Synonym. Sulphate of Quinine. Common name. Quinine, Preparation. Triturations.
The physiological action of Quinine is not definitely settled. Probably its chief center of action is upon the base of the brain and the ganglionic nerve centers, yet it is equally probable that the cerebro-spinal system is primarily affected. From these centers of action the drug exerts its power nearly every organ and tissue of the body. The blood becomes hyperfibrinized, and the number of red corpuscles are diminished, thus causing leucocythaemia and anaemia, resulting in general debility and prostration, for which it is a true homoeopathic remedy. The force and frequency of the heart’s action are at first increased, afterward diminished and enfeebled, and the temperature of the body reduced, the vaso-motor nerve centers being at first stimulated and afterward paralyzed. Hyperaemia of local parts, bordering upon inflammation, may be set up: the cerebrum being especially involved in this action, as is evinced by the characteristic brain symptoms so commonly manifest. Thus Quinine is homoeopathic to inflammations and fever, as well as to the conditions of debility which result there from. The likeness of its pathogenesis to those conditions resulting from malarial poisoning is sufficient to explain its successful use in the treatment of intermittent and pernicious fever, in which it may, be, and often is, the true homoeopathic remedy. The spleen becomes enlarged and hypertrophied, its blood-making properties being destroyed, thus aiding in the production of an anaemic condition. This is accomplished through the profound action had upon the pneumogastric nerve, by which also the liver becomes paretic and congested, causing jaundice, and giving rise to many functional disturbances of the digestive tract. The supra-orbital branch of the trigeminus is especially affected by Quinine, which causes hyperaesthesia and severe neuralgic pains, without necessarily having associated there malaria or other disturbing influences, as is usually the case when other local nerves are affected. Quinine causes blindness and deafness, and produces stupor, delirium, and even convulsions. The most important feature of the action of Quinine is the intermittent character of the attacks which it produces, and the general resemblance of its effects to those which result from malaria. Dr. Allen well remarks that while Quine “arrests the development of low forms of vegetable life, and especially of the poison of marsh malaria, it rarely antidotes the effects of the poison on the system”; and for this reason the drug is very seldom useful in the treatment of the many phases of chronic malarial poisoning, or even in acute cases after the effects of the poison are well developed.
Mind Buoyancy, excited state; later despondency. Feeling of impending evil (Alumina, Anacardium, Arsenicum, Calcarea c.); anxiety. Memory “muddled”, thoughts not clear.
Head Whirling in head like a mill wheel. Vertigo with buzzing in ears, difficult breathing and sickness at stomach. Heaviness and confusion of head. Violent headache; throbbing, pressive, or tearing pains in forehead had temples. Frontal headache; a shaking pain; feels every step; beings toward noon with chill. Intermittent neuralgia at regular hours. Intermittent headache; violent throbbing at regular hours. Intermittent headache; violent throbbing, with vertigo and heat in face; involuntary closing of eyelids from prostration. Headache; pain not severe, but day after day and week after day and week the brain is one continued ache. Distension of veins about head and neck.
Eyes Disk and retina very anaemic; disk looks dry. Dim vision, as from a net or from a fog (caust., Phosphorus, Mercurius, Pulsatilla, Sulphur). Pupils dilated (Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium). Eyes very sensitive to light (Aconite, Belladonna, Cinchona); lachrymation; in the full glare of light. Bright light and sparks before the eyes. (Cyclamen, Mercurius). Neuralgic twitches in supra and infra-orbital nerves; generally periodic. Intermittent strabismus; child would squint one day and be entirely well the next. Conjunctiva injected; lids red and swollen, pupils contracted; lachrymation; extreme photophobia; tearing in orbit, and headache, with thirst and fever; all appearing every second day. Black spot, size of pin’s head, moves with right eye. Blindness. Twitching of the eyelids (Agaricus). Severe supraorbital neuralgia (Belladonna, Cinchona, Spigelia); occurring daily.
Ears Ringing and roaring in the ears (Aconite, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Cinchona, Sulphur); also with deafness. Buzzing in ears.
Nose Violent epistaxis of young persons.
Face Pale; suffering; sickly; puffy; earthy; oedematous. Aching about left malar bone. Jaundiced hue of face and conjunctiva. Neuralgia of left lower jaw (Cinchona, Spigelia). Facial neuralgia; morning periodicity; commences under eye, and extends into and around its.
Mouth Mouth dry. Thirst, mostly only during sweat Tongue white (Antim crud., Bryonia, Mercurius); thick yellow fur; yellow at root (merc. iod.); Flabby (Mercurius). Saliva increased (Cinchona, Mercurius, Iodi., Nitr. ac.). Excessive repugnance to all food. Taste pasty, flat bitter. Speech disturbed or difficult (Causticum, Gelsemium, Hyoscyamus).
Stomach Anorexia, or loss of appetite. Eructations; pyrosis; hiccough; nausea; vomiting. PRessure in pit of stomach. Pressure in stomach after eating, followed by cutting pains in abdomen. Dyspepsia or cardialgia, with nausea, loathing of food, eructations, bitter taste, vomiting of bile.
