Oil of Turpentine. Obtained from various species of conifers. The various oils of Turpentine differ in physical and chemical properties according to their different sources. French Turpentine is obtained from Pinus maritima, Venetian from Pinus larix, American from Pinus taeda. Preparation: Dilutions with pure alcohol.
Intense excitement of the nervous system. Anxiety; (after one hour). Very distressing anxiety, with great weakness on going to bed (first day). Facility of thought. Dulness of mind; inability to fix the attention long upon anything (after one hour). Slight stupefaction. Perfectly insensible (after three hours). Comatose.
Vertigo, pressure and fullness in the head, threatening apoplexy; after the lapse of three hours, the cerebral irritation abated in consequence of a spontaneous rejection of the oil (second day). Slight vertigo. Dizziness, with nausea and diminished appetite (second day). Momentary vertigo, even to falling down, whereby it became black before the eyes (after six, and fifty-eight hours). The patient was supposed to be dying, but was found to be intoxicated by a free dose of Turpentine. I have seen large doses produce temporary intoxication, and sometimes a kind of trance, lasting twenty-four hours, without, however, any subsequent bad effects. The intoxicating effect of wine was very much heightened by oil of Turpentine, especially the vertigo.
Soon seized with all the symptoms of intoxication; from evening till morning he lay drenched in sweat, in a state of stupor, from which he did not awake until next morning, very weak, and with his head in a state of bewilderment; when undertaking to stand still, he staggered about; he was relieved by a profuse discharge of urine, which had the odor violets. General Head. Head dull.
Fullness in the head (first evening). Extraordinary fullness and pressure in the head, so that the patient constantly cried out, “My head, my head,” and an attack of apoplexy was apprehended.
Headache. General dull headache, with colic, lasting three days.
Tearing, but not very violent, headache alternately till evening, at one time disappearing, at another returning. Tearing headache, extending towards the right side, lasting one day. Slight tearing headache (after one hour). Suffered from headache until the next day. Violent pain in the head. Pressure in the whole head.
Pressive headache in the whole head, with qualmishness, now disappearing, now returning. Heavy pressive headache over the left eye, lasting about half an hour, while sitting and during mental work. A stitch, as with a knife, in the forehead (after twelve hours). Tearing from the forehead out towards the right ear, which is very hot, while the left ear is cold to touch. A smarting-tickling pain in the left temporal region, coming and going, in the evening in bed, which disappears on rubbing (after sixty hours). A transient stitch in the mastoid process behind the right ear (after two hours).
Eyes sunken. Eyes Sunk and surrounded by a dark ring. Contracted pupils. Pupils violently contracted (after three hours). Black points and spots float for a moment before the eye, when walking in the open air, not when looking at a distance, with very transient sensation of vertigo (after two hours and a half).
Ringing and singing in the ears, as from the ticking of a watch, increasing for four hours (after six days).
A peculiar kind of coryza, without disturbance of the general condition, and without the usual accompanying symptoms, and without any premonition, consisting of a thin watery liquid, at times from one, at times from both nostrils, lasting two days (after three to four days). Violent nosebleed.
Spasm of the face, beginning under the chin, affecting the face, even to the cheek-bones, with nervous drawings in the cheeks; these symptoms are felt by the prover, but there is no visible contraction of the face; these symptoms pass off, to be succeeded by a supraorbital headache, as if those parts were bruised.
Countenance anxious. Countenance anxious, shrunk, and pale.
Countenance pallid (after three hours). Face very pale (after one hour). Redness of the face. Drawing in the bones, in the right half of the face and in the forehead, in the evening (fourth day). Lips could scarcely be moved.
Drawing in the teeth (first day). (The gum, which burnt, as if sore, nearly every morning, was loose, painful to pressure, and bled easily on brushing the teeth, became entire well after a few days), (curative action). Burning in the tip of the tongue; the papillae very prominent (first day). Breath and perspiration tainted with a Turpentine odor for upwards of a week. Breath cold. Phlyctenules in the mouth. Some burning in the mouth while taking the drug. Sensation of dryness of all the mucous membranes.
