Materia Medica Course on Shameless Remedies with Dr Manish Bhatia

Christophe Merville

Alan Schmukler interviews Dr. Christophe R. Merville, Director of Education and Pharmacy Development at Boiron Inc., the world’s largest manufacturer of homeopathic products.

Christophe R. Merville

Christophe R. Merville

Christophe R. Merville D. Pharm, joined Boiron, the world’s leading manufacturer of homeopathic medicines, in 1990. Since 2005, Dr. Merville has served as the pharmaceutical development manager at the company’s headquarters in Newtown Square, Pa. In this role, Dr. Merville has created educational training programs for pharmacists and retailers on homeopathy and Boiron’s medicines. He is a sought-after expert on homeopathy and its practical uses for consumers as well as medical experts. Dr. Merville is a frequent guest on radio programs across the U.S.  Dr. Merville has also co-authored several published works including Fluorized Anesthetics. In addition to radio appearances and writing, Dr. Merville has presented homeopathic topics at scientific meetings including the alterability of medicines in experimental conditions simulating a tropical climate, and the economical and practical interest of an antiseptic solution of sodium hypochlorite in developing countries.


AS: How did you first become involved with homeopathy?

CM:  As a teenager, I was plagued by hay fever and sinus infections. When I was 15, I consulted a physician who was skilled in homeopathy and also acupuncture, as it was common in France at that time. He was able to relieve my allergies, which went decrescendo, but also other problems like apprehension.

During my first internship in a Pharmacy, in 1981, I got more familiar with the Pharmacist’s counseling, and observed that she often used homeopathic medicines, because the patient already had an allopathic treatment for a chronic disease, or was a child or a pregnant woman. I was in charge of resupplying the shelves and cabinets with medicines, so I quickly got familiar with the names and forms of homeopathic medicines. All French pharmacies carry homeopathic medicines, and in each large city, there are one or two “Homeopathic Pharmacies”, where recommendations are almost only for homeopathic medicines.

In pharmacy school, I got 36 hours dedicated to homeopathy. It was an elective, but most students took it, because it was, and still is, considered a part of the pharmacist’s job, like mycology (study of mushrooms).

After 3 years of hospital pharmacy and my military service, I was hired by Boiron to supervise the activity (customer service, manufacturing and distribution) of one of their 33 branches. This was in 1990. This is also when I started to be involved in training. I designed a training module on computer for laboratory technicians, to help them learn and apply the do’s and dont’s of homeopathic manufacturing (no perfumes, use of laminar flow enclosures, double control of ingredients, etc.). I also started to train pharmacists on counseling. Boiron was (and still is) number two in OTC medicines in France.

After 18 months, I joined a larger branch, supervising 60 people and supplying about 1000 pharmacies in western France (Nantes), increasing the teaching activity. I had interns and was able to create continuing education programs for pharmacists and directly teach to students and nurses. We organized cycles of conferences in the nearby cities, with up to 400 pharmacy employees attending.

In 1994, I went to the Boiron USA West Coast facility in Simi Valley California.


AS: Sounds like you really enjoy the teaching aspect. I’m glad there’s another generation learning the proper techniques.  Quality control must be a big part of Boiron’s operation.  I’m wondering if there is any method of determining if a pellet is “potentized” or has lost its frequency imprint or been neutralized?

CM : Boiron being a pharmaceutical company, Quality Control is required from the start of the manufacturing process to the finished medicine. It is independent from Production and has the power to release or quarantine a batch that would not  conform to our own procedures, the good manufacturing practices, and the pharmacopoeia guidelines. For instance, fresh plants arriving at the laboratory are not touched until the Quality Control Department has identified them and done basic controls of their conditions and origin. If you gave me a Boiron medicine lot number, I would be able to tell you the weather on the day the plant used was harvested.

Since homeopathic medicines are often diluted to the point where the current technology cannot detect the presence of the original substance, Quality Control is even more important in our industry. Once a process has been validated (often using fluorescent molecules in low dilutions) and we are certain that it does what it should be doing, it is extremely important that it is repeated exactly the same way, and in the same conditions of operations (air quality, water quality, temperature, air pressure and humidity, etc.). This is so far our only way to make sure that the final product is manufactured properly. For instance, the dilution process, or the medication process needs to be extremely well validated, because they are essential to the quality and reliability of the final medicine.

I am not aware of any reliable test that could yet routinely be used to measure the clinical, physical or biological action of a highly diluted homeopathic medicine. This would be a complete revolution! Maybe in a few years?  When such a test exists, all the factors that could influence the homeopathic effect would be studied in detail, and not only by homeopathic laboratories!


