Translated by Katja Schütt and Alan Schmukler
The implementation of agro-homeopathic biotypology (constitution) allows us to better repertorize for ailments in plants and agricultural crops. It brings greater success in prescribing for and healing plants with homeopathy.
The impossibility of performing an “interview” with plants, as we do with humans, limits the identification of biotypes by subjective sensations, emotions, dreams or feelings. However we can still see individual reactions, such as voltaic tension, electrical ultradian and circadian oscillations (1), modification of ion exchange, increase of production and display of secondary metabolites (eg. scents made by the plant), and these data reveal a considerable part of the “subjective” behaviors in plants.
It is estimated that humans share about 50% of their DNA structure with plants. Many researchers assume that due to the absence of a brain, plants have no intelligence and are not aware of themselves. Actually, most of the higher plants recognize their own roots and are able to distinguish between the root systems of other plants. Therefore, they meet one of the conditions of intelligence: awareness of themselves.
In addition, plants make daily decisions; where to direct the roots in search of nutrients and where to tilt their leaves and branches in search of greater sunlight or moisture. (2)
Green plants do make decisions. For example, when they are attacked by aphids, depending on the area of damage, they may decide to sacrifice a branch, a leaf, or other non-vital part by removing nutrients and re-directing them into new outbreaks with a greater chance of survival.
They also have the capacity of memory, which allows them to recognize a pest or offender and display secondary metabolites in their defense, or even to make the best decision about the forecasting of weather conditions.
Cultivated plants display secondary metabolites, (and the dynamis vital) generally which are diminished due to their grade of domestication, as their survival depends of humans. Wild plants express secondary metabolites and vital behavior more intensively and more adaptively.
The higher plants (cultivated or wild) show reactions similar to the “conditioned reflexes” which physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov discovered in his work with dogs.
Until recently it was assumed that conditioned reflexes only existed in higher animals, but they have recently identified in the cockroach (Periplaneta spp.) and through the observation of electrical responses also in higher plants. (3)
Dracaena sp., mechanical stimulation 1st picket with pin
Dracaena sp., mechanical stimulation 2nd picket with pin
Dracaena sp., mechanical stimulation 3rd picket with pin
Dracaena sp., approximation of “torturer” one meter away
Dracaena sp., approximation of hand of “torturer” 20 cm away (without touching)
In other words, higher plants meet the profile required to be considered living entities. Plants make decisions, have individual awareness of themselves, can develop conditioned reflexes and have memory. Therefore they can be considered intelligent entities that develop during their lifetime, individual profiles.
This certainly does not means that the intelligence of plants is the same as that of mammals or humans. Still we must note that plants are more intelligent than most humans caught in an anthropocentric point of view.
One of the basic principles of homeopathy is individualization of the homeopathic intervention. Plants do not speak, but they express an individualized biotic behavior which can constitute different biotypes.
Clearly homeopathic biotypes are not distributed among the plants according to genus or species, but they do crystallize within species or even within each hybrid, showing:
1. Genetic predisposition and constitution of the body (genotype and phenotype).
2. Biotic behavior (predominance of vertical or horizontal development, resistance to drought, sensibility to storms, fluid retention in tissues etc.) .
3.Reactions to different environmental conditions.
4. Allelopathic relationships with other plants and animals (plants perceive the presence of humans, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and develop vital constellation.with.them).
5. Age (seed, seedling, young plant, mature, old plant).
6. Sexuality and trends in reproduction (in sexuated plants it must be considered that the biotype may differ between male, female or hermaphrodite plants, as in Papaya carica).
Henri Bernard stated that the Sulfur type, thanks to its central role in homeopathy and also in agrohomeopathy, has value as a reference, linked to the plant normolineal with healthy development and regularity of their strokes in the air and in soil parts. They also show great adaptability to the environment (4).
Reference biotype : Sulphur in orange tree (Citrus sinensis)
Plants develop four individual biotypes, or basic constitutions. Biotypes are not related in a fixed manner with a family of plant, specie or hybrid. Even when these plants are cloned, they display individual patterns of behavior and morphologic plasticity.