Scraping in the throat frequently provokes hacking cough, in the evening (first day). Scraping sensation in the throat. Sensation of warmth and scraping in the pharynx and stomach. An agreeable coolness in the throat, immediately. No power over deglutition (after three hours).
Appetite and Thirst. Hunger and thirst (after one hour and a half). Sudden violent desire for rue (to eat up on bread and butter), of which he had already eaten freely, in the evening, during vigorous and enjoyable mental work (after fifteen hours).
She had less appetite than usual; food of which she was most fond was not relished, and though she was very glad of it, yet she could eat very little. Loss of appetite; for two days. Anorexia.
Very great thirst and appetite (after one hour). Thirst. Violent thirst. Eructations. Rancid eructations. Nausea and vomiting.
Nausea (first day). Nausea, yet inability to vomit, owing to excessive weakness. Meat nauseated her for more than a week.
Slight transient nausea, in the morning. Inclination to vomit.
Vomiting. Vomiting four or five times (after one hour). Vomited freely (after a draught of warm water and melted butter).
Vomiting of yellowish mucus. Vomiting of mucus. Stomach. Loud rumbling in the stomach and intestines, immediately after dinner; the pain extended into the side. Inflammation of the stomach and intestines, so that the slight touch on the abdomen, especially on the epigastric region, could not be endured (second and following days). The symptoms of gastro-enteritis made their appearance (second day). Heat in the stomach. Burning in the stomach. Sensation between pain and burning in the pit of the stomach (after half an hour). Griping beneath the pit of the stomach, with nausea and eructations (after one hour). It seems as though he had swallowed a small ball, which remained in the pit of the stomach. Pressure in the pit of the stomach after eating, as if the food had been swallowed too hastily. Slight pressive pain in a small spot in the pit of the stomach, relieved by stooping, lying, and on deep breathing (after half an hour).
Pressure in the stomach. Pressure as from without in the pit of the stomach. Pressure in the stomach becoming slight nausea, relieved by eructations. Pressure in the stomach, in the evening in bed (lying on the left side), which prevents his falling asleep, relieved and gradually removed after the emission of flatus, while lying on the right side (after seventeen hours).
Hypochondria. Griping in the hypochondriac region. Pressive and cutting pain in the left hypochondriac region, while sitting, disappearing on motion. Violent burning pressure in the hypochondria. Burning in the right hypochondrium (after seventeen hours). Umbilicus and Sides. The umbilical region seems retracted, cold, just as though a cold, round plate were pressed against it, while lying down after dinner. Sticking and griping in the right side soon after an evacuation of the bowels. Slight pressure and drawing in the left side of the upper abdomen.
Transient, jerking sticking in the left side of the upper abdomen, in the evening while urinating (after thirty-six hours).
Tearing cutting in the left side of the abdomen, in the evening, in bed, while lying on the right side; afterwards also on the right side. General Abdomen. Abdomen very much distended, after eating food which he relished. Distension of the abdomen, as after a dose of salts, bitter water, or the like. Fullness in the abdomen, as if he had eaten too much. Feeling of distension in the abdomen, as from flatus, soon obliging him to rest (after three-quarters of an hour). Rumbling in the abdomen. Rumbling and gurgling in the abdomen, followed by colic in the evening.
Rumbling and gurgling in the abdomen in the morning. Rumbling and griping in the abdomen, and thin stool. Meteorismus. Heaviness in the abdomen after the midday nap. Violent irritation of the bowels. Colic (second day). Griping in the abdomen (after a quarter of an hour). Colic, with violent movements in the intestines. She complained of constant colic in the whole abdomen, extending thence into the legs, both during rest and motion. Violent pain in the bowels, but no discharge from them.
