Homeopathy Papers

A New Approach to Your Remedy Rapport

kulkani apr image

Dr. Ajit Kulkarni describes a myriad of remedy relationships, and how and when they come into play in managing a case.

What else is life, if not relationships? Could you conceive of yourself without any relationship whatsoever?  In fact, you are relationships.  If you remove all these relationships, where are you? 




Relating means trying to get acquainted. First there is the introduction to each other, then many facets of the other’s personality are seen. Then one tries to penetrate deeper into the realm of inner feelings, into the deep recesses of another’s being. Relation doesn’t mean relationship. Relationship is an added quality in terms of connection, association, link, correlation, correspondence, parallel, alliance, bond, ties, interrelation, interconnection, kinship, affinity, lineage, emotions, liaison etc. etc. Relationship is the constitution of our identity and experience. It is a shared identity. It is an objective embodiment. It is mirroring and exploring of oneself, of others, of all concerned.

Remedy relationship (RR) is nothing but the various relations that are shared between remedies in many aspects, facets, dimensions, levels, phases and sectors. Every remedy is related to every other remedy in one way or other. How the remedy is related has to be studied and how it could be practically applied in clinical practice is a matter of concern. RR is ‘recognizing’ and ‘being recognized by’ as a process of consciousness, as a process of applying wisdom to a patient under question.


The subject of relationship of remedies is one of the intriguing, yet neglected aspects in homoeopathic prescribing. Its utility in clinical practice is profound in terms of discrimination required for the sake of arriving at the simillimum out of the vast list of remedies and their protean indications and also in terms of follow-up of a case where a physician has to use a wide armamentarium given:

a) Environmental inputs out of inter-action

b) Disease potential exerting its influence over the individual

c) Remedial functionality


To fathom relations in their depth and extent, a homoeopathic physician must have the following requisites:

  1. The concept of similarity: degrees and levels; the qualitative aspects of similarity. The relationship section in materia medica has the very basis of the law of similars. It is the similarity in one way or the other that determines the type and the value of RR, the way in which the remedies share their attributes at many levels of their operation. In other words, the concept of relationship is a corollary of the concept of similarity
  2. The in-depth knowledge of materia medica: perceiving the portrait in its totality,
  3. The conceptual understanding of data in materia medica vis a vis hard facts
    Conceptual Portrait <—>  Original Data Base
  4. The knowledge of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, psychology, psychiatry, biology: botany/zoology, physics, chemistry etc.; co-relations of concepts arriving out of these allied faculties with materia medica and repertory
  5. The knowledge of logical and philosophical faculties
  6. The knowledge of universal laws
  7. The knowledge of miasms, sensitivity, susceptibility, disease potential in terms of phases, stages and sequelae etc.


All this knowledge is necessary, for the study of materia medica is the study of the universe. From the application point of view, the study of MM encompasses within its domain the study of a human being in totality, in all of his fields, dimensions and ramifications. Each remedy is a treasure of thousands of symptoms and there are thousands of remedies, which collectively represent the vast gamut of human suffering. The enormous number of symptoms at emotional, intellectual and physical levels coupled with clinical information forms an unending resource for a physician. This resource becomes the foundation to explore the innumerable relationships that get developed. However, the cumbersome and omnifarious symptoms have to be put into some module, some methodology for the sake of application. Otherwise, a physician will be lost in the jungle of symptoms.

As a matter of fact, RR is about ‘second’ prescription (note that second is not a digital number but concerns with the follow up of a case). It is keeping track of what is happening to the vital force during treatment. It concerns with the ebbs and flows, peaks and troughs of the vital force. Hence, trying to understand the ‘movement’ that occurs after the administration of the remedy and what it all means constitutes the follow up and it is inseparably linked to RR. RR doesn’t mean just selecting the remedy out of the relevant type and giving to the patient!

Actually, second prescription is all about timing. Timing in clinical practice is the biggest thing! It focuses on perspective and prospective vision. Without deep study of all concerned aspects, it is difficult to use RR with appropriate timing. Many times central structural similarity is not achieved, instead, peripheral formal similarity is only corresponded. To understand this statement, the concept of nucleus and periphery has to be understood first. Only covering some symptoms of a diseased part does not imply that one has given the simillimum. The disease expresses through various forms and a homoeopathic physician engages himself mostly in giving a remedy based on these forms. The remedy must cover the center, nucleus, core, kernel or the essence, and the sickness is comprehended at the essence through the process of generalization. Essence is perceived through totality. The remedy based on ‘essence’ with totalistic vision covers the similarity in a far better way.