Abdomen Pain in region of liver shortly before going to bed. Painful enlargement of spleen after intermittent; also with dropsy (Arsenicum). Dull pain in region of spleen, disappearing on pressure; also stitches in spleen. Distension of abdomen, with much rumbling and discharge of flatus (Carb v., Cinchona, Lycopodium, Sulphur). Violent cutting, colicky pains, especially in region of transverse colon; also after eating. Relaxed condition of digestive organs of old people.
Stool Dysentery; the fever intermits, or the evacuations exhale a gangrenous odor (Arsenicum). Nightly diarrhoea. Constipation or soft stools, followed by weakness. Stools pappy, frothy, frequent with much wind.
Urine Deposit of a straw-yellow, granular, or of a brick-red sediment. Urine turbid, high turbid, high-colored, and of a strong, urinous odor (Benz. ac.). Haematuria; albuminuria.
Female Organs Passive metrorrhagia, with diminished irritability.
Respiratory Organs Cough caused by tickling in the larynx and bronchi. Breathing increased, slow, irregular (Digit.). Oppression of the chest, can scarcely breathe from weakness. Stitches and sticking pains in sides of chest (Bryonia, Kali carb.); intercostal neuralgia.
Heart and Pulse Praecordial anxiety; palpitation; heart feeble; general prostration (Aconite, Arsenicum, Digit.). Pulse full and large; weak, trembling, scarcely perceptible (Aconite, Arsenicum).
Neck and Back Sensitiveness of last cervical and first dorsal vertebrae to pressure; also of dorsal vertebrae. Third dorsal painful to touch, with oppression of the chest (Phosphorus). Periodical pains in back; returning about midnight, and extending into head; spinal irritation.
Limbs Weakness; trembling; power of will limbs seem greatly hampered. Hands cold, and cold seat. Inflammatory rheumatism; acute, articular; fever, remitting or intermitting; joints exquisitely sensitive (Cinchona). Heaviness and aching in all the ,limbs, and especially in joints. Sciatic neuralgia on right side.
Generalities Restlessness;excessive sensibility to touch and to noises. Internal bad feeling, as of coming illness. Weakness; trembling; faintness; hunger. Great sensitiveness to external influences. Great weariness, heaviness and disinclination to work. Intermittent neuralgic pains in various parts. Symptoms return periodically (Arsenicum), on alternate days (Cinch Suppuration, with chilliness (Help. s., Mercurius); profuse sweat (Arsenicum, Cinchona, Phosphorus, Acid Sulphuricum).. Oedema, especially with liver and spleen affections (Arsenicum); malaria (Arsenicum, Cinchona). Feels weak and nervous; a little exercise gives him palpitation. Debility, caused by considerable loss of fluids; particularly after weakening loss of blood (Cinchona). Twitching or clonic spasms in limbs. Tetanic convulsions, with loss of consciousness.
Sleep Sleeplessness; from over-stimulation of the nervous system.
Fever Chill, regular paroxysm at the same hour (Ced.) Decided shaking chill at 3 p.m. Distinct cold, hot and sweating stages, and a perfect apyrexia.
Chill 10-11 A.M. (Natr. mur.) and 3-10 P.M., periodical, anteponing, tertian (Cinchona), or quartan; trembling of the limbs; pain in spleen (Arsenicum); spine sensitive; face pale; thirst; lips blue; ringing in the ears (Cinchona). General chilliness, especially in the back. Extremities, also nose and chin, cold. Bodily temperature diminished. Heat intense; fullness of head; face red; great thirst; after going to bed, heat, with frequent yawning and sneezing; delirious; veins on arms and legs enlarge; skin hot and dry. Pain in spine on pressure. Flushes of heat with thirst 4 P.M.
Sweat with thirst; profuse even while quite; coming on gradually after the heat; profuse also on least motion (Calcarea c., Mercurius, Phosphorus); very profuse mornings in bed (Calcarea c., Nitr.ac., Phosphorus); Profuse, exhausting, nightly diarrhoea; profuse sweat during sleep (Cinchona, Phosphorus); debilitating sweat.
Conditions Cachectic persons weakened by loss of blood.
Compare Arsenicum, Ced., Cinchona, Eupat., Ferrum, Lachesis, Natr. Mur.
The clinical uses of Quinine have been detailed in the fore going general analysis and symptomatology. It is undoubtedly most often useful in intermittent fever when the paroxysms recur at the same hour every day or every other day, or else occur a little earlier each day; distinct stages, apyrexia perfect; generally great sensitiveness and pain on pressure in dorsal region. In such cases the drug is homoeopathic and will cure. More often it is prescribed from a physiological standpoint and without proper indications, when it may temporarily neutralize the poison but does not cure, only having the effect of complicating the case with other symptoms and conditions, which makes its cure by the appropriate remedy all the more difficult. Quinine may be indicated in all conditions of malarial origin, if the symptoms agree, but not upon a pathological basis alone; remittent, and pernicious fevers; congestive chills; enlarged spleen; enlarged and congested liver; jaundice; anaemia; leucocythaemia; debility. To be thought of when typhoid fever, eruptive fevers, pneumonia, etc., display intermittent symptoms, or become rapidly pernicious; inflammations and suppurations; oedema; congestion of the brain; apoplexia; neuralgia; spinal irritation; rheumatism; dyspepsia; deafness; amaurosis, etc.