Homeopathy Papers

A Homeopathic History of Cholera

Written by Sue Young

Homeopath and historian Sue Young shares  a homeopathic history of cholera.  A tour through a particular period in history.

With thanks to my colleagues: Dana Ullman (very many articles and books), Julian Winston, Some History of the Treatment of Epidemics with Homeopathy, (H’Pathy Online, June 17, 2007). ; Cella Whatcott, The History of Homeopathy in Epidemics, (H’Pathy Online, February 17, 2022). ; Jeremy Sherr, On The Treatment of Epidemics Part 1, (H’Pathy Online, December 16, 2019). ; Cella Whatcott, On Treating Epidemics, Part II, (H’Pathy Online, January 17, 2020). ; Jeremy Sherr, Jeremy Sherr on Epidemics, Part III, (H’Pathy Online, February 18, 2020). ; Sylvain Cazalet, Peter Morrell, Hospital tables should prompt authorities to investigate: Rapid Response: Another case of distorted statistics, BMJ 2001, Louise Mclean [Thanks to Louise’s resourcefulness, we received letter dated 16.12.2010 from Ms. Allison Derrett at the Royal Archives Windsor Castle regarding Victoria’s use of Homeopathic remedies. Of interest, the same request was previously made to Windsor Castle in 1990 by English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Kennedy Elliott (1908-1993)[1] who was the Homeopathic Physician of Queen Elizabeth II (1926-2022)], and Francis Treuherz, Homeopathy in the Irish Potato Famine, (Samuel, 1995).

1815: The volcano of Mount Tamboura erupted, the largest known eruption in over 1,600 years, causing the Year Without a Summer 1816. In this same year, Cholera sprang from a local problem to become a World Pandemic, and gave homeopathy a real chance to prove its worth.

Cholera was no longer considered a pressing health threat in Europe and North America due to filtering and chlorination of water supplies, but it still heavily affected populations in developing countries. However in our current post Covid, war torn world, we must be ever vigilant about this terrible pandemic.

Cholera likely had its origins in the Indian subcontinent, with the River Ganges serving as a contamination reservoir. The disease was spread by trade routes (land and sea) to Russia, then to Western Europe, and from Europe to North America.

Many historians cite the Year Without a Summer 1816 as a primary motivation for the western movement and rapid settlement of what is now western and central New York and the American Midwest.

‘… The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1 °F). Summer temperatures in Europe were the coldest on record between the years of 1766–2000. 

This resulted in major food shortages across the Northern Hemisphere. Evidence suggests that the anomaly was predominantly a volcanic winter event caused by the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in April in Indonesia.

This eruption was the largest in at least 1,300 years (after the hypothesized eruption causing the volcanic winter of 536), and was perhaps exacerbated by the 1814 eruption of Mayon in the Philippines[2]

 ‘ … Many New Englanders were wiped out by the year, and tens of thousands struck out for the richer soil and better growing conditions of the Upper Midwest (then the Northwest Territory). Europe, still recuperating from the Napoleonic Wars, suffered from food shortages.

 Food riots broke out in Britain and France and grain warehouses were looted. The violence was worst in landlocked Switzerland, where famine caused the government to declare a national emergency. Huge storms, abnormal rainfall with floodings of the major rivers of Europe (including the Rhine) are attributed to the event, as was the frost setting in during August 1816. A BBC documentary using figures compiled in Switzerland estimated that fatality rates in 1816 were twice that of average years, giving an approximate European fatality total of 200,000 deaths.

 The eruption of Mount Tamboura also caused Hungary to experience brown snow. Italy experienced something similar, with red snow falling throughout the year. The cause of this is believed to have been volcanic ash in the atmosphere…[3]

 ‘… In China, unusually low temperatures in summer and fall devastated rice production in Yunnan province in the southwest, resulting in widespread famine. Fort Shuangcheng, now in Heilongjiang province, reported fields disrupted by frost and conscripts deserting as a result.

 Summer snowfall was reported in various locations in Jiangxi and Anhui provinces, both in the south of the country. In Taiwan, which has a tropical climate, snow was reported in Hsinchu and Miaoli, while frost was reported in Changhua…[4]

 ‘… High levels of ash in the atmosphere led to unusually spectacular sunsets during this period, a feature celebrated in the paintings of Joseph Mallord William Turner. It has been theorised that it was this that gave rise to the yellow tinge that is predominant in his paintings such as Chichester Canal circa 1828.

 A similar phenomenon was observed after the 1883 Krakatoa eruption, and on the West Coast of the United States following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines…[5]

 ‘… The lack of oats to feed horses may have inspired the German inventor Karl Drais to research new ways of horseless transportation, which led to the invention of the Draisine or velocipede. This was the ancestor of the modern bicycle and a step towards mechanized personal transport.

 The crop failures of the Year Without a Summer 1816 forced the family of Joseph Smith to move from Sharon, Vermont to Palmyra, New York, precipitating a series of events culminating in the publication of the Book of Mormon and the founding of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints…[6]

 1816: terrible weather forced Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797- 1851)John William Polidori (1795-1821) and their friends to stay indoors for much of their Swiss summer holiday. They decided to have a contest, seeing who could write the scariest story, and Shelley wrote Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus Shelley 1816 and Polidori wrote The Vampyre Poliori 1816. The Year Without a Summer 1816 also inspired George Gordon Byron 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) to write his famous poem Darkness Byron 1816.

 From Wikipedia ‘… First cholera pandemic: Previously restricted, the pandemic began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops began in and countless Indians died during this pandemic. The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea before receding.

 Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860 are estimated to have exceeded 15 million persons. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917… Russian deaths during a similar time period exceeded 2 million. A second cholera pandemic reached Russia…

 The cholera pandemic and reached its greatest intensity in 1830 and 1831. When the peak of the epidemic passed, more than a quarter of a million of the Tsar’s subjects had died, and the overall mortality among those stricken stood just below 50 per centHungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831, London (more than 55,000 people died in the United Kingdom) and Paris in 1832.

 In London, the disease claimed 6,536 victims … in Paris, 20,000 succumbed with about 100,000 deaths in all of France… The epidemic reached Quebec, Ontario and New York in the same year and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834. The 1831 cholera epidemic killed 150,000 people in Egypt. In 1846, cholera struck Mecca, killing over 15,000 people. A two year outbreak began in England and Wales in 1848 and claimed 52,000 lives…[7]

1830: Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Friedrich Edmund Peithner Ritter von Lichtenfels (1795-1854)[8] and Hungarian orthodox doctor and convert to homeopathy Gyorgy Forgo (1787–1835) fought the cholera epidemics in Europe.

Forgo wrote in Hungarian about the Homeopathic treatment of this disease, and he was a diligent collaborator for The Orvisitàr[9], a Hungarian medical journal. In 1830, German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Christian Theodore Herrmann (1773-1836) wrote to his colleague Russian orthodox doctor and convert to homeopathy Simon Nicolaievitch von Korsakoff (1788-1853), who said ‘… Herrmann writes to me that he had to give up the treatment of cholera patients in the hospital, for all those who were sent to him were dying, and had already gone through the whole course of allopathic treatment. All methods are admissible here, only Homeopathy is persistently (useful)…[10]

Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to homeopathy Johann Emanuel Veith (1787-1877)[11] treated 125 patients with cholera in 1830, losing only 3 patients. Veith discovered Phosphoric Acid and Camphor as important Homeopathic remedies in the treatment of advanced cholera. His successful example resulted in Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Matthias Marenzeller (1765-1854)[12], Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Moritz Wilhelm Mueller (1784-1849)[13], Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy J A Schubert (1800-1868) and many others converting to Homeopathy. As a result, Francis II Holy Roman Emperor (1768-1835) ordered clinical trials of Homeopathy in Vienna[14], and the successful outcome of these trials led to a wide acceptance of Homeopathy as a university discipline in Prague and Vienna. David Didier Roth (1808-1885)[15], brother of Mathias Roth (1818-1891) treated cholera with Homeopathy in Austria, and Veith wrote Healing and Prophylaxis of Cholera Veith 1832[16]. Marenzeller conducted the first clinical trials[17] on Homeopathy at the Garrison Hospital in Vienna.

The admiration and approval of Homeopathic treatment of cholera spread rapidly across Europe and beyond.

1830: English Homeopathic advocate Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound 2nd Earl of Minto (1782-1859) was a patient of English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Frederick Hervey Foster Quin (1799-1879) who was practicing in Paris. Minto wrote to Quin ‘…

As you are in pursuit of information respecting cholera, it occurs to me that it might be worth your while in the first instance, to pass a week or two in investigating the character of the complaint, and I have no doubt that a great deal of useful information may be obtained from the reports of its medical agents.

As far as my information goes, this complaint is the genuine Indian cholera, differing, as of course you know, in very essential characters from the cholera of Europe, and though there are of course varieties of opinion and systems for its treatment, one extremely intelligent practitioner told me that he had very early in his experience been induced to abandon the established treatment by opium, calomel, and bleeding, and resort to a different plan, which proved extremely successful…

If it be true that extremes meet, you will soon have all the London doctors with you, for they have but one system for all complaints. Calomel measured by the bushel, bleeding by the gallon, and a continual stream of tonics and restoratives for the remaining few days of life… [18]

1831: Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), the founder of homeopathy, identified the stages of cholera and which Homeopathic remedies would be needed for each stage. Hahnemann was in tune with the thinking of his times by attributing cholera to infection. He also supported the contagion-miasma theory. As a result, Homeopathy created many European converts, who flocked to study under Hahnemann.

1831: When cholera finally struck Europe, the mortality rate under conventional treatment was between 40%-80%, depending on the information sources. Frederick Hervey Foster Quin reported the mortality in the 10 Homeopathic hospitals in 1831-1832 as 9%[19]Mathias Roth, now the Homeopathic physician to Ludwig 1 (1786-1868) King of Bavaria, reported the mortality was 7%. Admiral Mordoinow (?-?) of the Imperial Russian Council reported 10% mortality under Homeopathy. Hungarian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Bakody (1791-?)[20] treated 223 patients with mild to severe cholera, 14 of whom were in the collapse state, and lost a total of 8 patients, a mortality of 3.6%. Austrian General Count Eduard Clam Gallas (1805-1891)[21] was cured of cholera by spirits of camphor[22] by Lay Homeopath Count Laransky (?-?). Czech orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Adolph Heinrich Gerstel (1805-1890), treated cholera patients in Brno. Czech orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy M Hanusch (1803-1871), treated cholera patients in the small Moravian town of Tisnowitz. Frederick Hervey Foster Quin treated cholera in Paris, then travelled to Germany, and having successfully cured himself of cholera on Samuel Hahnemann’s advice, worked through the epidemic until it ceased, to be warmly praised by the local Mayor.

1832: Irish author of Dracula Stoker 1897 and a Homeopathic advocate Bram Stoker (1847-1912)[23] was a sickly child, so his family moved from Sligo to Ballyshannon to escape from cholera, which killed five eighths of the population of Sligo. German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Friedrich Jakob Rummel (1793-1854)[24] was treating the cholera in Merseburg when his wife, a daughter and then himself was brought to death’s door by the same disease, but he recovered with the assistance of Romantic Poet Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (1797-1856)[25] who was paying him a visit. Despite Heine’s initial doubts. Heine’s mother, an advocate of Homeopathy, wrote to persuade him but Heine was not so sure. He replied to her ‘… I duly received thy last letter. I have no great opinion of Homeopathy, yet next year I will certainly do something something vigourous for my illness[26]

Understandably, when so many converted and untrained doubters could use this New Medicine with ease to obtain miraculous cures, people were extremely impressed. Thus Homeopathy went viral across the World.

1832: Belgian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Pierre Joseph De Moor (1787-1845)[27] and the physicians at the Hospice of Alost had been experimenting with Homeopathy since 1829, and they had been using Homeopathy for their private patients as well as patients of the Hospice. Thus De Moor and his colleagues had complete confidence in Homeopathy. German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles W Mayerhoffer (1804-1863)[28]at the Hospital of the Sisters of Charity Gumpendorf in Vienna, braved the law prohibiting Homeopathy in Austria[29] to conduct secret clinical trials into Homeopathy. German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Reubel (1779-1852)[30] treated cholera at the Homeopathic Hospital Munich 1836, probably the only Homeopathic hospital to survive World War I[31]. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy George Henry Bute (1792-1876)[32] had treated the cholera epidemic in Philadelphia, and was placed in charge of the Cholera Hospital of Philadelphia 1832, the first public charity of the Homeopathic school of medicine in America[33].

1832: Many orthodox doctors and convert to Homeopathy published their results and wrote books about Homeopathy. Italian orthodox physician Augustus Bozzi Granville (1783-1872)[34] and a friend of Frederick Hervey Foster Quin, became convinced that cholera was a waterborne disease, and published A Catechism of Facts [Concerning Cholera] Granville 1832[35]. German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Reubel (1779-1852) wrote Vier Vorlesungen uber die Cholera in Europa Reubel 1832, and articles to medical journals. Psychologist and advocate of Homeopathy Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)[36] wrote Schutzmittel Für Die Cholera Fechner 1832, and Elemente der Psychophysik Fechnerr 1860.