AS:  Manufacture of remedies is clearly a very precise and highly controlled process. In airports in the U.S. there is a lot of X-raying of people and baggage. Do we know if this affects remedies that are subjected to that radiation?

CM: Of course there are no tests, at least to my knowledge, that would solve the issue once and for all. We know that the energy received during an exposure to an airport scanner is around 0.01 millirem, during 12 seconds in average. This is to be compared to the 310 millirem/year of exposure to natural ionizing radiation (cosmic rays, gamma rays, X rays). Even for frequent flyers, I would say that the increased dose is not significant. We receive a higher dose during the flight itself.

Also, we do not know the exact structure of the homeopathic signal, and whether it is susceptible to be affected by ionizing radiations, or any kind of radiation. If the radiations are powerful enough to affect the structure of the inactive ingredient (sucrose, lactose, alcohol, water) then there’s some reason to think that the medicine’s effect has been changed. Such doses would be of course harmful to living beings.

In general, water solutions, containing alcohol, are less stable than solid forms. Practically, it looks like we shouldn’t be concerned. I regularly use Cocculus and Nux vomica for jet lag, and they go under the scanner for objects when I fly.


AS:  Some years ago I read that manufacture of nosodes was forbidden in France. How did that come about?  Was this issue ever resolved?

CM:  In the 90’s, with the emergence of prion-induced diseases, there was a general concern about the potential transmission of BSE or other diseases through homeopathic medicines prepared from animal tissues (nosodes and sarcodes). The French Agency for Medicines, dependent from the Ministry of Health (the equivalent of our FDA), required that the sales of all nosodes be discontinued until their mode of preparation was validated for safety.  So, for a period of a few months, Boiron and all French based labs stop distributing the nosodes.  Boiron presented the validated manufacturing processes to the ministry of health and progressively, the nosodes were available again. The last one was, if I remember, Luesinum (Syphilinum), which is quite difficult to obtain.  Please note that the manufacturing modes were such that the medicines had always been safe. The Ministry wanted a validation of these processes to demonstrate that no contamination was possible. So, there was no misunderstanding of homeopathy, but just the request for additional controls to be certain that all homeopathic medicines were safe and could not be considered as agents for the propagation of prionic diseases.


AS:  I’m relieved to hear that was resolved.  If you were making a water potency for a patient with liver problems, or a recovering alcoholic, and you didn’t want to preserve with alcohol, how could you preserve the remedy?

CM:  Traditionally, very good brandy was used, mixed with water, to prepare the dilutions… Today, we use 70% alcohol, and the final dilution is prepared in 20% alcohol, which is still high. Dilutions can be delivered in water, but they are not stable. Alcohol acts as a preservative to decrease the contamination, once the bottle has been opened. Dilutions in water must always been kept in a cold place, but not frozen, once they are opened.

The alternative is to use the solid forms: pellets and tablets. They offer many advantages: they are more affordable, much more stable, alcohol free, more convenient to take, easy to store, and they taste better. Tablets and pellets contain lactose and sucrose, but not in such quantities that blood sugar levels are changed, or lactose intolerance symptoms are triggered.

For infants, or people that really cannot take pellets or tablets, I recommend to dissolve them in 2 oz of pure water and drink it. This preparation is not stable because it contains sugar and water, so it must be either prepared when needed, or renewed every day. There is no need to succuss this mix, because we are not preparing a higher dilution. It works very well for infants.


AS:  How does Boiron decide what new materials to turn into remedies? How do they locate and obtain raw materials for remedies?

CM: Boiron focuses on researching the activity of existing medicines, rather than experimenting on new ones. So, very few new strains have been added this last 20 years. Additionally, each new strain needs to be registered and Boiron is focusing in France on the existing ones. But I can tell that we would try to find a stable and reliable source of new raw material if needed.  To harvest or get the raw materials, Boiron relies on professional harvesters, botanists and zoologists. They must respect a long list of specifications in order to make sure that the plant is harvested from the wild, is healthy, genetically diverse (no GMOs!!), exempt of parasites, and has grown far away from sources of pollution. We prefer harvesting after a few dry days to avoid too much humidity. And sometimes, the harvesters bring us back only a fraction of the quantity requested, because they feel picking more would jeopardize the plant survival. We gather in protected areas, such as  national parks (we have special permits), and we ship the plants in refrigerated trucks, so they arrive in the lab 24 hours at the most after harvesting. Sometimes, circumstances force us to change suppliers. In 1986, our thyme supply from eastern Europe was immediately rejected, due to its radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident.

Zoological strains are now usually sent in jars with a little bit of alcohol, to kill and preserve the animal (usually insects). Once a shipment of black widow spiders arrived in a broken box in the lab… the spiders escaped. You can easily imagine the ambiance in the laboratory!

