Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together. Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone.
Causes — Kidney stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk. Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.
Types of kidney stones
Knowing the type of kidney stone helps determine the cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. Types of kidney stones include:
Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate levels. Your liver also produces oxalate. Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate.
Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who don’t drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria).
Other stones. Other, rarer types of kidney stones also can occur.
Symptoms–A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
- Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
- Pain on urination
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- Nausea and vomiting
- Persistent need to urinate
- Urinating more often than usual
- Fever and chills if an infection is present
- Urinating small amounts of urine
Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity as the stone moves through your urinary tract.
BERBERIS VULGARIS Q—Berberis vulgaris is one of the top remedies for renal stone colic. Here the pain is found on the left side of the renal region. Stitching, cutting pain from the left kidney following the course of the ureter into the bladder and urethra. Burning and soreness in region of kidneys. Pain in small of back, very sensitive to touch in renal region <when sitting & lying, from jar, fatigue. Numbness, stiffness & lameness with painful pressure in renal & lumbar regions. Bubbling sensation in kidneys. Urine greenish, blood red, with thick, slimy mucus, transparent, reddish or jelly like sediment. Rheumatic & gouty complaints with urinary diseases. < motion, any sudden jarring movement, walking, carriage riding.
CANTHARIS 30–Constant urging to urinate, passing but a few drops at a time, which is mixed with blood. Intolerable urging before, during & after urination. Violent paroxysms of cutting & burning in whole renal region. Violent tenesmus & strangury. Urine scalds him & is passed drop by drop. Membranous scales looking like bran in water. Urine jelly like, shredy. Pain raw, sore, burning in every part, internally & externally. Over sensitiveness of all parts. Drinking even small quantities of water increases pain in bladder.
LYCOPODIUM 3X–Renal colic, right sided. Pain shooting across lower abdomen from right to left. Pain in back relieved by urinating. Urine slow in coming, must strain. Retension. Polyuria during night. Red sand in urine. Uric acid diathesis. Child cries before urinating. Pains drawing, aching < 4-8 pm. Upper part of the body emaciated, lower part semidropsical. Ailments from fright, anger, mortification, reserved displeasure. Avaricious, greedy, miserly, malicious, pussilanimous. Excessive accumulation of flatulence, lower abdomen. > warm food & drinks.
SARSAPARILLA 1OM–Passage of small calculi or gravel, renal colic, stone in the bladder. Excruciating pains from right kidney downwards. Severe almost unbearable pain at conclusion of urination. Urine bloody, scanty, slimy, flaky, sandy, copious, passed without sensation, deposits white sand. Painful distension & tenderness in bladder, urine dribbles while sitting, passes freely when standing. air passes from urethra, child screams before & while passing urine.
TABACUM 30-Renal colic, violent spasmodic pains along ureter, left side. With deathly nausea & vomiting. Vomiting violent, with cold sweat, on least motion, with faintness > open air. Nausea incessant as if seasick > in fresh cold air. Vertigo, death like pallor, on opening the eyes. Face pale, blue, pinched, sunken, collapsed. Terrible, faint, sinking feeling at the pit of stomach. Icy coldness of surfaces.
NUX VOMICA 30—Renal colic, right sided. Pain extends to the right thigh & to the genitals. Frequent ineffectual urge for urination with dribbling of urine. Haematuria, strangury. While urinating, itching in urethra & pain in neck of bladder. Backache, must sit up or turn over in bed. Adapted to thin, irritable, zealous, nervous, literary, studious, responsible persons. Bad effects of coffee, tobacco, alcohol, highly spiced food, overeating, long continued mental exertion. Over sensitiveness to all external impressions. Frequent ineffectual urging for stool.
OCCIMUM CAN. Q–Renal colic, right sided. Uric acid diathesis. Red sand in urine. High acidity, formation of spike crystals of uric acid. Turbid, thick, purulent, bloody, brick dust red or yellow sediment. Odour of musk. Pain in ureters, cramps in kidneys.