1832: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Edward Cronin (1801-1882)[37] treated cholera in Persia and in India. Homeopathy then spread to America. American Dutch orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Hans Burch Gram (1786-1840)[38] was the first American Homeopath[39], and he converted many other doctors to the New Medicine. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Franklin Gray (1804-1882) treated cholera in New York, though so few in numbers, and with no public hospitals under their administration, the comparative results of the different modes of treating cholera produced a powerful reaction in favour of Homeopathy among the people, and a new impulse was given to the examination of its claims by numbers of the medical profession. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Amos Gerald Hull (1810-1859) became the first student of Homeopathy to undergo a public recorded examination[40] at the New York County Medical Society 1806.

1832: As a result, there was a considerable force of Orthodox doctors who had converted to Homeopathy in the city ready to contest the field. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy William Channing (1794-1855)[41] was so impressed by the results he published them, and his public conversion to Homeopathy had a profound effect on his colleagues. William Channing’s successful public trials of the Homeopathic remedies Veratrum, Camphor and Cuprum firmly established Homeopathy in New York[42]. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Isaac Moreau Ward (1806-1876) was promoted to high positions in many County and State Medical Societies in America, and he was tasked to fill important public trusts. One of these was to study and report upon the Asiatic cholera when first it appeared in New York in 1832, its character and the comparative effects of remedial agents. Isaac Moreau Ward  tried Homeopathy and orthodox medicine side by side in the Park Hospital New York 1832, and the superior advantages of Homeopathy was demonstrated beyond all question.

1832: Hans Burch Gram was the ultimate proselytizer of Homeopathy in America. As a result, the innovators John Franklin Gray, Amos Gerald Hull, American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Benjamin Franklin Joslin (1796-1861)[43]William Channing, Isaac Moreau Ward, George Henry Bute and American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Abraham D Wilson (?-?) were all in place to treat the cholera epidemic with Homeopathy.

This spread Homeopathy like a rash all over America and continued to spread like a rash across the World.

1833: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Franklin W Hunt (1810-1873)[44] treated cholera in Richmond, Indiana. Peruvian Spanish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Juan Norberto Casanova (1808-1880)[45] wrote General observations respecting cholera-morbus Casnova 1833. French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Gaspard Peschier (1782-1853)[46] wrote Instruction succincte pour le traitement homéopathique, préservatif et curatif du cholera Peschier 1833[47] and wrote many articles for Homeopathic and Medical journals on this subject.

1835: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Hyppolyte Pulte (1811-1883)[48] made the first attempt at a more systematic and fixed treatment of cholera[49] in America in 1835. American orthodox Nurse and Professional Homeopath Mary Ann Bickerdyke (1817-1901)[50], treated cholera in 1835 [and later in the American Civil War 1861-1865]. Samuel Hahnemann’s son, Professional Homeopath Frederick Hahnemann (1786-?), fleeing from persecution in Europe, arrived to treat cholera in America in 1835.

1836: French Orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Jules John Mabit (1781-1846), conducted extensive clinical trials in England and across Europe into the Homeopathic treatment of cholera in 1832-6[51], and Napoleon III (1808-1873)[52] awarded him the Knights Cross of the Legion of Honour[53] for his extensive labours. Mabit corresponded with Samuel Hahnemannwhen had written Lettre au conseiller Samuel Hahnemann, sur le traitement homoeopathique du choléra morbus asiatique Mabit 1833 and then Etude sur le Cholera Mabit 1835. These results were widely circulated around the World.

1836: Austrian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Fleischmann (1799-1868)[54] successfully treated cholera (Homeopathic mortality 33%, orthodox medicine 70%). This success resulted in the annulment of the decree of 1819 forbidding Homeopathy in Austria[55]. Romanian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Martin Honigberger (1794-1869)[56] cured himself of cholera with Ipecac. Italian Orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Francesco Romani (1785-1854)[57] wrote Treatise on Cholera Romani 1836.

1837: Italian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Settimio Centamori (1812-1860)[58] treated cholera in Italy, but when the rector of St Peter’s died of cholera while under his treatment, he was accused of poisoning that prelate[59].

Orthodoxy had begun their long and nasty campaign of fightback against Homeopathy.

1837: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy George Calvert Holland (1801-1865)[60] wrote An Inquiry Into the Nature and Treatment of Cholera Holland 1837. Around this time, Russian oligarch[61] and convert to Homeopathy Simon Nicolaievitch von Korsakoff (1788-1853) treated cholera in Russia. He was a District Inspector for the Statistical Department of the Russian Ministry of Police, His statistics revealed the mortality rate under Homeopathy was only 6%. Korsakoff also invented the Korsakoff Dynamiser when he was given the task of preparing Homeopathic remedies for Tsar Nicholas I (1796-1855)[62] whilst travelling, and Korsakoff is credited[63] with the discovery of high potencies in Homeopathy.

1843: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Francis Black (1820-1882)[64] wrote Homeopathic Treatment of Asiatic Cholera Black 1843.

1844: German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy William Huber (1806-1859)[65] conducted a study of 2160 cases of cholera in Russia.

1845: British orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Edward Hamilton (1824-1899)[66] wrote Comparative Results of the Homeopathic and Allopathic Treatment of Asiatic CholeraA Short History of Cholera Hamilton 1845 and subsequently A Short History of Cholera Hamilton 1849. Pope Gregory XVI (1765-1846)[67] awarded the Grand Cross to Italian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Settimio Centamori (1812-1860)[68] for his work combating cholera.

1847: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Samuel Basil Carlingford (1824-1892)[69] treated cholera in England and Vienna in 1831, 1836 and 1847. Irish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Richard Tuthill Massy (1816-?1889)[70] wrote Cholera and its Cures Massy 1847. Latvian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Carl Ernst Brutzer (1794-1877)[71] wrote Anleitung zur Behandlung der Cholera homöopathischen Brutzer 1847. American orthodox doctor  Walter Channing  (1786-1876)[72], orthodox physician and Dean of Harvard Medical School, lectured on the Homeopathic treatment of cholera. English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Robert Ellis Dudgeon (1820-1904)[73] wrote Homeopathic Treatment and Prevention of Asiatic Cholera Dudgeon 1847.

1848: Scottish James Lindsay 7th Earl of Balcarres and 24th Earl of Crawford (1783-1869)[74] was a Patron of the Edinburgh Homeopathic Dispensary’s Report on Asiatic Cholera 1848. Polish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Adam Lyschinski (1814-1878)[75] was advised to be in attendance, at all hours, day and night at the Edinburgh Homeopathic Dispensary during the prevalence of Cholera in Edinburgh throughout 1848. Scottish Banker, MP and Homeopathic advocate Arthur FitzGerald Kinnaird 10th Lord Kinnaird (1814-1887)[76] became a patron of the General Committee of Management of the Edinburgh Homeopathic Dispensary (1841-?1919) on the treatment of cholera. Swedish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Peter Jacob Liedbeck (1808-1876)[77] wrote Directions for the use of Some Homeopathic Medicine in Cholera Liedbeck 1848. Scottish Jewish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Amos Henriques (1812-1880)[78] wrote Etiological, Pathological and Therapeutic Reflections on Asiatic Cholera Henriques 1848.

1848: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Thomas Robinson Leadam (1809-1881)[79] was the medical officer and surgeon to the Poor Law Union of St. Olave’s Southwark present during the cholera and typhus epidemic throughout 1848, and he partitioned off part of a workhouse to become a Cholera Hospital. Leadam was called as a witness[80] before the Metropolitan Sanitary Commissioners, where he described his district as a very poor area with no water supply beyond a few street taps, with cesspools and open stagnant ditches such that the stench outside his house was terrible. Leadam recommended that Parliament should instruct landlords to connect the houses to the sewers and initiate appropriate sanitation and drainage, as well as street paving. Latvian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Karl Hencke (1806-1890)[81] submitted a report[82] on the cholera epidemic in Riga in 1848 to the Quarterly Homeopathic Journal, reporting how useful the Homeopathic remedies arsenicum, camphor, hydrochloric acid (muriaticum acidum), kali hydrocyanicum, iatropha curcas, secale and veratrum were in the treatment of this disease.

From Wikipedia[83]: Second major outbreak in Paris in 1849. In London, it was the worst outbreak in the city’s history, claiming 14,137 lives, over twice as many as the 1832 outbreak. Cholera hit Ireland in 1849 and killed many of the Irish Famine survivors already weakened by starvation and fever. In 1849 cholera claimed 5,308 lives in the port city of Liverpool, England, and 1,834 in Hull, England.

 1849: Cholera, believed spread from ship(s) from England, spread throughout the Mississippi river system killing over 4,500 in St. Louis and over 3,000 in New Orleans as well as thousands in New York. Mexico was similarly attacked. The cholera was spread along the California, Mormon and Oregon Trails as 6,000 to 12,000 are believed to have died on their way to the California Gold Rush, Utah and Oregon in the cholera years of 1849-1855. It is believed that over 150,000 Americans died during the two pandemics between 1832 and 1849 and Cholera took the life of former American President James Knox Polk (1795-1849).

1849: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Stuart Sutherland (1810-1878)[84] treated a case of Asiatic Cholera from Scotland published in The British Journal of Homeopathy 1849. In Germany, orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Martin Wilhelm von Mandt (1799-1858)[85] wrote The Spinal cord and intestinal mucosa and their relationships to the cholera Mandt 1849, and The Colour of the intestinal mucosa in cholera and typhoid corpses Mandt 1849. English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph D Laurie (1829-1865)[86] wrote A Few Plain Directions for the Homeopathic Treatment and Prevention of British and Asiatic Cholera Laurie 1849, and Also Cholerine Laurie ?1850.

1849: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy William Budd (1811-1880)[87] wrote Malignant cholera: its mode of propagation and its prevention Budd 1849. Orthodox pharmacist, major publisher and convert to Homeopathy Otis Clapp (1820-1886)[88] was the professor of pharmacy at the Female Medical College and Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania Boston (1848-1874) now the Boston University 1874. Clapp published Homeopathic Treatment of Cholera Hoffendal, Clapp 1849 and many other books on Homeopathy throughout his lifetime. The death rate from cholera at the Liverpool Homeopathic Dispensary and Hospital 42 Hope Street (1842-1976) was 25% in 1849.

1849: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Frederick K Humphreys (1816-1900)[89] was a prolific author who wrote The Cholera, and Its Homoeopathic Treatment Humphreys 1849 and many other Homeopathic books and articles during his lifetime. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Egbert Guernsey (1823-1886)[90] treated the cholera during the construction of the Hudson River Railroad 1846-1851 when cholera broke out with great severity along the line among the laborers. This was followed by a severe type of dysentery, which spread with awful rapidity over all the country. American Professional Homeopath Benjamin F Chillicothe Ehrmann (1834-1886)[91], the business partner of Joseph Hyppolyte Pulte, treated cholera. Ehrmann was amongst the first wave of Professional Homeopaths acquired his medical education at the North American Academy of the Homeopathic Healing Art in Allentown Hering 1835.

1849: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopath John James Drysdale (1816-1890)[92], Robert Ellis Dudgeon, and English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Rutherford Russell (1816-1867)[93], Editors of the British Journal of Homoeopathy 1849 dedicated a whole edition of the British Journal of Homoeopathy 1849 Volume 7 to the treatment of cholera. English novelist and staunch advocate of Homeopathy William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863)[94] was treated for cholera in 1849 by Frederick Hervey Foster Quin and English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Elliotson (1791-1868)[95]. John James Drysdale’s successful Homeopathic treatment of the cholera epidemic of 1849 had so ‘… roused the envy of his allopathic colleagues… [that he was forthwith]… expelled from the Liverpool Medical Institute[96]

Orthodox medicine was no longer laughing and they stepped up their gears to destroy Homeopathy.

1849: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Thomas Pearce (1815-1883)[97] treated his brother who had contracted cholera, Homeopathically. Charles Thomas Pearce was then himself struck down by cholera and could not attend his brother. He left careful instructions for the care of his brother, but these were not carried out and an orthodox doctor was called in and his brother died[98]Thomas Wakley (1795-1862), the founder of The Lancet Wakley 1823 and a biased deputy Coroner H Membury Wakley (?-?) (the son of Thomas Wakley) charged Charles Thomas Pearce with manslaughter, and he was arraigned in front of Mr. Justice Maule (?-?) at the Old Bailey on 29.10.1849, who having heard the evidence threw the case out of court.

The Lancet Wakley 1823 had nailed its colours to the wall in support of orthodox medicine, which was still not laughing and now determined to destroy Homeopathy. This horrid response now spread abroad. However, orthodox attacks upon Homeopathy only resulted in its continued rise to fame and fortune.