Violent and continued abdominal pain, causing the patient to be doubled up. Sensation, as if the intestines were drawn back into the spinal column (after one hour). Pressure beneath the diaphragm, which extended from the left to the right side, after eating. Pressure in the abdomen, with a feeling of heaviness and emission of flatus. Feeling as though a violent purging would ensue. Slight cutting pain in the upper abdomen (after one hour and a half). Feeling of coldness in the abdomen as though uncovered and naked, after dinner. Hypogastrium and Iliac Region. Cutting in the lower abdomen. Cutting in the lower abdomen with distension of some parts, as if a hernia would protrude. Feeling as if the pubes were suddenly forced asunder.
Transient tearing pain in the symphysis pubis. The inguinal glands were painful with slight swelling in the evening, while sitting (after thirty-six hours). Cutting drawing from the abdominal ring into the left testicle, disappearing while stooping. Constant more or less severe dragging and cutting in the right groin. Movement and working in the inguinal region, as though a hernia would protrude, especially while sitting with the legs outstretched. Drawing in the groins and thighs. Transient cutting drawing in the right groin. Cramp, dragging, and pressure from within outward in the groin, as though a hernia would protrude, now in the right, now in the left groin, disappearing while walking (after twenty-four, thirty-six, and sixty hours, and after three weeks).
Burning in he anus. Violent burning and crawling in the anus, with a sensation as if worms were creeping out. Burning in the anus after stool. Slight burning in the anus while standing.
Tickling and burning in the anus. Itching burning in the anus after a stool, from blind hemorrhoids. Urging to stool without result. Pressure and stool after eight hours, as though another evacuation would follow. In the evening he is obliged to go to stool for the fourth time, but without result.
Diarrhoea. Hypercatharsis. Quickly purged (after second dose).
Diarrhoea, six to eight times a day, with evacuation of half a vesselful to tapeworm. At five o’clock in the afternoon, a gentle purging evacuation. Evacuations thin, yellow, with discharge of tapeworm and round worms. Stool thin, greenish yellow, smelling of Turpentine. Several thin yellow stools, with discharge of tapeworm. Frequent soft stools. A pasty evacuation, with colic and burning in the anus (first day). Faeces of a dark-chestnut brown, and unnaturally dry. Two stools in the evening (second day). Constipation. Evacuation of the bowels diminished, the stool was harder than usual. Stool diminished in quantity (instead evacuation he had two). Stool scanty, hard. Constipation with distended abdomen. Obstinate constipation for four days. The bowels remained inactive until he had taken eight ounces of the compound of Senna, with ten grains of Calomel; the evacuations, when passed, were extremely fetid, black and slimy, but gave no smell of turpentine.
Kidneys and Bladder. Symptoms of genuine urethritis, with extremely painful erections as in chordee. Heaviness and pains in the region of the kidneys (second day). Pressure in the kidneys in the morning while sitting, disappearing on motion. Transient drawing in the right kidney, extending thence into the right hip. Violent burning-drawing pains in the region of the kidneys (second to sixth day). Pain in the kidneys and diabetes, and dried hydropical in twenty-five days. Pressive pain in the left kidney (after ten hours). Inflammation of the bladder supervened. Spasmodic pain in the bladder while sitting, frequently recurring. Violent twinging and cutting in the bladder, which alternates with a similar pain just above the navel, less when walking in the open air, worse during rest (after two days). A transient movement in the region of the bladder during a stool, as if the bladder were suddenly distended and bent forward. Burning in the bladder, and when urinating also in the urethra. Urethra. Burning during micturition, frequently very violent. Burning in the urethra. Slight burning in the urethra while urinating (first day). Micturition and Urine.
Inclined to urinate more frequently; each time the urine was scanty. Increased amount of urine (first day); (second and third days). Profuse discharge from the urinary organs. Diminished micturition. Urine diminished in quantity. She is now incontinent of urine, and will probably continue so to the end of her days.