From the different homeopathic biotopology models (Grauvogl, Sheldon, Martiny, Mills, Kretschmer, Nebel, Bernard and others) the best suited to the specific conditions of the plant is the model of Antoine Nebel, modified by the Brazilian homeopath Roberto Costa who adds to the Nebellian scheme a 4th biotype, Silica.
a) Carbo-calcic biotype
Shortlined plant, with a tendency to retain water. Biosomatic expressions are slow and stable. Large digestive capacity. Orderly growth, slow and stubborn, with predominantly lateral, horizontal development. Hypersecretion. Its nature is similar to the stable element carbon. Predominance of developing roots. Short trunk which expands in width, great development of subcutaneous tissue, bones and joints solid, compact, robust roots. Suffers by movements and changes of position (moving of seed, transplants), is scarcely affected by pruning. Its remedy is Calcarea carbonica.
Carbo-calcic biotype of Orange tree (Citrus sinensis)
b) Phospho-calcic biotype
Longlined plant, vertical growth, difficulty gaining weight, height above average and marked thinness, primary accent on photosynthesis. Fast and unstable biosomatic expressions. Poor skeletal development tends to skew. Its nature is similar to Phosphorus, an element highly unstable. Tends to be demineralized. Very sensitive to pruning. Their diseases are slow and repeated. Its remedy is Calcarea phosphorica.
Phospho-calcic biotype of Orange tree (Citrus sinensis)
c) Fluo-calcium biotype
Alterations in development of seeds. Plants of variable height below average, with structural asymmetries. Oscillations with erratic electrical behavior; are unpredictable in their growth and/or flowering, have disorganized growth, are sharply curved or have convex profile in relation to the axis of the plant. Hyposecretion. Limbs are long and thin, poorly developed roots. Low resistance to climate change. Very slow or discontinuous biosomatic behavior. Anarchic precociousness. Its remedy is Calcarea fluorica.
Fluor-calcic biotype of Orange tree (Citrus sinensis)
d) Siliceous biotype
Notoriously weak, poor absorption of nutrients, thin, longlineal, lacking energy, suppurative tendency, fragility in thorns, leaves and trunks or other parts of the plant, develops slowly, does not tolerate low temperatures, wounds becomes infected easily, aggravation after irrigation at new moon and full moon, reduced flowering and fruit-set of the fruit, failures at the tissue and connective tissue components. Biosomatic expressions are reduced and less pronounced. Plants do not tolerate pruning. Its remedy is Silicea terra.
Siliceous biotype of Orange tree (Citrus sinensis)
To the biotypological aspect are to be added temperaments, a reaction of plants which depends and relates to the constitutional type and the environment. Temperaments represents the dynamic part based on the constitution and classifies the actual state of the organism, reflecting their episodic status. (6) During the plant life, the constitution type does not change and the temperament evolves during the different stages of the plant’s age and depends largely on environmental influences.
Roberto Costa (5) suggested a distribution based on the temperaments of Grauvogl in four categories Oxygenoid, Hydrogenoid, Muriatic, and Carbonitrogenoid.
The mechanistic view assumes that what we introduce in the plant and soil (by watering, spraying, rubbing or otherwise), must always be found there. But plants and other organisms present in the soil are capable, through the action of enzymes and other biomechanisms, of transmuting one element to another, for example to Silicea to Calcium or vice versa. (7)
If we analyze which elements are involved in the biological transmutations of low-energy described by C. Louis Kevran, we discover that these elements have higher distribution in the world and are also statistically very frequent in all living organisms: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.
We distinguish four temperaments in plants:
1. Hydrogenoid (shows excess of hydrogen and passive water retention in tissues) is related to sycosis within the Hahnemanian miasms. Remedies related to this temperament are: Antimonium crudum, Aranea diadema, Calcarea carbonica, Dulcamara, Ipecac, Magnesia sulfurica, Mercurius solubilis, Natrum sulphuricum, Nitri acid, Nux vomica, Petroleum, Ruta graveolens, Rhus toxicodendron, Thuya occidentalis.
2. Carbonoid (show exaggerated influence of oxygen in tissues) is related to the self-intoxication of the plant. Remedies associated with this temperament are Graphitis, Kali carbonicum, Carbo vegetabilis, Baryta carbonica, Magnesia carbonica, Lycopodium clavatum, Silicea terra, Alumina. Carbonoid is associated with the Hahnemannian miasm of Psora.
3. Nitrogenoid (excess of nitrogen, very often caused by overdose of nitrogen by farmers) is related to the increase of alkalinity, decreased oxygenation, congestion and inflammation. The fruits give the impression of fluffy soft tissue. Remedies associated with this temperament are Ammonium carbonicum, Ammonium muriaticum, Urtica dioica, Allium cepa, Capsicum, Lantana camara. Nitrogenoid is associated with the Hahnemannian miasm of Psora.