The word structural, which is used in the statement, is not from anatomical or organic origin but from the point of view of the base/foundation. RR deals with the essence and it should not be used only for chasing the forms.


An attempt has been made in this article to understand the concept and to see how RR could be used as a powerful tool in clinical practice through expanding the themes related to RR.



It is from Hahnemann that the concept of relationship of remedies began. In his books ‘Organon of Medicine’ and ‘Chronic Diseases, Their Nature and Cure’, Hahnemann has dealt with the subject of RR.  In aphorism 249, there is statement of Hahnemann about antidotal relationship, “Every medicine prescribed for a case of a disease which in the course of its action produces new and troublesome symptoms not appertaining to the disease to be cured, is not capable of effecting real improvement, and cannot be considered as homoeopathically selected; it must, therefore, either, if the aggravation be considerable (after a medicine) be first partially neutralized as soon as possible by an antidote before giving the next remedy chosen more accurately according to similarity of action.”  In aphorism 250, “If patient’s state is growing worse from hour to hour by the occurrence of new symptoms and suffering, it is not only allowable for him, but it is his duty to remedy his mistake, by the selection and administration of a homoeopathic medicine not merely tolerably suitable, but the most appropriate possible for the existing state of the disease”. Hahnemann gives advice about giving a ‘tolerably suitable’ medicine for the ‘existing state’ of the disease. It is clear here that Hahnemann focuses on the current active state operating over the system.  It is to be noted that Hahnemann writes about RR in only two aphorisms in Organon of Medicine.



Boenninghausen represented the concept of RR in a systemic way and he should be regarded as a pioneer of the concept of RR. He introduced the concept of RR through the seven and last section of his Therapeutic Pocket Book (BTPB) under ‘concordance’. Boenninghausen gave more importance to comparative value of remedies in relation to particular symptom groups. We all know that each remedy has some attributes of every other remedy to some extent. It would hardly be possible to select two remedies so different from each other that they would not touch at some point. They were having some symptoms which were common and some that were differentiating features. This gave rise to comparison of two remedies in relation to symptom groups. Similarity at some points implies dissimilarity at some other points. Thus the whole concept of RR in the form of comparative study of Materia medica was evolved.



If we analyze the literature of our predecessors, we find FARRINGTON, BOGER, KENT, MILLER, HERING, WRIGHT, BOERICKE, etc. casting relations in their own way. Clinical experience and the data of materia medica are the major sources of the relations. However, if we focus on their relations, most stalwarts have tried to present the remedy relations under the following headings: Collateral, Similar, Complementary, Inimical, Incompatible, Remedy antidotes, Remedy antidoted by, Remedy follows well, Remedy followed well by, Analogous etc.

The meaning of these relations gets overlapped. All these relations center around three aspects – Complementary, Inimical and Antidote. These relations do not satisfy the growing need of homoeopaths who have to deal with today’s challenging patients. The subject of RR is very vast and to limit this to the above three aspects severely affects applicability. RR is the least understood and hence least used tool because not enough study has been conducted. There is some confusion as the same drug is found to be in Complementary, Inimical and Antidotal relationship. The wrong notion that one single remedy (and also a single magic dose) is enough to completely cure the disease also prevents a student from studying and utilizing the concept in clinical practice.

There are three comparative materia medica books authored by FARRINGTON, GROSS and ROBERTS. They give the comparisons through symptoms of remedies under study in a tabular form. For symptomatic comparisons, these are invaluable works. However, their limitations should also be considered. The concept of giving RR in tabular form got momentum with Gibson Miller. Then J. H. CLARKE published the compilation of Remedy Relationships. He made a twofold division of the relationship—the natural relationship and the clinical relationship. According to Clarke, knowledge of these relations is all-important to those who aim at accurate prescribing. His compilation of natural relationships showed at a glance how a remedy stood in its mineral, vegetable or animal relationship to other remedies. Many books on Materia medica now available, are based on this. The second section of clinical relationship has been given in tabular form and it represents the chief clinical relations of all remedies of the Materia medica so far as they have been noted. P. SANKARAN and CHITKARA also took efforts to compile RR through tabular form.

I must mention some outstanding contributors about RR. First is DR. ABDUR REHMAN. His stupendous work (though not known to many Indian homoeopaths) is published as ‘Encyclopedia of Remedy Relationship in Homeopathy.’ Dr. Rehman meticulously collected, collated and culled many aspects of remedy relations and for every entry he mentioned authors, abbreviating with numbers. However, his book doesn’t provide any analysis about why such a relationship has been written by the stalwarts. As the stories of remedies and living MM concept developed, many authors started discriminating between remedies at personality level-dispositions, characters, behavioural responses, etc. M. L. DHAWALE and K. N. KASAD’s exemplary writings in ‘ICR Symposium’ volumes over many remedy relations guide how one should delve deep in the subject of RR. KENT in his distinctive manner compares many remedies in ‘Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia medica’. He gives more specialized classes of complementary remedies of ‘acute complements of chronic remedies’.