Dysuria. Strangury. Strangury, bloody urine, and its total suppression. Most distressing strangury, more violent than I ever before witnessed, and attended with a greater loss of blood.
A great degree of soreness remained in the bladder for several days. Complete suppression of urine. ( Effects from use for stone. ) Bloody urine. Urine very scanty, red, sometimes bloody, or else copious and light colored. Urine scanty and bloody, and had a strong terebinthinate smell. Urine very scanty and red, or else, very copious and light colored, but in both circumstances smelling of violets. The urine smells strongly of violets in a high degree, the secretion is somewhat increased.
The urine has the peculiar odor of violets, but of natural color.
Voided a small quantity of urine, denoting the effects of the turpentine (soon); in the afternoon, the urine presented more powerfully the odor of turpentine. The urine is clear, but on standing becomes turbid, with a reddish-white sediment (second day). The urine deposits a thick slimy, whitish-yellow sediment, has a wine color and smells strongly of violets. The urine deposits a slimy sediment (after twelve hours). Sugar in the urine.
Violent spasmodic drawing in the left testicle and along the course of the left spermatic cord (after two hours and a half).
Drawing in the left testicle while sitting (after three quarters of an hour). Transient burning in the posterior portion of the right testicle. An emission at night (first day). Tearing in the mons veneris. Menstruation delayed for two days, and more scanty than usual.
The mucous membrane of the air-passages becomes dry, as in the first stage of catarrh. Distressing prickling in the trachea, as in commencing bronchitis. Voice. Voice gone. Cough and Expectoration. Cough, as from a foreign substance in the trachea, with a kind of cramp in the larynx, as in whooping cough; inspiration in six or seven catches; the cramp soon became so violent that he could scarcely inspire, followed by scraping in the throat (soon). (The short dry cough was aggravated, especially while lying down after eating). Expectoration streaked with blood. Respiration. Increase of the respiratory movements. Respiration hurried, short, and anxious. She complained of short breath. Difficult respiration, the lungs seemed over-distended. Breathing labored (second day). Breathing stertorous (after three hours).
Auscultation disclosed mucous rales, and minute crepitation through both lungs. Spastic contraction of the muscles of the chest and neck, in the evening (first day). Sensation of soreness in the lower part of the chest, lasting a long time and very marked. Pressive pain behind the sternum. Burning in the chest, along the sternum, gradually extending over the whole chest, and disappearing with transient stitches at both nipples (after warm drinks); (after three minutes). Transient itching pain in the left pectoralis major muscle.
Heart and Pulse
Precordia. Frightful oppression the precordial region (soon). A feeling of warmth at the heart while sitting, in the evening (of which she had noticed nothing during the whole day, though she had been in constant motion), so that she was obliged to yawn a great deal, with collection of water in the mouth (after fourteen hours). Heart’s Action. Palpitations; in the evening (first day).
Acceleration of the circulation. Pulse. Hard rapid pulse. Pulse rapid and weak (after three hours). Pulse and respiration quickened (in ten minutes). Pulse quick, small, compressible, and almost imperceptible, but regular. Pulse thready and scarcely perceptible. Pulse almost imperceptible. Pulse rose from 65 to 86. Pulse 69 (before talking); fuller, 75 (after five minutes); small, hard, 80 (after half an hour); small, hard, 82 (after one hour); small, irregular, 86 (after one hour and a half); small, weak, 92 (after three hours); weak, irregular, and intermittent, in the evening (after twelve hours).
Neck and Back
Gradual painful drawing from the nape of the neck up into the occiput, which then extended to the forehead (after one hour).
Severe pain in back. Pressive pain in the back, which extended up to between the shoulders, and there became a throbbing. Drawing pain in the back while sitting, especially in the evening.
Drawing in the dorsal and lumbar muscles, with a sensation of heaviness and indolence on moving in the open air. She complains of drawing pain in the small of her back. Pain and increased warmth in the lumbar region, over the kidneys, and also in the hypogastric region; these places became sensitive to pressure.