1849: French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Jean Paul Tessier (1810-1862)[99] conducted clinical trials[100] into Homeopathy in 1849 at the St. Marguerite Hospital Beaujohn Paris, successfully treating pneumonia and cholera, and he published them as Clinical Researches Concerning the Homeopathic Treatment of Asiatic Cholera Tessier 1849. The results of these clinical trials were startling in favour of Homeopathy (mortality rate under Homeopathy dropped dramatically from 33% to 7.6%). Jean Paul Tessier was immediately vilified by orthodox physicians, who blocked him from further promotion and progression in his chosen profession. No orthodox medical journal would publish results so favourable to Homeopathy[101], and Jean Paul Tessier was immediately and summarily dismissed from his profession. The vitriolic attack of orthodox medicine resulting from the publication of these successful clinical trials into Homeopathy were so atrocious they caused Pope Pius IX to come to Jean Paul Tessier’s defence[102]. His clinical assistants were also blocked from admission to the orthodox Medical Faculty. Jean Paul Tessier immediately converted to Homeopathy, once again proving how attacks upon Homeopathy only lead to the proliferation of Homeopathy.

1849: Scottish author, publisher and advocate of Homeopathy[103] Robert Chambers (1802-1871)[104] was the anonymous author of the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation Anon 1844[105]. Robert Chambers and his brother William Chambers (1800-1883) reported on the Homeopathic treatment of cholera in Edinburgh Treatise on Epidemic Cholera Russell 1849 by English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Rutherford Russell (1816-1867)[106] in their Edinburgh Journal[107].

1849: French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Alexandre Charge (1810-1890)[108] treated cholera in the South of France in 1849, and Napoleon III bestowed the Legion of Honour upon him[109]Pope Pius IX (1792-1878)[110] also granted Alexandre Charge the Order of St. Gregory the Great for these services. German American Professional Homeopath George Bigler Ehrmann (1858-1886)[111] treated cholera in Cincinnati in 1849. Six Homeopaths attracted national attention when they reported not one single death out of their first 350 cases of cholera. Joseph Hyppolyte Pulte and George Bigler Ehrmann report ed 2,646 cases with 35 deaths, or a mortality rate of 1.3%. Orthodox doctors reported fatal outcomes in 50% of their cases[112]. Latvian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Karl Hencke (1806-1890)[113] submitted a report on the cholera epidemic in Riga in 1849[114] recommending arsenicum, camphor, hydrochloric acid (muriaticum acidum), kali hydrocyanicum, iatropha curcas, secale and veratrum. Hencke also reported on the cholera epidemic in Riga in 1871[115]. French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Paul Francois Curie (1799-1853)[116] wrote A treatise on cholera, English and Asiatic: with directions for the homeopathic treatment Curie 1849[117].

The fight back of Homeopathy against its critics also stepped up a gear, and Instructions on the cholera were published by the Hahnemannian Society in 1849[118].

1849: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Lloyd Martin (1820-1890)[119] satisfactorily demonstrated clearly to the satisfaction of many people, the superiority of Homeopathy in the treatment of the cholera[120]. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy William Henry Holcombe (1825-1893)[121] began his own experiments on Homeopathy. As a result of statistical studies into cholera published in 1836 by French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Jules John Mabit (1781-1846)[122] , American audits on cholera were collected from all American hospitals, showing an orthodox mortality rate of 60%, and a Homeopathic mortality rate of just 3%[123].

1850: American Professional Homeopath James George Hunt (1821-1892)[124] treated cholera in Cincinatti. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Adam Miller (1821-1875)[125] wrote a review of The Cholera in Cincinnati, or a Connected View of the Controversy between the Homeopathists and the Methodist Expositor Latta 1850: A Review of the Report Read before the Homeopathic Association Miller 1850. French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Pierre Augustus Rapou (1780-1857)[126] travelled to Koethen, Vienna, Presberg, Raab, Pesth and Berlin to study Homeopathy and treat cholera[127], and he wrote The Only Preservative and Curative Treatment of Asiatic Cholera Rapou 1850. Jamaican Lay Homeopath and nurse Mary Jane Seacole (1805-1881 (her mother was a Homeopath) treated the cholera epidemic of 1850 alongside many other American Homeopaths (about 32,000 Jamaicans died). English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Henry Kelsall (1802-1875)[128] gave evidence in a Coroner’s case involving the death of a patient from cholera in 1850 which was widely reported at the time. He also wrote journal articles on Cholera to the British Journal of Homeopathy at this time.

From Wikipedia: 1852-1860 Third cholera pandemic mainly affected Russia, with over a million deaths. In 1852, cholera spread east to Indonesia and later invaded China and Japan in 1854.

1852: America orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Storm Rosa (1791-1864)[129], taught many people about Homeopathy (1849-1852). The Homeopathic Society of Cincinnati was composed largely of laymen and had a thousand members whose purpose was to vindicate Homeopathy and to uphold the truth regarding the cholera epidemic[130]. American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Reuben Ludlam (1831-1899)[131] treated cholera in Chicago. Robert Chambers and his brother William Chambers, reported again on cholera[132].

In 1853-4, London’s epidemic claimed 10,738 lives.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 8.10.1853 The Cholera in Newcastle: 1760 cases reported with mortality in excess of 2000. Problems: Deficient sewerage and drainage and supply of water.

  • Unpaved areas with liquid refuse and saturated subsoil.
  • Overcrowding and intolerable conditions which should be demolished, but the Corporation of Newcastle earns £2000 pa from these slums. The Poor Law Officers have not successfully persuaded the Council to effect repairs. Recent population increases have exhausted the water supply, despite efforts to address this as local industry took precedence of supply, resulting in the local population being forced to pay to use the polluted waters of the river.
  • The local doctors have been superceded by the Board of Health who does little to remedy the situation, are strangers to the area, who answer to local industry only.

Recommended allopathic treatment for cholera involves purging with calomel (mercury) in ‘large doses’. For the collapse stage, give emetic of sulphate of zinc and ipecacuana, and then repeat calomel – repeat this process every 10, 20 or 30 minutes. Feed with beef tea (per mouth or per rectum) and allay thirst with ice and cold water. Then give rhubarb and sulphate of potash in peppermint water, or a castor oil draught. Then administer liquid ammonium acetate or some carbonated soda and tartaric acid effervescence. Opium can be added in small doses to the calomel, and leeches, chalk and brandy can be used as required. For infants, use calomel on the tongue and beef tea injections as often as necessary. Letters printed after this article contain the following suggestions from orthodox physicians:

  • Try soda sesquicarb and laudanum together, and possibly combine capsicum tincture with infusion of cascarilla.
  • To prevent homeopaths visiting Newcastle to inspect the disease, treatments and conditions because they are ‘spies’.
  • To give rough cider and refuse all other foods except biscuits and toast.
  • To use chloroform, or, as cholera is ‘caused by fungus in the air’, sulphate of soda may be helpful.
  • To give croton oil on loaf sugar, while applying hot bricks and bags of sand to the feet.
  • To give nitromuriatic acid diluted in water, or sulphuric acid diluted in water to induce vomiting.
  • As cholera is absent from areas where cider and hard ale is drunk, give cooked apples.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Medical Journal 1853; 1045 Improper Treatment of Cholera by an agent of Cotton the Herbalist: George Burt, binge alcoholic, seen after a two week binge, complaining of diarrhoea, who received powders and a mixture from John Stephens, and agent of Cotton the herbalist over two days, but died. The attending surgeon Alexander M Champneys, refused to accept a death certificate from John Stephens, rather he opened the body and sent the stomach to the London Hospital who discovered cayenne, ginger, lobelia, and deduced the stomach irritation was as a result of the herbal mixture. The Coroner reported that John Stephens had been sent on two previous occasions to the Central Criminal Court on charges of manslaughter, but had been acquitted by the judge. The Coroner passed his verdict that George Burt died of natural causes which may have been accelerated by ‘improper medicine’. The attending surgeon Alexander M Champneys had recorded cholera on the death certificate.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 5.11.1853 The Cholera in the Metropolitan Hospitals: The hospitals report very few deaths at this time. The best defence is to repair the atrocious conditions of the poor slums, and to enforce the Board of Health inspectors to force the slum landlords to clear out the conditions that make them rich! Slaughterhouses still reside in domestic areas, and hovels are still knee deep in effluvia. Many charitable hospitals have not been called upon to admit cholera patients, the north London hospitals have few cases. Guy’s received the greatest number, being south of the river, but St. Thomas’ have received only 2 cases. It is not yet possible to determine the successful treatments, though cleanliness, warmth and clean air on the wards have obvious benefits. In the 1849 epidemic, cholera cases were not admitted to the hospitals, so no deaths were recorded. Today, we record deaths in hospital because they have been admitted, and cases of contagion have been noted, though the Lancet says ‘they are not contagious’ even though these cases seem to prove such theories. Mortality amongst those patients admitted appears to be 50%.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. Association Medical Journal 18.11.1853 The Investigation of Cholera: ‘… We have a poor understanding of cholera and no information has been collected and collated… If the same kind of searching investigation had been pursued in tracing cholera from one individual to another, as if employed by the detective police officers in tracing criminals… A ‘clearer light’ may be shone, such that we will no longer be at the mercy of ‘every ingenious theorist..’

1853: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy David Griffiths Jones (?1820-?1895)[133] wrote Cholera chemically considered Jones 1853[134]. Danish orthodox doctors and converts to Homeopathy Hans Thomsen (1802-1864)[135] and Johann Carl Ludwig Pabst (1795-1861)[136] worked through the Cholera epidemic in Copenhagen, when 4000 people died (Homeopathic deaths 5%, orthodox deaths 50-70%[137]). Charles Thomas Pearce wrote Diarrhoea and Cholera Pearce 1853[138]. Alexandre Charge treated Armand Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud (1801-1854), Marshal of France, of cholera who recovered and became an ardent advocate of Homeopathy, and in gratitude, established a Chair of Homeopathy[139] in the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris. Leroy de Saint Arnaud also employed orthodox Surgeon General and convert to Homeopathy Cabrol (?-?)[140] to be the Homeopathic physician to his troops at Varna during a cholera outbreak at Alms[141].

From Wikipedia: In 1854, an outbreak of cholera in Chicago took the lives of 5.5% of the population (about 3,500 people).

1854: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Thomas Southwood Smith (1788-1861)[142], was frequently consulted in fever epidemics and on sanitary matters by public authorities, and his reports on quarantine (1845), cholera (1850), yellow fever (1852), and on the results of sanitary improvement (1854) were of international importance[143]. His persecution by orthodox physicians forced him into poverty[144].

1854: French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Benoit Jules Mure (1809-1858)[145]  began his world tour to propagate Homeopathy across the world: to Palermo in 1834to Malta in 1836, to Paris in 1839, to Brazil in 1842, and to Cairo and the Sudan in 1852. By 1854, Mure had conducted some 38 Homeopathic remedy provings and translated them into English. In the heat of the Nubian desert, he produced a Logarithm Repertory using Greek letters in a code that required a cryptographer. On his voyages, he wrote papers on Homeopathic treatment of cholera, with Samuel Hahnemann’s instructions for the cure of that disease.

1854: English orthodox doctor John Snow (1813-1858) discovered the cause of cholera when he linked it to a well in Broad Street, Soho. The Soho outbreak in London ended after removal of the handle of the Broad Street pump by a committee instigated to action by John Snow. This proved that contaminated water (although it didn’t identify the contaminant) was the main agent spreading cholera. John Snow beat William Budd to the water theory of transmission of cholera by only 10 days. However, it was William Budd who correctly identified the contagious nature of typhoid and successfully stamped out an epidemic in Bristol in 1854[146].

1854: Charles Auguste Louis Joseph Demorny (1811-1865), the half-brother of Napoleon III, contracted cholera and was treated with Homeopathy[147]. French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Francois Perrussel (1807-1872)[148] treated cholera in 1835 [when he wrote Trip of a Homoeopathic Physician to the Cholera at Marseilles Perrussell 1835], 1849 and 1854 [he also wrote The Sweating Sickness and the Cholera Perrussel 1856]. His mortality rate was 5-7%, orthodox mortality rate 90%, and he was awarded a bronze medal in 1835. In 1854 in Champagne, he was awarded a gold medal, and in 1863, he was awarded Chevalier of the Order of Charles III for his work in this area. Perrussel also used Homeopathy to successfully treat horses in the Napoleonic army, but was refused permission to continue his clinical trials into Homeopathy by the orthodox Minister of War[149] Jacques Louis César Alexandre Randon 1st Count Randon (1795-1871).