For mineral strains, either they need to be pure (like histamine hydrochloride) and so they are purchased from chemistry suppliers, or they need to be as close as possible to the original substance described by Hahnemann. I was in charge of buying a nugget of California gold to replenish our stock. We preferred the native gold, with its impurities, to pure refined gold, because Hahnemann was not using extra pure gold.


AS:  Is homeopathic treatment reimbursed by the national health system in France?

CM: The most common homeopathic strains in C or X dilutions are reimbursed by the health care system (35% of their cost). Additional coverage picks up the difference when chosen. All homeopathic prescribers are MDs, and the consultation is reimbursed according to the same rules as allopathic treatments and consultations.


AS:   Clearly France is way ahead of the U.S. in official acceptance of homeopathy.  In France, what is the public’s attitude toward homeopathy?

CM:  Based on an Ipsos poll February 23, 2012 * :

56% of French people are using homeopathic medicines (+3% vs. 2010, +17% vs. 2004).

36% of French people are regular users of homeopathic medicines (+15 %  vs. 2004). The regular use is larger in women (46%) and people not living around Paris (42%).

70% of French people think that the use of Homeopathic Medicines will increase in the next 5 years.

Since 2011, 18% of French people say they are more confident in homeopathic medicines, whereas it has decreased for some allopathic categories in similar proportion: (24% for antibiotics and antidepressants, 14% for pain medicines).

Finally, 77% of people who answered, stated that they trust homeopathy the same way they trust pain medicines, vs. 68% for medicines such as antibiotics or antidepressants.

You will find homeopathic medicine in every one of the 23,000 pharmacies in France (they are solely dispensed in pharmacies).


AS:  It seems the future looks bright for homeopathy! Thank you very much Christophe, for sharing with us today!

About the author

Alan V. Schmukler

Alan V. Schmukler is a homeopath, Chief Editor of Homeopathy for Everyone and author of ”Homeopathy An A to Z Home Handbook”, (also in French, German, Greek, Polish and Portuguese). He is Hpathy’s resident cartoonist and also produces Hpathy’s Tips & Secrets column and homeopathy Crossword puzzles each month. Alan is a recipient of the National Center for Homeopathy Martha Oelman Community Service Award. Visit Alan at his website: Here.


  • The interview was very informative. My doubt about what will happen to the Homeopathic medicines I carry with me while X rayed during the baggage checks at the Airports is cleared. Thank you for the information.

  • Very interesting to have this insight into both homeopathic pharmacy and use of homeopathy in France. Its great to know that homeopathy is doing so well there – thank you

  • The interview is very nicely done as it covers very important questions that we generally have in our minds and which remain unanswered for the most part. For example, what is the effect of exposure of X rays on Homeopathic Medicines during security check-ins at airports, or those questions for which we Homeopaths think of an answer based on scientific reasoning but are always looking for confirmation through opinion of experts in the field e.g. use of pellets or globules over alcohol based liquid form of medicine in anomalies of the liver, drawbacks of prescribing saclac based globules in case of diabetes, etc.
    Further, the interview gives a clear insight into Boiron’s quality control measures for drug manufacturing.
    It is really good to know that homeopathic prescription drugs and treatment qualify for medical health care coverage in France and the acceptance levels for homeopathic treatment are on a steady rise there. In general, the first question a patient asks is, if they choose to go for homeopathic treatment, would the treatment be covered through their Health Insurance? The healthcare coverage for homeopathic treatment through the government health care system in other highly developed European countries and the United States as well would surely promote greater acceptance of this approach of holistic treatment throughout the world.
    In Asia, especially in India, homeopathic treatment has become quite popular and Government support through AYUSH is remarkable in promoting and supporting alternative medicine and treatment. Recently, ministry of health and family welfare (Govt. of India) in coordination with WHO, UNICEF and many other health welfare organizations, under Rastriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (National Child Health Program) as part of the National Rural Health Mission (
    has employed a great number of Homeopaths for the post of Government Homeopathic Medical Officer. These newly drafted officers will be a part of the mobile health care teams in rural areas in several different states which will carry out towards child health screenings aimed at providing early intervention services wherever there be a need for such an intervention.

  • An awe-inspiring interview !

    The best part is knowing that in France Homeopathy is treated at- par with Allopatjhy , which is missing in most parts of the world, including India.That while teaching PHARMACY ,they teach Homeopathy-pharmacy too !
    I wish this revolutionary thought comes in the curricullum of all B.Pharma and M.Pharma courses so that the basic understanding horizon expands…
    The moment we make it ‘ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE’ perceptions are distorted !

    Thanking you,
    rajib nain

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