Heaviness in the limbs. Acute pain in all the joints. Soon after she partially lost the use of her right arm, and of her left leg.
She could only advance the arm from the body a short distance.
But little use of the right arm. He had no control over his hand and arm while attempting to write. She could raise the shoulder blade and bend the arm in the elbow, but the hand fell with a jerk into the position in which she wished to place it. Pain as from a sprain in the muscles of the left upper arm (third day).
Drawing in the bones of the upper arms in the morning (second and third days). Trembling of the hands (after one and a half hours).
Fingers insensible and asleep in the evening (first day).
She limped with the left foot and dragged the leg in walking.
Tottering gait (after one and a half hours). Drawing and tearing in the right hip-joint. Drawing in both thighs, along the course of the large vessels. Drawing in the thighs, with colic, as if he menses would appear, though she had had them eight days previously. Drawing in outer side of the right thigh, as if in the fascia lata. Drawing along the thighs. Drawing paralytic pain in the left thigh (after thirty-six hours). When standing or walking his feet were placed far apart. Pains in the feet. The ankle-joint was stiff.
Symptoms of general excitement. Condition resembling intoxication. When dressing or undressing, though his feet were placed very far apart, his body swayed forwards and backwards.
The symptoms resembled those of malignant cholera. The lightness on walking is absent, the muscles seem stiff, he walks slowly and bent over like an old man (after twelve hours). Remarkable stiffness of the whole body (second day). Occasional subsultus (after three hours). Slightly convulsed. At intervals of ten or fifteen minutes, violent convulsive paroxysms occurred, producing the most frightful opisthotonos. Weakness through the day (first day). Sense of general weakness. Tired and unable to walk; staggered and fell. Weakness and prostration, which unfitted him for every work for two or three days. Very transient weakness.
Strength so completely exhausted, that the limbs on being raised fell heavily back by their own weight. Muscles relaxed (after three hours). Prostration. The whole body feels sick, with vertigo and dulness of the head. Felt faint. Fainted away.
Neuralgic pain in various parts of the body, especially in one or other of the lower extremities. During the two previous years he had been unable to ride on horseback.
Applied to the skin, turpentine produces rubefaction, and sometimes a vesicular eruption. A scarlet eruption on the skin has been observed to succeed the internal administration. Scarlet eruption broke out upon the body (after five hours, second day).
Often there suddenly appears upon the skin erythematous, papular, often vesicular eruptions, analogous to those caused by certain forms of sea-food. Nettle rash eruption. Herpes on the lips not infrequent. An exanthema, like scarlet rash, breaks out at first on the affected knee, extending down to the ankle, then breaks out on the chest and on the right foot, and gradually extends over the largest part of the body, though it disappears within a day (after five hours). At 8.45, ten drops of Terebinth., that had been standing in water at Fahr., were dropped upon the elbow; it was followed by two successive applications of 10 drops each, after which there was a sensation of some warmth in the bend of the elbow; again 10 drops were applied twice, and there was some itching on the spot. Again 10 drops, at 9 o’clock again 10 drops; the water had now a temperature of 122; this was followed by some redness of the bend of the elbow, and the blood vessels of the corium were distended. The itching increased. The oil flowed down both sides and spread over the internal condyle. The concentration of the oil at one point increased and accelerated its action. After fifteen minutes the 70 drops had already caused considerable redness. Increasing itching provoked scratching, which, however, was avoided on account of this increasing hyperaemia. At 9.12 the itching was associated with some burning. 5 drops were repeatedly applied after 9 o’clock, between 9 and 9.5 as many as eleven times. At 9.15 the whole elbow was somewhat red; on the side over which a large part of the oil had flowed there was considerable itching. In the bend of the elbow the burning increased. The dropping was continued, and at 9.20 the redness had extended transversely across the middle of the bend of the elbow, and the burning increased, and the dropping now became somewhat painful; the part began to burn acutely and fine stitches were felt. The dropping was continued. At 9.25, sticking burning, which increased and became very acute. The redness now spread over the whole bend of the elbow, and the skin became sensitive to touch.