BAROSMA CRENATA– Gravel. Irritable bladder with vesical catarrh. Mucopurulent discharges
BELLADONNA 30-Violent spasmodic pains in kidney region especially of the right side. Pain comes suddenly, lasts indefinitely & ceases suddenly. Pains usually in short attacks. Redness of eyes & face, throbbing of brain & carotids. Abdomen tender, distended, < least jar, even of the bed, slight noise, light, lying down. > pressure, tight bandaging, wrapping up. Bilious lymphatic plethoric constitutions.
CHAMOMILLA 30- Insupportable pains in loins & hips. Pains seem unendurable, drives to despair < by heat, evening before midnight, with heat, thirst & fainting with numbness of affected parts, eructations <. Violent pains, drive him out of bed, compels to walk about. Over sensitive to pain, to open air. Cannot endure anyone near him, is cross, irritable, easily angered.
CALCAREA RENAILS 3X-It is a specific remedy for renal stones .
COLOCYNTH 30- Pains on urinating over whole abdomen. Vesical catarrh, discharge like fresh white of egg. Red hard crystals. Renal colic < left side. Agonising pain in abdomen causing patient to bend double, with restlessness, twisting & turning to obtain relief. > hard pressure. Pains < eating & drinking > warm application. Shooting pains like electric shocks. Complaints from anger, indignation , mortification
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA Q- Renal colic with pains radiating to the extremities. Colic pains < bending forward & while lying. > on standing erect or bending backwards. Violent twisting colic, occurring in regular paroxysms as if abdomen were grasped & twisted by a powerful hand. Pain suddenly shift to different parts, appear in remote localities as fingers & toes.
HYDRANGEA 30-It is considered as a stone breaking remedy. Renal calculi, gravel, profuse deposit of white amorphous salts in urine. Renal colic, sharp pain in loins, especially left. Burning in urethra & frequent desire. Urine hard to start. Bloody urine, heavy deposit of mucus. Great thirst with abdominal symptoms & enlarged prostate.
PAREIRA BRAVA Q- Renal colic, pain going down the thighs. Neuralgic pain in the anterior crural region. Constant urging, great straining. Can emit urine only when he goes on his knees, pressing head firmly against floor. Black, bloody, thick mucus urine. Dribbling after micturition. Urethritis, prostatitis.
FABIANA IMBRICATA—PICHI Q–Excoriating urine & calculi. Uric acid diathesis. A terebinthine diuretic. Vesical tenesmus & burning after urination. Dysuria, cystitis, prostatitis, gonorrhea. Cholelithiasis & liver affections.
HEDEOMA Q -Dull burning pain over left kidney. Pain along left ureter. Dragging pain from kidney to bladder. Red sand in urine. Frequent urging, cutting pains. Frequent intense desire to urinate & inability to retain urine for more than few minutes, better urinating.
EPIGEA REPENS Q– Renal calculi, gravel, uric acid deposits. Fine sand in urine of a brown colour. Dysuria, tenesmus after urination. Burning in neck of bladder while urinating. Chronic cystitis, mucopus, pyelitis, incontinence of urine.
ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM Q–Renal colic. Pain behind pubes. Congestion of kidneys with dull pain in back, running down the ureters & limbs. Difficult & frequent micturition. Strangury with nervous erethism. Tenesmus of bladder & urethra. Thick yellow mucus discharges.
THLASPI BURA PASTORIS Q–Renal colic. Accumulation of gravel. Brick dust sediment. Urine heavy, phosphatic. Dysuria & spasmodic retension. Uric acid diathesis. Renal & vesical irritation. Urethritis, urine runs away in little jets. Haematuria & albuminuria.
OXYDENDRON Q– Vesical calculi. Irritation at neck of bladder. Urine suppressed. Dropsy. Deranged portal circulation. Prostatic enlargement.
SOLIDAGO Q– Urine scanty, reddish brown, thick sediment, dysuria, gravel. Pain in kidneys extends forward to abdomen & bladder. Urine difficult & scanty, albumen, blood & slime. Kidneys sensitive to pressure. Backache of congested kidneys.