1854: American Professional Homeopath Alfred Hughes (1824-1880)[150] treated cholera in Baltimore. Alexandre Charge wrote The Treatment of Cholera Charge 1854. English orthodox pharmacist and convert to Homeopathy Henry Turner (?1807-1873)[151], had founded Henry Turner & Co 1842, which became a major publisher of Homeopathic literature and wholesale shipments of Homeopathic supplies, trialed the use of salts in the treatment of cholera in Jamaica in 1854[152], and wrote to The Times to advertise his success. Lay Homeopath Caroline Wells Healey Dall (1822-1912), Transcendentalist and lay preacher, treated her friends and family in Toronto in 1854. Italian orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Rocco Rubini (1805-1886)[153] treated cholera with a mortality rate for homeopathy 8%, for orthodox treatment 53%.

Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time.  The Lancet 1854; 2:108 Announcement of the End of the Board of Health

Set up in the Act of 31.8.1848, the Board of Health has been ‘pronounced unworthy of future confidence’ in the House of Commons.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 23.9.1854: Benjamin Hall, the President of the Board of Healthhas issued printed forms for the concise registration of cases of cholera to all doctors – to be returned by 15.11.1854. Aims:

  • To correct the ‘ignorance of the pathology of the disease’.
  • To ascertain the correct treatments.

‘The medical profession has, at this moment, to stem a perfect torrent of nostrums; some of the offspring of the silliest charlatanry and self-sufficiency; some of value attested not by reason, not by experience that will bear sifting, but upon oath or affirmation; some that have the testimony of careful and competent observers to recommend them; these last are few’. One of the most recent ‘little puffs of mystification is the castor oil hypothesis of George Johnson’ (allopath, Assistant Physician at King’s College).

1854: The London Homeopathic Hospital at 32 Golden Square (1849-1859) was turned over entirely to cholera victims. Across London, 54,000 people died (death rate under Homeopathy 16.4%, under orthodox treatment 59.2%[154]). British orthodox physician who converted to homeopathy Hugh Cameron (1810-1897)[155] was the physician at the London Homeopathic Hospital at 32 Golden Square (1849-1859) in 1854, when Dr Macloughlin (?-?), one of the medical inspectors appointed by the General Board of Health, visited the wards, examined the cases under treatment, and watched their progress[156]. His statement, addressed to Hugh Cameron, a member of the medical staff, was as follows :

‘… You are aware that I went to your hospital prepossessed against the homeopathic system, that you had in me in your camp an enemy rather than a friend… and I need not tell you that I have taken some pains to make myself acquainted with the rise, progress and medical treatment of cholera, and that I claim for myself some right to be able to recognise the disease, and to know something of what the medical treatment ought to be, and that there may, therefore, be no misapprehension about the cases I saw in your hospital, I will add that, all I saw were true cases of cholera, in the various stages of the disease, and that I saw several cases which did well under your treatment which I have no hesitation in saying would have sunk under other. In conclusion I must repeat to you what I have already told you, and what I have told everyone whom I have conversed, that although in allopath by principle, education and practice yet were it the will of Providence to afflict me with cholera, and deprive me of the power of prescribing for myself, I would rather be in the hands of a homeopathic than; in allopathic adviser…[157]

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 1855; 1:519-520: The Lancet reports that the Homeopaths are upset as the Board of Health did not record their cholera returns. English Politician and advocate of Homeopathy Robert Grosvenor 1st Baron Ebury (1801-1893)[158] complained to the Board of Health. Welsh Politician Benjamin Hall (1802-1867) and President of the Board of Health defended the exclusion of the Homeopathic report, and reports that the Medical Council was tasked to analyse the various methods of therapeutic treatment of cholera, ad what has homeopathy to do with therapeutics? When Benjamin Hall asked the council to explain this omission, the reply was: ‘… That by introducing the returns of homeopathic practitioners, they would not only compromise the value and utility of their averages of cure, as deduced from the operation of known remedies, but they would give an unjustifiable sanction to an empirical practice alike opposed to the maintenance of truth and to the progress of science… [159]’ In other words, the statistics from the homeopathic hospital were not listed because their listing would suggest that homeopathic medicines provide a superior treatment for cholera. The inspector appointed to the District of London refused to visit the homeopathic hospital, so another inspector reluctantly agreed to do so. In a letter to the Homeopathic Hospital on February 22, 1855, he wrote: “You are aware that I went to your hospital prepossessed against the homeopathic system; that you had in me, in your camp, an enemy rather than a friend, and that I must therefore have seen some cogent reason there, the first day I went, to come away so favourably disposed as to advise a friend to send a subscription to your charitable fund[160]. The Lancet ridiculed the ‘third dilution of the billionth of a grain’ (despite the 1x, 2x, 3x and mother tinctures used by British orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Anderson (1817-1875)[161]), and the Lancet refutes the claim that medical doctors who convert to homeopathy are capable of diagnosing cholera. The Lancet bristles under the epithet ‘allopath’ and accused Robert Grosvenor 1st Baron Ebury of ‘falling short of his duty to the country’.

1855: a follow up report on the treatment of cholera patients at the London Homeopathic Hospital at 32 Golden Square (1849-1859) was made to Parliament[162] and reported… a total of 18,002 patients treated since it opened in 1850. However, the British Medical Association 1856[163] reported that the cholera statistics from the Homeopathic hospitals were ‘overlooked’ in the official returns as this would ‘give an unjustifiable sanction’ to Homeopathy[164].

1855 – by far the majority of Homeopaths at this time were using very low potencies, not far from material dose, relying on the Law of Similars only:

Law of Similars teaches that every Homoeopathic remedy experimentally observed to have certain properties of producing a set of symptoms on healthy human beings and when these symptoms matches with a natural disease, it act as therapeutic agent and help the body to correct the disorder.

1855: Rubini wrote Statistica dei colerici curati omiopaticamente in Napoli, nel Real albergo dei poveri Rubini 1855[165]. English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy William Vallancy Drury (1820-1892)[166] wrote Cholera: Its Treatment on Homeopathic Principles Drury 1855 and subsequently Cholera and Diarrhoea Drury 1866.

1855: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy James John Garth Wilkinson (1812-1899)[167] wrote War, Cholera, and the Ministry of Health. An appeal to Sir Benjamin Hall and the British People Wilkinson 1855 wherein he outlined the Homeopathic treatment of cholera at this time: 30 drops of saturated spirit of camphor in half a tumbler of water to be taken every 5 minutes to half an hour, depending on the severity of the symptoms. Abstain from food and take rest. If the diarrhoea increases, take 20 drops of veratrum in half a tumbler of water, and 20 drops of arsenicum in half a tumbler of water, alternating every half hour. Add to this 20 grains of cuprum 3x if cramps and convulsions occur, to be taken when the pains are greatest. If the patient still worsens, then give carbo veg 3x tincture, or in extremis stramonium tincture 3x.

Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 1855; 1: 345-348 Report on the Results of the Different Methods of Treatment pursued in Epidemic Cholera: The Board of Health reported 2749 cases (1104 in hospital and 1645 in the community). The mortality rate is reported as follows; alteratives (20.3%), astringents (36.2%), stimulants (54%), eliminants (71.7%). Therefore, eliminative treatments are not recommended, alterative treatments are the best, especially in collapse cases (mortality 59.2%). The mortality in hospital is greatest as they are almost always severe cases who have been transported, The lowest mortality is seen in private practice in affluent patients. However, the Lancet notes confusion and lack of accuracy across the returns, and the profusion of different methods used, also the many different presentations of the disease, the inaccuracy of recording events, such that details of early treatment stages are often absent, and so many anomalies and inaccurate detail in collection and recording was discovered in the returns, such that conclusions are dubious and difficult to reach.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 1855; 1: 412 The Results of Different Methods of Treating Cholera: 2749 cases analysed:

  • Those from the Metropolitan Hospitals (1104)
  • Those from the Metropolitan District not in hospital (1645)
  • Those from provincial districts.

 The treatments fall into 4 classes:

  • Alteratives (calomel, salines)
  • Astringents (sulphuric acid, chalk, opium, iron, alum, acetate of lead, cinchona/quinine)
  • Stimulants (ammonia, brandy, ether, camphor, chloroform, cajeput)
  • Eliminants (castor oil, ipecac, tartarised antimony)

Conclusion: The eliminative method is condemned altogether. The alterative method is confirmed, especially when combined with opium (but only in severe cases in large doses. Results:

  • Alteratives  (36.2% mortality)
  • Astringents (20.3% mortality)
  • Stimulants  (54% mortality)
  • Eliminants  (71.7% mortality

 The mortality rates in hospitals are greater than in private practice, thus ‘gives the final blow’ to the Homeopathic idea of administering agents similar to the disease (eliminants), so the Lancet denounces the castor oil treatment.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 1855; 2: 202-203 The Board of Health and the Cholera Epidemic: The Lancet lauds the ‘great pains’ taken to audit the comprehensive report, though it also notes that no complete number of those afflicted exists as there is no State Register of the Causes of Sickness. This report includes the returns of over 300 medical doctors, and furnishes data of 3188 cases in England (46% mortality), and the returns of the poor Law Board of Scotland, who record 14,430 (47.5% mortality), so the Lancet infers that overall 25,000 cases of cholera occurred in England over the course of this epidemic. The Board of Health estimates some hundreds of thousands of cases in total. 5271 cases of diarrhoea were recorded (87 fatal), overall total 17,351 (1.6% mortality), though it must be considered that a multitude of cases of diarrhoea never came to medical attention at all. Overall, this report gives an’ inadequate conception’ of the epidemic. The Lancet discusses the different presentations of the disease, the effects of locality, air, water, atmosphere and the similarity of the 1849 and 1854 epidemics, the 1854 epidemic being judged less severe.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 1855; 2:346-348 Report of the Committee for Scientific Inquiries in Relation to the Cholera Epidemic of 1854: This report examines 4271 cases of cholera (3188 in the Metropolitan District (46% mortality), and 20,301 cases of diarrhoea (17.460 in the Metropolitan District), collated from the returns submitted to the Board of Health by medical practitioners. Firstly, diarrhoea and cholera must not be considered distinct diseases, but must be considered as the same process, especially when they prevail together epidemically. If the 36 districts of London are arranged in order of their elevation above high water mark of the Thames, then the mortality is invariably in relation to it. Upon the highest terraces, the diarrhoea is as fatal as the cholera, and on the lowest ground, the cholera is 4 times as fatal as the diarrhoea. It is notes that at the height of the epidemic, the atmospheric pressure had risen high above normal, the temperatures were above average, especially in September when the epidemic was at its height. The air quality was very poor at the height of the epidemic and a drought ensured. These effects were most noticeable in alluvial districts, the chief seats of cholera in London, thus proving beyond doubt that the climate is London accelerated the epidemic. The air in the hospitals during the epidemic was rife with organic matter, fungi and vibriones, which declined as the disease declined. These findings make frequent escapes to the purity of the country air vital for all classes. Reports on the variability of water purity have previously been reported in the Lancet, some of our London water contains unacceptable amounts of raw sewage, easily seen under the microscope. However, the theory of contamination through ingestion of contaminated water in cholera is still in dispute. The results of the efficacy of different treatments is reviewed, but the Lancet concludes that the study was based on too few cases to allow satisfactory conclusions to be made.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Journal of Homeopathy 1855; 13:62-78 Observations on the Cholera Epidemic by John Anderson. This article is a report on 166 cases (4 deaths) treated by John Anderson, and he summarises the cases. The remedies used throughout (in 1x, 2x, 3x and mother tincture) were Camphor (often already taken by the patient before consultation), veratrum, ipecac, nux vomica, mercury corrosivus, arsenicum, china, secale, pulstalilla, digitalis, belladonna, cuprum, ignatia, carbo vegetalis, chamomilla. NB: camphorated chloroform was used in cases of pulmonary congestion. John Anderson illustrates two types of Cholera (fear and mental dread were noted

in all cases):

  • Rumbling and griping in abdomen with diarrhoea and fever of 2-8 days duration.
  • Vomiting thin, grass green fluids after a meal or from an error of diet, with diarrhoea, fever, prostration, cramps, with marked raging thirst accompanying the severe cases, severe collapse (as if dead), with suppression of urine, and very severe cramps with severe contortion of the whole body just prior to death (4 cases).