By 9.30, 140 drops had been applied to the elbow. The burning was quite severe. Every new dropping caused increase of the burning.
The breath from the mouth was felt more acutely over the bend of the elbow than over other parts, and caused transient burning.
9.31, burning continued and was quite violent, the reddened cutis was swollen, and when brushed with a feather or the finger, was decidedly more numb than natural. 9.34, the burning increased, there appeared a bright rosy redness with some swelling, numbness, burning stinging pain, and painfulness to touch. 9.40, very violent burning stinging in the whole bend of the elbow, extending also over the whole inner half of the joint to the olecranon process. 9.43, excessive itching and burning, as from the heat of a fire. 9.45, dropped the last five drops, followed by increase of the burning and stinging, with somewhat diffused burning, which was in some degree pulsative; associated with a feeling of pressure and tension over the whole surface, which was red, and sometimes a deep sensation of pulsation. At times stitches were felt over the whole surface, at other times only here and there in the reddened place. The stitches increased to a certain point, and then diminished. There was also at times a sensation of soreness like a smarting. 9.50, the rosy redness and burning continued, with stitches and increased heat; the thermometer was 98.3 Fahr., against 95 in the right elbow. 10 o’clock, the burning continued, the redness was very great, with swelling of the cutis, sensation of heat, numbness, increased sensitiveness, swelling of the hair-follicles; the burning was worse on the inner side of the joint, and pressure caused pain, followed by aggravation of the burning. On the second day there was still some redness, the sensation of touch was not yet normal, and the skin was somewhat sensitive, with increased warmth. On the third day, after some pain during the night, the skin of the elbow was found to be spotted with circumscribed dark redness of the bend of the elbow. On the fourth day there were dark-red spots, some of which were intensely red. The appearance in general was similar to extravasation of blood; in the evening of the same day there were found to be at least five spots in which the epidermis had been completely raised by exudation, and touch caused sore pain. Further account of this erythema is unnecessary. Desquamation and recovery followed. General increased sensibility of the skin of the extremities, especially of the lower extremities, at times associated with very acute pains, followed the course of the large nerves. Burning itching in the skin of the right groin.
He became very drowsy, and found it very difficult to keep awake.
The day-nap did not interfere with his night’s rest. Sleepiness in the evening (first day). Unusual sleepiness. Sleeplessness and excitement. Cannot fall asleep for two hours at night, and tosses about the bed. Restless sleep, frequent waking and tossing about, for over a week. Awoke alarmed, but unable to cry out (after two or three hours). (The former habitual dreams disappeared). He had scarcely fallen asleep when he was awakened by nightmare. Anxious dream.
Chilliness. Chilliness (after half an hour). Violent chill (after one hour and a half). Extremely cold surface. Incessant tossing about the bed, on account of violent cold. Extremities and surface generally cold (after three hours). Heat. Fever. Feverish heat over the whole body. General rise of the animal temperature.
It causes heat, accompanied by sweating of the lower limbs, especially in that affected, and along the course of the nerve affected; it is remarkable that the more violent the pain the more probable it is that it will prove of service. Warmth of the skin. Skin hot, sweaty. Heat of the trunk (after one hour and a half). Sweat. Copious perspiration. Profuse perspiration on the lower extremities, in the evening in bed. Cold and clammy perspiration all over the body.
(Morning), While sitting pain in the kidneys; nausea.
(Evening), Jerking sticking in left side of upper abdomen; cutting sticking in abdomen.
(After eating), Pressure in stomach; rumbling in stomach and intestines; pressure beneath diaphragm.
(Lying down after eating), Cough.