PARIETARIA 3X– Renal calculi. Night mares, patient dreams of being buried alive.
STIGMATA MAYDALIS Q- Renal lithiasis, nephritic colic. Blood & red sand in urine. Suppression & retension of urine. Dysuria, tenesmus after urinating. Uric & phosphatic gonorrhea. Urinary symptoms associated with organic heart disease.
IPOMEA Q- Renal colic, aching in small of back & extremities. Pain in left lumbar muscles on stooping. Aching in top of right shoulder.
UVA URSI Q- Calculous inflammation. Chronic vesical irritation with pain, tenesmus & catarrhal discharges. Burning after the discharge of slimy urine. Frequent urging with severe spasms of the bladder. Urine contains blood, pus & much tenacious mucus, with clots in large masses. Painful dysuria. Involuntary green urine. Cystitis with bloody urine.
CROCUS SATIVA Q- Urinary calculi, urates & uric acid. Brick red sediment. Haematuria. Deep coloured thick urine. Dysuria, urging to urinate. Lancinating pains from kidneys to bladder. Chronic bronchitis complicated with gravel.
CHINIUM SULPH. 3X- Small amount of urea & phosphoric acid with excess of uric acid & abundance of chlorides. Bloody urine. Albuminuria. Chronic interstitial nephritis. Turbid, slimy, clay coloured, greasy sediment. Complaints from suppressed malaria
BENZOIC ACID 30–Excess of uric acid in urine. Urine high coloured, urinous odour highly intensified. Dark brown, highly offensive. Gonorrheal & syphilitic patients. Pain suddenly change their locality. Rheumatism & gout.
NITRIC ACID 30- Cloudy phosphatic urine. Scanty, dark, offensive, smells like horse’s urine. Urine bloody, albuminous, turbid, looks like remains of cider barrel, cold on passing. Pricking splinter like pains. Complaints after continued loss of sleep, over exertion of mind & body.
MEDORRHINUM 200- Renal colic. Painful tenesmus when urinating. Severe pain in renal region > by profuse urination. Intense pain in ureters, with sensation of passing of calculus. Urine flows very slowly. Ailments from suppressed gonorrhea. Women with chronic pelvic disorders. < thinking of ailments, day time. > lying on abdomen.
SEPIA 30- Red adhesive sand in urine. Chronic cystitis, slow micturition with bearing down sensation above pubes. > by violent exercise, warm application. Involuntary urination during first sleep. Urine highly offensive, must be removed from the room. Pains from other parts to back, attended with shuddering. Sensation of ball in inner parts. Weeps easily, indifference to those loved best.
CHIMAPHILLA UMBELLATA Q– Urine loaded with ropy, mucopurulent sediment. Urine turbid, offensive, scanty. Burning & scalding. Must strain before flow comes. Unable to urinate without standing with feet wide apart & body inclined forward. Prostatic enlargements.
SENECIO AUTEUS Q–Renal colic, great heat & constant urging. Nephritis. Scanty, high coloured, bloody with much mucus & tenesmus. Irritable bladder with headache. Backache of congested kidneys. Functional amenorrhea.
PIPERAZINUM 3X- Urinary calculi, uric acid diathesis. Constant backache. Urine scanty. Rheumatic urethritis.
POLYGONUM SAGITTATUM Q–Pains of nephritic colic, lancinating pain along spine. Suppurative nephritis. Aching pain in hips & loins.
POLYGONUM PERSICARIA Q-It is an effective remedy for renal colic and calculi
NITROMURIATIC ACID 30– Gravel. Oxaluria, almost a specific. Urine cloudy, burning in urethra. < eating meat, alcohol.
VESICARIA Q- Smarting, burning sensation along urethra & bladder with frequent desire to void urine often with strangury. Cystitis, irritable
XANTHORRHOEA ARBOREA Q- Severe pain in kidneys, cystitis & gravel. Pain from ureter to bladder & testicles. Pain in small of back returns from least chill or damp.