Diabetes mellitus is a condition when a patient complaints of symptoms like gradual development of polyuria (frequent urination), intense thirst, with perhaps nocturia (frequent urination at night), weight loss, weakness and lassitude (weakness), pruritis (itching), cramps in legs, crops of boils and loss of libido (sexual desire).
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
Diet plays a very important role in order to manage diabetes such as:
- Restoration of normal blood glucose and optimal lipid levels.
- Maintenance of blood glucose level as near to physiologic levels to prevent onset or progression of complication.
- Maintenance of normal growth rate in children and adolescents as well as attainment and maintenance of reasonable body weight in adolescent and adults.
- Management of weight reduction for obese individuals with NIDDM.
- Improvement in overall health of patients with diabetes through optimal nutrition.
Diabetes diet plan for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Should comprise 55-60% of the calories, with a form of amount of amount to be determined by individual eating habits and blood glucose and lipid responses. Unrefined carbohydrates should be substituted by refined carbohydrates to the extent possible.
Recommended dietary allowance of 0.85 gm per kg body weight for adult is an appropriate guide. If renal dysfunction, reduce intake to 0.6 g per kg.
Fat comprise approximately 30% of total calories and all components should be reduced proportionately. Replacement of saturated fat is desirable to reduce cardiovascular risk. Cholesterol intake should be <300mg per day.
Increased consumption of dietary fibre especially soluble fibre are associated with lower levels of blood glucose and serum lipids. The water insoluble fibres and most hemicelluloses found in whole grain breads, cereals and wheat bran affect gastrointestinal transit time and fecal bulk with little impact on plasma glucose. However highly viscous water soluble fibres such as pectins, gums and storage polysaccharide found in fruits, tubers, oat and oat bran, when eaten in purified form, reduce serum levels of glucose and insulin. Ideal recommended amount of fibre in patient’s diet is 35-40 gm per day.
Both nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners are acceptable in diabetes management.
Should be restricted to 1000mg/1000Kcal, not to exceed 3000 mg/ d to minimize symptoms of hypertension
In moderation and may need to be restricted entirely by person with diabetes and insulin- induced hypoglycemia, neuropathy, poor control of glucose and lipid or obesity.
Vitamins, minerals and antioxidants intake should be encouraged.
Jam, jellies, honey, jaggary, tinned foods, sweets, chocolates, ice creams, pastries, glucose, drinks, foods made with lot of sugar, pudding, sauces.
Food allowed in moderation
Bread of all kinds and chapatis made from wheat or millets, plain biscuits, all fresh fruits, baked beans, breakfast cereals, sugar in very moderate quantity.
Saccharine for sweetening is often recommended but people often end up taking too many calories because any food contains calories not just because of the sugar but even carbohydrates and proteins are rich energy source. It is often better to take some sugar in moderation rather then binging on saccharine laden foods.
All meat, fish, eggs (not fried), clear soup or meat extracts; tea or coffee; vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, pumpkin, brinjal, lady’s finger, turnip, French beans, cucumber, lettuce, tomato, spring onions, radish, asparagus. Spices, salt, pepper and mustered; natural butter in small quantity.