4. Oxygenoid presents excess of oxygen and exaggerates the respiration processes in the plant. It is characterized by rapid reactions and ionic permutations; demineralization of the plant is typical. Remedies associated with this temperament are: Aconitum, Petroleum, Kreosotum, Benzoic acid, Citric acid, Hydrocyanic acid, Arsenicum album, Iodum, Chenopodium, Iodium Ferrum, Mercurius, China officinalis, Chromium, Kali bichromicum, Kali iodum, Ferrum metallicum, Chromium. Oxygenoid is associated with the Hahnemannian miasm of Syphilis.
If we broadly define the three miasms described by Hahnemann, we can extrapolate this to the plants.
a) PSORA: inhibition or loss of functions and hypersensitivity (and consequent irritation or inflammation of tissue) in general physiological changes that do not destroy the plant, but are expressed by the chronic presence of aphids for example.
b) SYCOSIS: expansion, weakening of tissues, dropping of flowers or fruit, or hardening of tissue, prolapsed.
c) LUESIS: complete destruction of all tissues of the plants (including roots) and of their defensive deployment system which consists of secondary metabolites
In plants, it is possible to observe the performance of the miasmatic cycle mentioned by Didier Grandgeorge (8).
Psora is the most widespread miasm in the plant kingdom, but the abrupt climate changes (warming desertification, floods) and the rapidly increasing pollution lately trigger the Sycosis and Syphilis miasms.
Triggers of miasmatic disease are identified in the Organon of Hahnemann (9) in paragraph §73, §74 and §78:
1. Continuous stress, excess in use of fertilizers or excessive hydration through artificial irrigation systems, for example (these symptoms may be visible and disappear quickly without becoming chronic).
2. Toxicity and agricultural allopathic treatments (application of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and other toxic allopathy), also must be included in the transgenic plants).
3. Infectious miasms (spreading very quickly and especially occurring in monocultures).
Biotypes of the plant are reflected, as fractals are, in all the cellular structure of the plant, on any part of the plant, and often in the circundant complete vital constellation; from the seed, through the first outbreaks, during the development of flowers and fruits. During the biotic decline of the plant we can appreciate, besides constitution types or biotypologies, the flexions expressed in temperaments.
It Is interesting that insects and parasites in certain plants, tend to develop the same biotype as the host plant.
Eg. Aphids that parasitize the plant with a phosphoric biotype, share the same biotype and/or nutritional deficiencies with them; sometimes the same phenomena can be seen with the farmer.
Plants exhibit their phenotype in temperament actively (not passively) and react in this way to environmental changes.
Recognizing the deployment of the constitutional type of each plant and the expression of temperament flexions, helps to understand their individuality; it permits the application of homeopathy with more accuracy, rather than with purely symptomatic treatments. It also prevents falling into suppressions that happen under allopathic treatment.
Only in this way can we identify and treat miasmatic diseases in plants and achieve the purpose expressed in the first paragraph of the Organon of Hahnemann’s Medicine: restoring the sick to the health.
1. Webb Alex A.R., The physiology of circadian rhythms in plants, New Phytologist 2003, vol. 160 no. 2 pp. 281-303
2. BaluÅ¡ka F., Mancuso S., Volkmann D., Communication in plants, Neuronal aspect of plant life., Spriger Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 2006
3. Tichavsky Radko y MichÃ¡lek MojmÃr , PodmÃn?nÃ© reflexy rostlin, 1978, manuscript.
4. Demarque Denis, HomeopatÃa, medicina de experiencia, Propulsora de HomeopatÃa, Mexico 1987
5. Costa Roberto A., HomeopatÃa Actualizada, Escola Brasileira. 3 ed. SNE Editora. Petropolis-R.J., 1988
6. HomeopatÃa Tri-una na agrohomÃa, Viviane Modesto Arruda, Maria do Carmo Cupertino, Suzana Patricia Lisboa, Vicente Wagner Dias Casali, UFV Vicosa , 2005
7. Kevran Corentin Louis, Transmutations Biologique en Agronomie, Librairie Maloine S.A., Paris, 1970
8. Hahnemann Samuel, Organon de la medicina, ed. PorrÃºa, MÃ©xico, 2002
9. HomeopatÃa, remedios para las distintas etapas de la vida, KairÃ³s, Barcelona, 2003