 Atypical presentations were noted. Not all symptoms were always present. Some cases were noted to exhibit exacerbations or amelioration of existing symptoms during the illness. Some cases had absence of diarrhoea after an initial evacuation. In some cases, the fever led to delirium (which could be violent with screaming), asphyxia (one case – treated with camphorated chloroform). NB: eruptions and boils after homeopathic treatment proceeded cure in some cases. Problems:

  • Malignant cholera was not always easy to determine.
  • It is as if a remedy for the collapse stage has not yet been identified.
  • A statistical comparison chart for successful homeopathic treatments would be of great value.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Journal of Homeopathy 1855; 13 (part 54): 674-688 Parliamentary Return of the Homeopathic Treatment of Cholera from the London Homeopathic Hospital at 32 Golden Square (1849-1859) 20.4.1855 by Ralph Buchan (1820-1892)[168], an English Civil Servant at the Commisariat and at the War Office, who was the Honorary Secretary of the London Homeopathic Hospital). The report does not include the returns submitted in November 1854, and noted that this previous return had still not received comment from Parliament. Therefore, this communication was an official complaint, addressed to Benjamin Hall President of the Board of Health, and submitted to the Committee of Management of the Board of Health (dated 11.5.1855), and includes a list of all the individuals involved with the London Homeopathic Hospital, and the fact that the London Homeopathic Hospital has been open for 5 years and has already treated 14,000 people for ‘nearly every variety of acute and chronic disease’. In September 1854, the London Homeopathic Hospital directed the hospital to offer all wards for the sole use of the poor attacked by the cholera epidemic, and a visiting staff of doctors were organised to visit those who could not be admitted as inpatients. All comers were treated, day and night for free. Handbills containing directions for prevention of cholera or the arrest of the disease in its early stages, were widely circulated, and notices inserted in daily journals announcing the London Homeopathic Hospital was ready to receive patients. The London Homeopathic Hospital approached the Board of Guardians of the Parish of St, James Westminster for permission to use litters to convey cholera cases to and from the hospital, which was refused on the grounds the Parish had no means of complying with this request. The Medical Inspector for the Board of Health never once visited the hospital, so the London Homeopathic Hospital invited John MacLaughlin, the Medical Officer for Stepney, Poplar, St. Andrews, St. Giles and St. George’s, to inspect the wards. John MacLaughlin confirmed in his letter dated 22.2.1855 that the cases he saw at the London Homeopathic Hospital ‘were true cases of cholera, in the various stages of the disease, and that I saw several cases which did well under your treatment, which I have no hesitation in saying would have sunk under any other’. A fund was set up to hire lodgings in Hampstead to house patients in convalescence, to distribute gifts of money and clothing to those left destitute by the cholera or extreme poverty, thus relieving any charge on the Parish. The statistics collected and submitted were carefully collated, and include full names, addresses and occupations of the patients, the symptoms observed at all the different stages of the disease, all remedies employed, and included the names of the doctors, their qualifications, and similarly the names and qualifications of those compiling the reports were also included.

Cholera cases                      61

Diarrhoea cases                331

Deaths                                    10

Cases of collapse               59%

NB: 3 cases of cholera were removed from the hospital by relatives before the outcome was determined. 1 death from cholera occurred on the way to the hospital before treatment commenced. Several cases were brought to the hospitals after orthodox physicians declared their case hopeless. J J Campbell (?-?), Assistant Secretary to the Board of Health replied on 21.4.1855, to inform London Homeopathic Hospital that statistics from Homeopathic practitioners had been included in the general returns without indicating the difference between orthodox and Homeopathic treatment. A letter was received from John Ayrton Paris (1785-1856), President of the Treatment Committee of the Board of Health dated 21.4.1855, stating that a resolution had been passed to exclude the London Homeopathic Hospital statistics as they would ‘compromise the values and utilities of their average of cure, as deduced from the operation of known treatments, but they would give an unjustifiable sanction to an empirical practice alike opposed to the maintenance of truth, and to the progress of science’.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. Interments of the House of Commons 14.5.1855: by Robert Grosvenor 1st Baron Ebury asks whether the Board of Health forms received from Homeopaths were refused on receipt. Benjamin Hall replied that forms were sent out to all doctors listed in the Medical Directory, Homeopath and orthodox, and those forms returned by Homeopaths had been systematically identified and excluded from the report.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 28.7.1855 The Resignation of Benjamin Hall as President of the Board of Health: Benjamin Hall took over when confidence in the Board of Health was very low, and he carried the Metropolitan Local Government Bill and the Disease Prevention Act through the House of Commons. The Lancet bemoans his ‘removal from office’.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 18.8.1855 Benjamin Hall is now President of the Board of Works, and W F Cowper (?-?) is appointed President of the Board of Health. W F Cowper is a well-known Poor Reformer and supporter of allotments and gardens for the labouring classes.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 20.10.1855: The Board of Health is finally given powers to improve sanitary measures, but is still restricted. Unless a Town or District voluntarily decides to communicate with the Board of Health, the Board has no power to intervene unless the mortality rate rises above 25 in 100 (the Pestilence Standard, or the natural rate of mortality in this country under favourable conditions). The Lancet advises the operations of the poor Law Commissioners be brought under the Board of Health, as they are responsible for the failure of the Smallpox Vaccination Extension Act 1853 of George William Lyttelton 4th Baron Lyttelton 4th Baron Westcote (1817-1876) (an English MP) because the labouring classes will have nothing to do with Parish relief or with Poor Law Guardians. Thus vaccination must be given to the Board of Health.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Medical Journal 1855; 390-4 Report on Cholera in the Metropolis: This report is about the second epidemic of cholera in London (first epidemic 1849). Suspicious cases first appeared in the winter of 1852 (no deaths reported in January 1853). 2 deaths were reported in February 1853,, 2 in March, 6 in April, 1 in May, 3 in June, 18 in July. Thereafter, the death rate escalated, reaching full epidemic in October 1853, and peaking in November 1853. In December 1853, the deaths declined week by week, and cases of diarrhoea rose and fell with the patterns of cholera, which began to slowly rise again during the early months of 1854, reaching full epidemic in July 1854. During this same period, dysentery claimed 7 (deaths per week), typhus claimed 40-60 (deaths per week), peaking in October 1853 when 88 people died from typhus in one week. The whole class of zymotic diseases were claiming 200-300 lives (deaths per week) until the cholera became epidemic, and a total of 2558 people had died of these diseases in the period ending 9.9.1853. The cholera was epidemic over the whole Metropolis by July 1854, peaking in the 2nd week of September (exactly the same pattern as the 1849 epidemic), and terminating on 16.12.1854 after claiming 40,599 lives (10,675 from cholera, 2601 from diarrhoea, 1347 from typhus). The cholera was London wide, but deaths from it was most unequal, being much worse south of the river (1 death to every 353 inhabitants north of the Thames, and 1 death to every 108 inhabitants south of the Thames). The mortality in St. James Westminster was abnormally high. This report concludes that there is no relation to impure water and cholera, though the use of such water has aggravated the severity of the cholera in cases south of the river. The cholera manifests its usual tendency to partial, localised outbreaks, attacking a single court or house and then disappearing, though there were favoured locations where it was seldom absent, often occurring in exactly the same place as in earlier epidemics, even to the same house on the anniversary date of earlier outbreaks. This tendency to partial outbreaks at selected sites was also noted in cases of diarrhoea, noting the example of 330 cases at St. Saviour’s Workhouse, where only 1 case proceeded to cholera and no one died, though nearly all had diarrhoea. John MacLaughlin reported that in Stepney, it was impractical to record all the cases of diarrhoea, though astringents were dispensed to 15,000 people between 5.8.1854 and 14.10.1854, though only 8610 subsequently presented for medical attention. Many doctors noted that all of the cholera cases they had seen were preceded by diarrhoea, and John MacLaughlin noted that in Poplar, diarrhoea had increased so rapidly, it was not possible to record names and addresses of patients. In fact, the fatal neglect of the premonitory diarrhoea in Bermondsey was solely responsible for the resultant death rates from cholera, such that this has now been made a Parish matter, such was the antipathy of residents towards anything to do with the Parish. House to house visitations to offer relief in the early stages of diarrhoea must be organised and directed, as reports on the 1849 epidemic illustrate that opening local dispensaries was insufficient. Medical relief must be sent in to affected districts, as relying on patients themselves to act, as the poor often overlook the dangerous significance of such symptoms, most deaths occur due to late presentation and neglect of early stages, such has been noted as far back as the epidemic of 1832. When daily house to house visitations to offer such aid was offered in Dumfries in 1848, the results were so beneficial, the technique was soon adopted in many other affected places to great effect. Daily house to house visitation was attempted in 1849 in London, and was of equal success, when 44,715 cases were treated in the early stages and only 52 died from cholera. In 1853 in Newcastle, daily house to house visitations saved many lives, such that the Board of Guardians sent out directions country wide, but none of our Metropolitan Parishes had made any preparations for this measure. Therefore, some more suitable authority with adequate powers is required in the Metropolis. In the epidemic of 1849, 14,590 cholera deaths were recorded, 2.2% were gentry, 13.6% were tradesmen, 60.8% were amongst the poor. The current Board of Guardians thus relies on Poor Law Guardians to protect the poor. The Board of Guardians have few powers to sewer a street, drain a house, pave a street or to control water supply. The working classes and small tradesmen are the most vulnerable as they detest Parish assistance in all forms, and are thus often left without medical care, which is resident in Parish dispensaries and workhouses. Often no fatalities occur in paupers as a result of early treatment from the Parish. However, until a local Board with sufficient power to demolish hovels and build decent houses exists, the Board of Guardians is totally inadequate to counter such epidemics. Sanitary improvements in certain areas demonstrate this beyond doubt.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Medical Journal 1855; 977-978 A Cholera Blue Book: We have suffered three cholera visitations in these islands to date, and we still do not know its cause. Previous reports record the endeavours of science to investigate this. The Medical Council has ‘begin the attack’ by direct investigation into every cause possible. It has been noted that the meteorological phenomenon were identical in all three epidemics, the atmospheric pressure was great, the wind NE and SW and becalmed. Stifling heat at night, deficient electrical activity (storms) and a total absence of ozone made the air quality terrible. Lambeth suffered extreme malignity in all three epidemics due to its position and situation near Plumstead Marshes, and surrounded by low lying hills, it acted as a cul de sac of bad air. The evidence that stagnant and polluted air has been amply demonstrated. The microscopic examination of body parts and products and blood from cholera patients disproves the theory that the blood corpuscles break down, or that parasitic production was present in such cases. Post mortem results demonstrate little apart from the flaccid condition of the right side of the heart and extremities, and the rigid condition of the left side of the heart and extremities.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 29.12.1855 Election and Duties of Medical Officers of Health:

  • To familiarise themselves with natural and acquired features of place, locality, social, sanitary (including provision of wells and water springs), meteorological peculiarities, distribution of buildings and open spaces, paved or unpaved streets, burial grounds, plans of drains and sewers, water supplies, nature of local industry, population statistics, local burial arrangements, local washing arrangements, and all regulations pertaining locally to Public Health.
  • To consult locally with professionals regarding local problems.
  • To familiarise themselves with weekly deaths and sickness and inquire how these depend on removable causes.
  • To take steps to improve the conditions of the place and locality, to examine drinking water regularly, to stop hurtful and illegal practices, to visit burial grounds, to observe all slaughter houses and industrial establishments liable to omit offensive effluvia (especially animal).
  • To report weekly to local Board on all deaths, on all sickness in the district, on unwholesome conditions that should be removed, on progress of previously reported concerns. To report annually to the local Board on improvements made, on problems remaining, on sickness, death and atmospheric conditions of the period, on improvements needed.
  • To receive local complaints and take steps to deal with them. NB: candidate must have qualifications in pathology, statistics, chemistry (plus microscopic observation), natural philosophy. Local Boards must understand the nature of these educational requirements, and consider disbarring candidates from private practice, particularly at times of epidemics, due to the conflicts of interests involved.

 Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The British Journal of Homeopathy 1856: 14:102-124 Report on the Committee for Scientific Inquiries in relation to the cholera epidemic of 1854, presented to both Houses of Parliament: Both orthodox and Homeopaths are concerned that there is a great want for a systematic record of cases of cholera to determine the best mode of treatment. Benjamin Hall has been found out for not following his own guidelines ‘ to include the observations of all qualified practitioners’ in this report. The cases treated at the London Homeopathic Hospital were from an area where the disease was ‘most intense’ at the height of the epidemic, according to this report, and they presented the average number of collapses. So what has Benjamin Hall done with the homeopathic statistics? This article reviews the official report and points out that epidemics of cholera around the World differ in atmospheric conditions and air quality (eg: the outbreak in the Black Sea in 1855). The effect of elevation above the water table on cholera has been attested all around the World (with the exception of the Euphrates outbreak in 1822 when a Persian army was decimated on high table land (300 out of 1000 died)). This article notes with astonishment at the low priority given in the official report to the presence of vibriones identified in the water and in the choleraic discharges from the bowels of infected individuals, but applauds the call for improved water supplies in this country. The confusion over diarrhoea and cholera (same disease or a different disease), and whether the diarrhoea should be stopped or allowed by medical practitioners is rife with confusion. If orthodox physicians took a proper history, it would become apparent to them that diarrhoea is not cholera or vice versa. The cause of diarrhoea is in its origin, of which these are known and are legion. The cause of cholera is as yet unknown, but it cannot be induced by any known cause of diarrhoea. Thus orthodox physicians get lost in such a profusion of confused symptoms. Numerous dissections of cholera cases do not demonstrate fluid in the bowels, and it is noted that in the most intense and characteristic form of cholera, no diarrhoea is observed at all. This article notes that the chief effect of cholera is found in the nervous system, involving the respiratory nerves, the sense of death characteristic of the disease, the oppression of the heart and the hollow whispering voice. Diarrhoea does not cause any such symptoms. The failure of respiration is noted in the chill of expired air. The suppression of urine and cold perspiration, and the decomposition of the blood, bile and foecal matter is noted. The cramps associated with cholera may indeed relate to this ‘dead blood’. And all this described so completely by camphor! The orthodox treatments comprise a ‘burlesque’, their already confused notions result in a mess of statistics completely devoid of details of the individual, dates, doses given (small or large – what does this mean?), information about preparation of treatments, combination ratios (implied but not specified), treatments to counter the ill effects of calomel are included as therapeutics – in fact this is all the ‘stuff of verbiage’. How can the saline treatment be more fatal than 100%? Where is the trial of the use of salts in pronounced collapse? Homeopaths treat thus: When an individual shows its early stages of weakness, giddiness, heaviness of the head, loss of appetite, swelling or distention of the abdomen, nausea, frequent diarrhoea – put the patient in a warm and soft bed and cover them. Treat these early stages with 2-4 drops of spirit of camphor diffused in a teaspoon of sugared water, or on a bit of sugar, every 5 minutes. If after a few doses the patient falls into perspiration, or if the symptoms have eased, then administer the treatment at longer intervals. If the symptoms have become worse, give the treatment more frequently. If within 2 hours no important improvement has taken place and the well-known symptoms of cholera appear, then melt 3 good table spoons full of common salt in a quart of warm water and let half of this be taken immediately till vomiting takes place. After the stomach is emptied, apply a mustard or horseradish poultice to the pit of the stomach, which should be kept there until a strong perspiration arises. Then administer a moderate teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and a tablespoon of an equal part vinegar and water, given in a state of effervescence every 20 minutes. Also give Stevens saline powder in 2-3 tablespoons of beef tea or oatmeal gruel every half hour until the symptoms of cholera have entirely disappeared. (No doubt Homeopathic remedies were also administered at intervals).

1855: French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Simon Felix Camille Croserio (1786-1855)[169] so exhausted himself treating the cholera epidemic, having taken no care of himself nor give himself the necessary time to recover, he died shortly thereafter. British orthodox physician who converted to Homeopathy William Henry Mayne (1819-1876)[170] wrote On the use of Caster oil as a powerful Anti-Spasmodic, with satisfactory results from its use in cholera, diarrhoea and dry bellyache Mayne 1855. British orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Jacob Dixon (1818-1890)[171] wrote Cholera Dixon 1855. John Anderson wrote Observations on the Cholera Epidemic Anderson 1855[172]. English orthodox pharmacist and publisher and convert to Homeopathy William Headland (?1800-1860)[173] collected donations in 1855 in support of a Homeopath who had been summarily dismissed without pay or pension for curing a fellow doctor of cholera[174]. William Headland became the first British Homeopathic chemist and he founded Headland & Co 1860[175] and published many Homeopathic books, journals and periodicals about Homeopathy.

1855: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Hitchman (1805-1867)[176] wrote to The Lancet to reported his experiments with high dilutions, using arsenius acid, in doses of one hundredth of a grain in the treatment of cholera with good success[177] ‘… The efforts of the late Mr. Hitchman should not be overlooked, for to him the idea of planting the roadsides with trees is due, and by his energy it was mainly carried out[178]’ French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Henri Leroux (1790-1881)[179] published the results of his Homeopathic treatment of cholera in 1855[180].

Medical Chatter: Homeopathy and Cholera 1853-1855 Sue Young 2009 The following are short précis excerpts taken from some articles published about the cholera epidemic at the time. The Lancet 28.4.1855 Statistical Results of the Treatment of Cholera and Diarrhoea: A list of treatments used and the failures of those treatments is listed. (table not reproduced here as is it unintelligible, for example, salines and chalk (deaths 13.6% and 8% – failure rate 12.6%; calomel and opium (deaths 6.9% – failure rate 7.1%); etc). However, The Lancet concludes that the statistics were rushed and not undertaken until the peak of the epidemic, the returns were poorly thought out, and the medical profession should have been more prepared to co-operate. Of the % deaths recorded:

  • Alteratives (calomel, opium, salines)                48.5% (80% in collapse cases)
  • Astingents (sulphuric acid, logwood,                50%    (78.9% in collapse cases)
  • catechu etc)
  • Stimulants (ammonia, brandy, camphor,          79% (76.2% in collapse cases)
  • chloroform, creosote, capsicum etc)
  • Eliminants (emetics and olive oil)                     80.9% (77.6% in collapse cases)

1857: English Lay Homeopath, physician and publisher John Chapman (1821-1894)[181], advocated his spinal ice bag as a treatment for sea sickness and cholera, and he wrote to The Times to describe his use of ice packs to treat cholera patients in Southampton[182]. [John Chapman’s cousin, publisher and political agitator, John Chapman (1801-1854) had died of cholera in 1854] and John Chapman (1821-1894) wrote Diarrhœa and cholera: their nature, origin, and treatment through the agency of the nervous system Chapman 1844, and Cholera curable: a demonstration of the causes, non-contagiousness, and successful treatment of the disease Chapman 1885.

From Wikipedia: The Philippines were infected in 1858 and Korea in 1859. In 1859, an outbreak in Bengal once again led to the transmission of the disease to Iran, Iraq, Arabia and Russia.

1861: American Professional Homeopath Laura Matilda Towne (1825-1901)[183] treated the cholera epidemic on St. Helena. German Lay Homeopath and physician Gottlieb Heinrich Georg Jahr (1800-1875)[184] wrote a treatises on cholera in his New manual of Homeopathic Practice Jahr ?1861.

1862: American President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)[185] signed a bill[186] allocating some civil war military hospitals over to Homeopaths because of their unparalleled success in treating cholera, yellow fever, diphtheria and influenza compared to orthodox medicine. Lincoln had previously signed a special legislative charter for a Homeopathic medical school in Chicago in 1854[187]

From Wikipedia: 1863-1875 Fourth cholera pandemic spread mostly in Europe and Africa. At least 30,000 of the 90,000 Mecca pilgrims fell victim to the disease. Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866. The epidemic of cholera that spread with the Austro-Prussian War (1866) is estimated to have claimed 165,000 lives in the Austrian Empire. Hungary and Belgium both lost 30,000 people and in the Netherlands 20,000 perished. In 1867, Italy lost 113,000 lives. 1866 Outbreak in North America. It killed some 50,000 Americans. In London, a localized epidemic in the East End claimed 5,596 lives just as London was completing its major sewage and water treatment systems—the East End was not quite complete. William Farr, using the work of John Snow et al. as to contaminated drinking water being the likely source of the disease, was able to relatively quickly identify the East London Water Company as the source of the contaminated water. Quick action prevented further deaths. Also a minor outbreak at Ystalyfera in South Wales. Caused by the local water works using contaminated canal water, it was mainly its workers and their families who suffered, 119 died. In the same year more than 21,000 people died in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

1864: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Cropper (1826-?)[188] published Cholera and its Homeopathic Treatment Cropper ?1864, Joseph Hyppolyte Pulte  published Asiatic Cholera: its preventatives and treatment Pulte ?1864, and Edwin A Lodge (?-?)[189] published Asiatic Cholera Lodge ?1864.

1866: William Budd wrote Memoranda on Asiatic cholera: its mode of spreading, and its prevention Budd ?1866. In 1866, Cholera broke out in Doncaster and the St. James Homeopathic Hospital in Doncaster (1852-1880) was placed unconditionally at the disposal of the local people, during which time orthodox physicians and Homeopaths worked side by side together[190]. Swedish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Peter Jacob Liedbeck (1808-1876)[191] wrote On the Spirit of Camphor Alone as a Remedy for Cholera Liedbeck 1866. Irish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Joseph Kidd (1824-1918)[192] wrote Directions for the Homeopathic Treatment of Cholera Kidd 1866. Kidd became the Homeopathic physician of British Prime Ministers Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (1801-1881)[193] and William Ewert Gladstone (1809-1898)[194] due to the recommendation[195] of Queen Victoria (1819-1901)[196].

1866: African American Professional Homeopath Susan McKinney Steward (1847-1918)[197] graduated as a physician in New York, as the third African American woman in the country to do so, just five years after the Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery in the United States. Steward treated cholera throughout the New York cholera epidemic of 1866, as she had practiced Homeopathic medicine in Brooklyn most of her life. James George Hunt wrote The Prevention and Domestic Treatment of Cholera Hunt 1866, which was published in all the daily papers of Cincinnati, and extensively copied. American Professional Homeopath Adolph Lippe (1812-1888)[198] wrote Cholera; Its Treatment by HomoeopathyCholera: Lecture Delivered at the Homœopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania Lippe 1866.

1866: English orthodox physician and Homeopathic advocate William Tilbury Fox (1836-1879)[199], friend of Frederick Hervey Foster Quin, advocated the Homeopathic remedy Nux Vomica in his book Cholera Prospects Fox 1866, where he describes how sought after this remedy was in Alexandria as a treatment for cholera[200]. English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Alfred Orlando Jones (1838-1896)[201] wrote Cholera: its symptoms and treatment Jones 1866. English orthodox physician with Homeopathic sympathies Charles Robert Drysdale (1829-1907)[202], younger brother of John James Drysdale, wrote On Cholera; Its Nature and Treatment Drysdale 1866. English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Henry Marston (1833-1899)[203] wrote Cholera: its causes, prevention, and treatment Marston 1866,

1867: German Jewish orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Karl Friedrich Gottfried Trinks (1810-1868)[204], at a meeting of the Central Society of German Homeopathic Physicians in August 1867, excited the admiration of the members present by his address on cholera[205]. Dutch orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy George Schmid (1820-1882)[206] wrote Das Choleragift Schmidt 1867. British orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy George Lade (1823-1892)[207] wrote Iris Versicolor in cholera Lade 1867. British Inspector of Railways, Henry Whatley Tyler (1827-1908)[208], Sponsor of the Henry Tyler Wing at the London Homeopathic Hospital at 32 Golden Square (1849-1859)investigated London’s water supply following an outbreak of cholera, an investigation which involved emptying a reservoir of the East London Waterworks Company next to the river Lea, and tasting the contaminated water. His report helped confirm that cholera was water borne rather than by the air.

1867: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Peter Proctor (1814-1886)[209] treated cholera in Liverpool. His Dispensary allied to the Sisters of Mercy, raised a fighting fund distributed the area with free bags of hot salt to the abdomen and 5 drop doses of spirits of camphor every 10 minutes. The cholera was especially bad down by the docks and less common on higher ground. The epidemic peaked at the height of the heat wave when the rain fell incessantly, when many cases presented in the collapse stage and died, and lessened as soon as the weather cleared. Peter Proctor recommended camphor, arsenicum, cuprum, aconite, phosphorus and veratrum. Tartar emetic and secale were disappointing. Proctor wrote on Homeopathy and Cholera in Liverpool Proctor 1867.

1868: American Professional Homeopath David H Cowley (?-?)[210] published statistics on the treatment of cholera by Homeopathy. French orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Charles Gaspard Peschier (1782-1853)[211] wrote Instruction succincte pour le traitement homéopathique, préservatif et curatif du choléra Peschier ?1868.  German orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Johann Gustav Schweikert (1816-1903)[212] wrote Die Cholera, eine epidemische Lähmung der Capillaren der Darmschleimhaut und ihrer nerven Schweikert 1868 having previously published Homöopathischer Rathgeber bei Cholera-Erkrankungen Schweikert 1853.

1870: German orthodox physician and advocate of Homeopathy Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902)[213] praised Samuel Hahnemann for being the first person to empirically and systematically test the effects of medicaments on healthy people[214], and for his concept of the minimum dose. Virchow wrote Resemblance to Cholera in the Symptoms of Arsenic Poisoning Virchow 1870 and Homeopaths were incredulous[215].

1873: German Pharmacist, publisher and convert to Homeopathy Willmar Schwabe (1839-1917)[216] published De cholera en hare genezing door de homoeopathie Schwabe 1873, and Le Cholera: querison prompte et sure par l’homeopathie ?Schwabe ?1873. Willmar Schwabe and his sons have supported Homeopathy from 1866 to date and Schwabe’s multinational pharmaceutical company is still trading today[217].

1878: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Jabez Philander Dake (1827-1894)[218] treated cholera in Nashville. His treatment of cholera was extremely successful as he only lost one patient out of sixty two cases[219].

1879:, English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy John Henry Clarke (1853-1931)[220] wrote Cholera, Diarrhœa, and Dysentery: Homœopathic Prevention and Cure Clarke 1879.

1880: French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)[221] published his articles on chicken cholera. The claim that Louis Pasteur ‘borrowed’ his ground-breaking ideas from Homeopathy is not new. It was made at the time by Homeopaths who criticized him for taking certain parts of their method and then misapplying them, and by orthodox physicians who vituperously attacked him for ‘… being a Homeopath[222]’ and called him ’Paracelsus II’.

