m.phos.).
(4) Menstrual flow diminishes or ceases on movement, more profuse by night than day.
(5) Stools : green, sour, frog-spawn (mag. carb.): knotty, hard, sheep dung (mag.mur.); watery, brown, occasionally dysenteric (mag. Sulph.).
(6) Acid dyspepsia of children, with green stools and colic.
(7) Leucorrhoea after menses, preceded by colic, worse lying down.
(8) Worn out, exhausted, sensitive people. Women and children.
From rest, bed, 2 to 3 a.m. (sleeplessness), evening, night, uncovering, eating warm food, milk, cold, cold water, draught, wet and cold weather, every third week, touch, side lain on, smoking (headache), sea air and sea bathing (mag.mur.).
From warm air, warmth in general, during menses, pressure (headache, colic, menstrual flow, backache), moving about (neuralgia).