From Wikipedia: 1881-1896 Fifth cholera pandemic… the 1883-1887 epidemic cost 250,000 lives in Europe and at least 50,000 in Americas. Cholera claimed 267,890 lives in Russia (1892); 120,000 in Spain; 90,000 in Japan and 60,000 in Persia. In Egypt cholera claimed more than 58,000 lives. The 1892 outbreak in Hamburg killed 8,600 people… This was the last serious European cholera outbreak.

1883: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Arthur de Noe Walker (1820-1900)[223] wrote The Prophylactic power of copper in epidemic cholera Walker 1883.

1883: German orthodox doctor Robert Koch (1843-1910)[224] orthodox physician, isolated the vibrio cholera. The claim that Robert Koch ‘borrowed’ his ground-breaking ideas from Homeopathy is not new. It was made at the time by Homeopaths who criticized him for taking certain parts of their method and then misapplying them, and by orthodox physicians who viciously attacked him for ‘… being a homeopath[225]’, and Koch was condemned with outrage because of this ‘incredible humiliation.

1886: English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Edward Kellogg Dunham (1860-1922)[226] discovered the “cholera-red” reaction, whereby the addition of 3-4 drops of sulfuric acid (concentrated, chemically pure) to an 18-hour-old bouillon or peptone culture of the organism produces a rose-pink to claret colour.

1890: Jabez Philander Dake wrote Asiatic Cholera Dake 1890.

From Wikipedia: 1899-1923 Sixth cholera pandemic had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but major Russian cities (more than 500,000 people dying of cholera during the first quarter of the 20th century) and the Ottoman Empire were particularly hard hit by cholera deaths. The 1902-1904 cholera epidemic claimed 200,000 lives in the Philippines. 27 epidemics were recorded during pilgrimages to Mecca from the 19th century to 1930, and more than 20,000 pilgrims died of cholera during the 1907–08 hajj. The sixth pandemic killed more than 800,000 in India. The last outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York City. Vigilant health authorities isolated the infected on Swinburne Island. Eleven people died, including a health care worker on Swinburne Island.

1900: American orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Thomas Lindsley Bradford (1847-1918)[227] compiled The Logic of Figures Bradford 1900[228], detailing all of the Homeopathic cholera statistics over the last 70 years. He reports that in Vienna, the total statistics compiled from all hospitals clearly showed that 2/3rd of cholera cases treated by Homeopathy were cured, whereas 2/3rd of cholera cases treated by orthodox medicine died. Bradford in The Logic of Figures also reports to work of Mathias Roth, who was sent by the Bavarian Government to observe the cholera epidemic statistics, which clearly showed that orthodox treatment of cholera had a mortality rate of 39%, whereas the mortality rate under homeopathic treatment was only 10%.

Bradford also reported that English orthodox doctor and convert to Homeopathy Fewster Robert Horner (1803-1863)[229] was appointed by The Medical Board to review the cholera epidemic statistics in Britain, and Horner reported that the statistics of the London Homeopathic Hospital at Great Ormond Street (1859-1947) were ’… deliberately and designedly suppressed, because they showed that by that treatment, 2/3rd were cured; while according to the aggregate statistics of the other hospitals, 2/3rds died[230]’ Bradford collated the statistics from nearly every hospital in Europe and America for the period 1835-1848 and found that the mean percentages were as follows: 16.83% Homeopathic mortality, 49.57% orthodox mortality: 66.05% cured by Homeopathy (66 lives saved in every 100 cases of cholera). The collated statistics for the period 1839-1854 (including some statistics from India), revealed a mean percentage of 20% Homeopathic mortality, 54% orthodox mortality. Bradford also reported independent statistics from the Report on Life Assurance Hawley 1866, revealing 9% Homeopathic  mortality, 40% orthodox mortality.

1950: English Druid[231] and Lay Homeopath Thomas Lackenby Maughan (1901-1976)[232] noticed that the monks in Tibet wore Camphor moth balls round their necks to prevent Cholera.

From Wikipedia: 1961-1970s Seventh cholera pandemic began in Indonesia, called El Tor after the strain, and reached Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, and the USSR in 1966. From North Africa it spread into Italy by 1973. In the late 1970s, there were small outbreaks in Japan and in the South Pacific. There were also many reports of a cholera outbreak near Baku in 1972, but information about it was suppressed in the USSR. January 1991 to September 1994 – Outbreak in South America, apparently initiated when a ship discharged ballast water. Beginning in Peru there were 1.04 million identified cases and almost 10,000 deaths. The causative agent was an O1, El Tor strain, with small differences from the seventh pandemic strain. In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG) named O139 Bengal. It was first identified in Tamil Nadu, India and for a while displaced El Tor in southern Asia before decreasing in prevalence from 1995 to around 10% of all cases. It is considered to be an intermediate between El Tor and the classic strain and occurs in a new serogroup. There is evidence of the emergence of wide-spectrum resistance to drugs such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin. (Modern epidemics continue today).

 

© Sue Young

[1] Sue Young Histories

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Year_Without_a_Summer

[3] Robin Melrose, The Druids and King Arthur: A New View of Early Britain, (McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers, 2014). Page 99.

[4] https://en-academic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/58095

[5] https://janeausten.co.uk/blogs/uncategorized/j-m-w-turner-painter-of-light

[6] https://www.almanac.com/year-without-summer-mount-tambora-volcanic-eruption

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

[8] Sue Young Histories

[9] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17468064/

[10] http://www.homeoint.org/seror/biograph/korsakoff.htm

[11] Sue Young Histories

[12] http://www.homeoint.org/seror/biograph/marenzeller.htm

[13] http://www.homeoint.org/seror/biograph/muller.htm

[14] Richard Haehl, Wheeler, Grundy, Samuel Hahnemann: His Life & Work, (Homoeopathic Publishing Company, (1922, 1996). Page 246.

[15] Sue Young Histories

[16] Veith, Healing and Prophylaxis of Cholera, (Pierre Augustus Rapou, vol. 2, (Fisher. Biog. Denhmal, 1832). Page 121.

[17] Negro, Angeli, Bibliografia omeopatica italiana, (2007). Page 98.

[18] Edward Hamilton, A Memoir of Frederick Hervey Foster Quin, (British Homeopathic Society, 1879). Page 30.

[19] Bradford, The Logic of Figures Or Comparative Results of Homoepathic and Other Treatments (Boericke and Tafel, Philadelphia 1900, Fb &C Limited, 2016).

[20] Bradford, The Pioneers of Homoeopathy, (Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1897).

[21] Sue Young Histories

[22] Von Boenninghausen, The Lesser Writings, (B Jain, 2002).

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[26] Heinrich Heine, Ludwig Embden (Freiherr von.), The Family Life of Heinrich Heine: Illustrated by 122 Hitherto Unpublished Letters Addressed to Him by Members of His Family, (W. Heinemann, 1893). Page 185.

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[29] Anon, American Homoeopathic Review, Volume 3, (J.T.S. Smith & Sons,1859). Page 436.

[30] Sue Young Histories

[31] Siegfried Letzel, History of the German Homeopathic Hospitals, (H’Pathy Online, September 15, 2006).

[32] Sue Young Histories

[33] Bradford, History of the Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania: the Hahnemann medical college and hospital of Philadelphia. (Boericke & Tafel, 1898). Page 65.

[34] Sue Young Histories

[35] Granville, A catechism of facts: or, Plain and simple rules respecting the nature, treatment, and prevention of cholera, (George McDowell & Son, 1832).

[36] Sue Young Histories

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[39] Bradford, The Pioneers of Homeopathy, (Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1897).

[40] Haller, The history of American homeopathy: the academic years, 1820-1935, (Routledge, 2005). Page 42.

[41] Sue Young Histories

[42] Haller, The History of American Homeopathy: the academic years, 1820-1935. (Routledge, 2005).

[43] https://www.library-archives.cumc.columbia.edu/obit/benjamin-franklin-joslin

[44] Sue Young Histories ; Cleave, Cleave’s biographical cyclopaedia of homeopathic physicians and surgeons, (Galaxy Publishing Company, 1873).

[45] Sue Young Histories

[46] Sue Young Histories

[47] Charles Gaspar Peschier, Instruction succincte pour le traitement homéopathique, préservatif et curatif du choléra, (1833).

[48] Sue Young Histories

[49] Buchanan, Morrow, The Eclectic Medical Journal, Volumes 8-9, (W M Phillips, 1849). Page 381.

[50] Sue Young Histories

[51] Anon, The British and Foreign Homeopathic Medical Directory and Record, (Aylott & Company, 1853). Page 212.

[52] Sue Young Histories

[53] British Homoeopathic Association, Truths and Their Reception: Considered in Relation to the Doctrine of Homoeopathy; to which are Added Various Essays on the Principles and Statistics of Homoeopathic Practice, (Highley, 1849). Page 196.

[54] Sue Young Histories

[55] Bradford, The Pioneers of Homoeopathy, (Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1897). ; Bradford, The Logic of Figures Or Comparative Results of Homoepathic and Other Treatments (Boericke and Tafel, Philadelphia 1900, Fb &C Limited, 2016).

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[59] John James Drysdale, John Rutherfurd Russell, The British Journal of Homeopathy: Volume 4, (Maclachlan, Stewart, & Company, 1846). Pages 459-460.

[60] Sue Young Histories

[61] John James Drysdale, John Rutherfurd Russell, Richard Hughes, Robert Ellis Dudgeon,  The British Journal of Homeopathy

Volume 41, (Maclachlan, Stewart, & Company, 1843). Page 132.

[62] Sue Young Histories ; Martin Dinges, Patients in the History of Homeopathy, (European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Publications, 2002). Pages 157-159). ; Richard Haehl, Samuel Hahnemann: his life and work Volume 2, (Homeopathic Publishing Company, 1922, 1926, B Jain and Co, 1971). Page 181). ; Dana Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy. (North Atlantic Books, 2007). Page 279).

[63] John James Drysdale, Robert Ellis Dudgeon, Richard Hughes, John Rutherfurd Russel, The British Journal of Homeopathy, Volume 41 [XLI], (Henry Turner, 1888). Page 132.

[64] Sue Young Histories ; Anon, Homeopathic World, Volume 43, (1908). Page 236. ;  Anon, The Medical Counsellor, Volume 7, (Michigan State Homeopathic Society, 1883). Page 347. ; Anon, Homeopathic World, (1881).

[65] Sue Young Histories ; Sarat Chandra Ghose, Cholera and Its Prevention and Homeopathic Therapeutics, (Hahnemann Home, 1905). Page 44.

[66] Sue Young Histories ; British Homeopathic Association, Truths and Their Reception Considered in Relation to the Doctrine of Homoeopathy; to which are Added Various Essays on the Principles and Statistics of Homeopathic Practice, (Highley, 1849).

[67] Sue Young Histories ; Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy. (North Atlantic Books, 2007).

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[69] Sue Young Histories

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[73] Sue Young Histories ; Swedenborg Archives K125 [44] letter 11.4.1893 James John Garth Wilkinson to John Marten.

[74] Sue Young Histories

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[80] Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Parliamentary Papers Volume 32, (1848) Page 17.

[81] Sue Young Histories

[82] Anon, Quarterly Homeopathic Journal Volume 1, (Otis Clapp, 1849). Page 112.

[83] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

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[85] Sue Young Histories

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[88] Sue Young Histories ; William Harvey King, History of Homoeopathy and Its Institutions in America: Their Founders, Benefactors, Faculties, Officers, Hospitals, Alumni, Etc., with a Record of Achievement of Its Representatives in the World of Medicine in two Volumes, (1905). ; John S. Haller, The History of American Homeopathy: the academic years, 1820-1935. (Routledge, 2005). Page 205.

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[90] Sue Young Histories

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[94] Sue Young Histories

[95] Sue Young Histories ; Wendy Moore, The Mesmerist: The Society Doctor Who Held Victorian London Spellbound, (Hachette UK, 2017)

[96] John Henry Clarke, Life & Work of James Compton Burnett, (1904).

[97] Sue Young Histories ; David Charles Manners (his 3rd great grandson), Noodles & Knaves: Dr. Charles Thomas Pearce (1815-1883) ‘Martyr of Homœopathy’, (unpublished 2012).

[98] Anon, The Journal of Health and Disease Volume 5, (1849). Page 232.

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[100] Haller, The History of American Homeopathy: the academic years, 1820-1935. (Routledge, 2005).

[101] Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy. (North Atlantic Books, 2007).

[102] Hahnemann House Trust Biographies

[103] William Howitt, 4 Letters from William Howitt, 3 of Them to Robert Chambers, (1845) ; Swedenborg Archive K124 [a] Letter 6.5.1858 from Garth Wilkinson to Emma Anne Wilkinson.

[104] Sue Young Histories

[105] Anon, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, (John Churchill, 1844).

[106] Sue Young Histories

[107] Chambers, Chambers’ Edinburgh Journal, Volumes 11–12, (W.Orr, 1832, 1849). Pages 133 and 143. ; Chambers, Chambers’s Edinburgh journal, Volumes 17-18, (W. Orr, 1852). Page 175.

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[109] Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy. (North Atlantic Books, 2007).

[110] Sue Young Histories

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[112] Charles Frederic Goss, Cincinnati, the Queen City, 1788-1912 Volume 3, (S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1912) Page 941.

[113] Sue Young Histories

[114] Anon, Quarterly Homeopathic Journal Volume 1, (1849).

[115] Anon, The Homœopathic medical directory of Great Britain and Ireland, (1873).

[116] Sue Young Histories

[117] Paul Francis Curie, A treatise on cholera, English and Asiatic: with directions for the homeopathic treatment, (Headland, 1849).

[118] Bradford, The Pioneers of Homoeopathy, (Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1897).

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[120] Cleave, Cleave’s biographical cyclopaedia of homeopathic physicians and surgeons, (Galaxy Publishing Company, 1873, reprinted by the University of Michigan Library 2006).

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[122] Sue Young Histories

[123] George Atkin, The British and Foreign Homeopathic Medical Directory and Record, (Groombridge & Sons, 1853). Page 212.

[124] Sue Young Histories

[125] Sue Young Histories

[126] Sue Young Histories

[127] Anon, Quarterly Homeopathic Journal Volume 2, (Otis Clapp, 1850). Page 374.

[128] Sue Young Histories ; John Epps, Homeopathy and Its Principles Explained, (Piper, 1841, 1850). Page 254.

[129] Sue Young Histories

[130] S B Nelson, J M Runk, Cincinnati and Hamilton County Ohio: their past and present, ( S B Nelson & Co, 1894).

[131] Sue Young Histories

[132] Chambers, Chambers’ Edinburgh Journal Volumes 17–18, (William Orr, 1852). Page 175.

[133] Sue Young Histories

[134] Griffiths Jones, The Reasoner Volume 17, Issues 423–449, (Holyoake and Company, 1854). Page 268.

[135] Sue Young Histories

[136] Sue Young Histories

[137] Jay Yasgur, Yasgur’s Homeopathic Dictionary, and Holistic Health Reference, (Van Hoy Publishers, 1998).

[138] Anon, Homeopathic Record, (1855). Page 223.

[139] Anon, The British Journal of Homeopathy Volume 11, (Maclachlan, Stewart, & Company, 1853). Page 669.

[140] John A. Shepherd, The Surgeons in the Crimea 1854-1856: Vol. 17 RAMC/1376, (Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 1972).

[141] Garth Wilkinson, War, Cholera, and the Ministry of Health: An Appeal to Sir Benjamin Hall and the British People, (Otis Clapp, 1855). Pages 47and 80).

[142] Sue Young Histories

[143] Southwood Smith The Homeopathic Examiner, Volume 1. (William Radde, 1840, 1846). Page 282.

[144] William James Linton, Memories, (Lawrence and Bullen, 1895). Pages 44, 181, 170-171.

[145] Sue Young Histories

[146] Robert Moorhead, William Budd and typhoid fever, (J R Soc Med. 2002 Nov; 95(11): 561–564. ; doi: 10.1258/jrsm.95.11.561 ; PMCID: PMC1279260 ; PMID: 12411628). ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279260/

[147] Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy. (North Atlantic Books, 2007).

[148] Sue Young Histories ; Margaret Lucy Tyler, Homeopathic Drug Pictures, (1942,  B Jain, 1990). Page xvi.

[149] Anon, Transactions of the … Session of the American Institute of Homeopathy Volume 29, Part 2, (American Institute of Homeopathy, 1880).

[150] Sue Young Histories

[151] Sue Young Histories

[152] Anon, The British Journal of Homeopathy Volume 25, (Henry Turner, 1867).

[153] Sue Young Histories

[154] Steven B. Kayne, Homeopathic Pharmacy Theory and Practice, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2006). ; Bradford, The Logic of Figures Or Comparative Results of Homoepathic and Other Treatments (Boericke and Tafel, Philadelphia 1900, Classic Reprint Fb &C Limited, 2016).

[155] Sue Young Histories

[156] http://www.homeoint.org/morrell/londonhh/outbreak.htm ; Peter Morrell, Sylvain Cazalet, The History of the London Homeopathic Hospital: outbreak of Cholera in 1854.

[157] Peter Morrell, Hon Research Associate, History of Medicine Staffordshire University, Hospital tables should prompt authorities to investigate: Rapid Response: Another case of distorted statistics, (BMJ 2001; 322:127 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7279.127 , 26.1.2001).

[158] Sue Young Histories

[159] P A Nichols, Homeopathy and the Medical Profession, ( London: Croom Helm, 1988). Pages 145–146.

[160] M E Dean, The Trials of Homeopathy, (Essen, Germany: KVC, 2004), Page 127.

[161] Hahnemann House Trust Biographies

[162] Anon, Parliamentary Papers Volume 45, ( House of Commons · 1855). Page 3.

[163] Jutte, Ekloff, Nelson (Eds), Historical aspects of unconventional medicine: approaches, concepts, case studies, (European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Publications, 2001). Page 166.

[164] Anon, Association Medical Journal, (British Medical Association, 1856).

[165] Rubini, Statistica dei colerici curati omiopaticamente in Napoli, nel Real albergo dei poveri, nol 1854…, (Stamperia dell’ iride, 1855).

[166] Sue Young Histories

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[169] Sue Young Histories

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[171] Sue Young Histories ; John Patrick Deveney, Paschal Beverly Randolph: a nineteenth-century Black American spiritualist, rosicrucian, and sex magician, (SUNY Press, 1997).  Page 383.

[172] John Rutherfurd Russell, The British Journal of Homeopathy Volume 14, (Maclachlan, Stewart, & Company, 1856) Page 160.

[173] Sue Young Histories

[174] Anon, The British Homeopathic Review Volume 1, (1857).

[175] Anon, The British Homeopathic Review Volume 3, (1859).

[176] Sue Young Histories

[177] Anon, The British Homeopathic Review Volume 10, (1866). Page 57.

[178] Abel Heywood and Son’s Guide to Royal Leamington Spa (Manchester, 1905). Page 5.

[179] Sue Young Histories

[180] Anon, L’Art medical: journal de médecine générale et de médecine pratique Volumes 21–22, (1865).

[181] Sue Young Histories

[182] Anon, American Homeopathic Observer A Monthly Journal Devoted to the Interests of Homeopathic Physicians Volume 3, (1866). Pages 62-63.

[183] Sue Young Histories

[184] Sue Young Histories

[185] Sue Young Histories

[186] Haller, The History of American Homeopathy: the academic years, 1820-1935. (Routledge, 2005). Page 187. ; Julian Winston, Some History of the Treatment of Epidemics with Homeopathy, (H’Pathy Online, June 17, 2007).

[187] Allen D. Spiegel, Florence Kavaler, The Role of Abraham Lincoln in Securing a Charter for a Homeopathic Medical College, (Journal of Community Health, Volume 27, Number 5, 357-380.

[188] Cleave, Biographical Cyclopedia of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons, (1873).

[189] Cleave, Biographical Cyclopedia of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons, (1873).

[190] Anon, The British Homeopathic Review Volume 10, (1866).

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[192] Sue Young Histories

[193] Sue Young Histories ; Disraeli, Gunn, Wiebe, Benjamin Disraeli Letters: 1842-1847, (University of Toronto Press, 1989). ; Disraeli, Stanhope, Bridgeman, The Letters of Disraeli to Lady Bradford and Lady Chesterfield: 1876 to 1881, (Benn, 1929) . Pages 265 and 339.

[194] Sue Young Histories

[195] Michael B. Roberts, Nothing is without poison: understanding drugs, (Chinese University Press, 2002). Page 12. ; Dana Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy, (North Atlantic Books, 2007). Page 199-200. ; Wilfrid Meynell, Benjamin Disraeli: An Unconventional Biography, (D. Appleton, 1903). Page 160. ; George Norman Clark, A. M. Cooke, A history of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 3, (Clarendon Press for the Royal College of Physicians, 1972). Page 908. ; Thomas Hay Sweet Escott, Great Victorians: memories and personalities, (C. Scribner’s Sons, 1916). Page 292. ; Gov Hutchinson, Robert Chambers’s vision of science: the diffusion of scientific ideas to the general reader in early-Victorian Britain, (Temple University, 1980). ; Anon, The Medical Times and Gazette, a Journal of Medical Science, (J & A Churchill, 1881). Page 772. ; Nancy LoPatin-Lummis, Michael Partridge, Richard A. Gaunt, Lives of Victorian political figures, Volumes 1-4, (Pickering & Chatto, 2006). Pages 94-110. ; Anon, The Homeopathic Courier: A Monthly Journal Devoted to Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery, Volumes 1-2, (H. L. Verdier., 1881).

[196] Sue Young Histories ; Dana Ullman. Homeopathic Educational Services, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 March; 7(1): (Oxford University Press, 2009) Pages 33-39. ;  John James Drysdale, The British Journal of Homeopathy, Review of Henry Holland’s books, Vol XIV No. LVI, (April 1856). Page 269-302. ; Henry Holland, Medical notes and reflections, (Longman, 1840). ; Henry Holland, Chapters on mental physiology, (Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1852)

[197] Sue Young Histories

[198] Sue Young Histories

[199] Sue Young Histories

[200] Drysdale, The British Journal of Homeopathy, Volume 24, (?1866).

[201] Sue Young Histories

[202] Sue Young Histories

[203] Sue Young Histories

[204] Sue Young Histories ; Bradford, The Pioneers of Homeopathy, (Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1897.

[205] Walter H. Dunn, Monthly Homeopathic Review Vol. XIII., (1867). Page 122.

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[207] Sue Young Histories

[208] Sue Young Histories

[209] Sue Young Histories

[210] Anon, Transactions of the World’s Homeopathic Convention Volume 2, (1880). Page 665.

[211] Sue Young Histories

[212] Sue Young Histories

[213] Sue Young Histories

[214] Rudolf Virchow, Disease, Life, and Man: Selected Essays, (Stanford University Press, 1958). Pages 181-183.

[215] John James Drysdale, Robert Ellis Dudgeon, John Rutherford Russell, Richard Hughes, The British Journal of Homoeopathy, Volume 28, (Maclachlan, Stewart, & Company, 1870).

[216] Sue Young Histories

[217] https://www.schwabepharma.co.uk/ ; P.C. Majumdar (Ed.), The Indian Homeopathic Review, Volume 21, (1912). Multiple pages. ; Anon, The Pacific Coast Journal of Homeopathy, Volume 47, California State Homoeopathic Medical Society, (1936). Page 128. ; Anon, Who’s who in the world herbal medical industry, (Herbal Medical Database Limited & McAlpine, Thorpe and Warrier Limited, 1993). Multiple pages. ; Richard Grossinger, Homeopathy: The Great Riddle, (North Atlantic Books, 1998). Page 142.

[218] Sue Young Histories ; Cleave, Cleave’s biographical cyclopaedia of homeopathic physicians and surgeons, (Galaxy Publishing Company, 1873, reprinted by the University of Michigan Library 2006).

[219] Anon, Pamphlets – Homeopathic Volume 22, (1862). Page 19.

[220] Sue Young Histories

[221] Sue Young Histories

[222] Harris Livermore Coulter Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought; Vol IV, Twentieth-Century Medicine, The Bacteriological Era, (North Atlantic Books, 1973). Page 44 onwards.

[223] Sue Young Histories

[224] Sue Young Histories

[225] Harris Livermore Coulter Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought; Vol IV, Twentieth-Century Medicine, The Bacteriological Era, (North Atlantic Books, 1973). Page 44 onwards.

[226] Sue Young Histories

[227] Sue Young Histories

[228] Bradford, The Logic of Figures Or Comparative Results of Homoepathic and Other Treatments (Classic Reprint), (1900 Philadelphia Boericke and TafelFb &C Limited, 1 Dec 2016).

[229] Sue Young Histories

[230] Bradford, The Logic of Figures Or Comparative Results of Homoepathic and Other Treatments (Classic Reprint), (1900 Philadelphia Boericke and TafelFb &C Limited, 1 Dec 2016).

[231] Ronald Hutton, The Druids, (Hambledon Continuum, 2007. : Peter Morrell, Thomas Lackenby Maughan, (http://www.homeoint.org/morrell/articles/pm_maugh.htm).

[232] Sue Young Histories

About the author

Sue Young

Sue Young obtained a degree in psychology from City University London and subsequently studied homoepathy at CPH and also trained with Robert Davidson. She has been a practicing homeopath for over 20 years and says she owes her life and health to homeopathy. Sue also studied history and archaeology at Birbeck College, which fueled her deep interest in the past. These days she spends much of her time researching and writing fascinating biographies of homeopaths throughout history. You can see the fruits of her labor here : http://sueyounghistories.com/

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