CATHERINE COULTER through ‘Constitutional Types’, PHILIP BAILEY through ‘Homeopathic Psychology’ and CANDEGABE E. F. through ‘Comparative Materia Medica’ deal with the subject of RR in an elaborate way, focusing on the psychological and behavioural patterns of human beings. I must mention three scholarly articles written by S.P. KOPPIKAR on RR, which are published in his book, ‘70 years in clinical practice.’ ‘A Select Homoeopathic Materia medica’ by P. I. TARKAS and AJIT KULKARNI have offered many new relations and suggestions at the psychological, clinical, and pathological levels. They have coined many new words of RR and tried to come out of the restricted field of RR of complementary, inimical and antidotal.



Repertory is nothing but Materia medica in different outline, in different format. Repertory is one of the best tools to compare and contrast the remedies. GASKIN A. through ‘Comparative Study on Kent’s Materia Medica’, DOCKX AND KOKELENBERG through ‘Kent’s Comparative Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica’ and LUIS DETINIS through ‘Mental Symptoms in Homeopathy’ have shown how materia medica symptoms and reportorial rubrics could be integrated to know the remedial functionality through RR.

In fact, repertory is a vast collection of relationships. Each rubric in the repertory gives a group of remedies that are inter-related at the point of their therapeutic potential.



The relationship section is not a product of proving, as proving yields raw/discordant/incongruous/inconsistent/paradoxical and divergent symptomatology. They have a suggestive value, based on experience and interpretation of the remedial action. The relations, which are shared or the statements under relationship are not solid facts, incontrovertible as of proving.

A homoeopathic physician should find justification of every relation and this will occur only if a physician has dived deep into the core of our remedies and has deduced the relations logically out of remedial functionality.

No physician can get adequate success in his clinical practice if he doesn’t possess the knowledge of relationship of remedies. The final choice of simillimum is through the processing of data – of the patient and of the remedy in the materia medica. A thorough grasp over ‘differential world of materia medica’ will help a physician in organizing the follow-up in a meticulous and disciplined manner. The working, thorough knowledge of relations will allow a physician to release the remedial function as per the demand of similarity after observing the ‘movement’ that will occur after the administration of the remedy.

Some homoeopaths don’t bother about the use of RR, because they do not care nor comprehend about rules and regulations of the follow up of a case. I would like to quote Kent, “If you talk with a great many physicians concerning the observations you have made after giving the remedy, you will find that the majority of them have only whims or notions on this subject and see nothing after the prescription is made.” Compromise at quality and use of shortcuts are basic causes of failure. No homoeopath can get good and consistent results if he does not possess adequate knowledge of RR. When a homoeopath is in RR, he is in a case; he is with the case and he flows according to the needs and stages of the case, thus following the principle of individualization. It can be decisively said that the application of RR paves the way for individualization.



The relationship of remedies concerns the huge field of operation of homoeopathic remedies. It’s not only about studying a single remedy through various symptoms. It’s not only about knowing some keynotes, PQRS and pathogenetic action of a remedy under study but about the abundant features that get explored. This exploration should go for the paraphernalia that get developed out of relational database. Relational database should act as an information technology organization that should be capable of delivering new applications of remedies in the shortest time and with clarity. To make this possible, organizations must introduce new words / ideas / concepts / methods / relations alongside the older, traditional ones necessary for a wider field of application.

A large coverage of remedies with their core / nucleus / essence / kernel and with their peripheral expressions should be the basis of methodological development of relationship of materia medica. However, the wider ‘field’ should not deter a homoeopathic physician from the vast study. The study of RR is all about quality and not quantity. A high quality system is one that meets a physician’s needs, is reliable, is flexible enough to meet future needs, and enhances physician’s efforts in clinical practice and hence a qualitative, refined methodology developed out of raw and haphazard data is the most important.




An attempt has been made to explain the old terms of RR. We have coined many new relations and some of them have also been given. We admit that they overlap, but they are presented in order to highlight many mysterious and missed links, which often confront a conscientious homoeopathic physician. Readers are requested to ponder them, use them in their clinical practice and send their feedback.

  1.  Acute/Chronic analogues
  2.  Compatible/Collateral
  3.  Cyclic/Sequential
  4. Intercurrent
  5. Miasmatic
  6. Counterpart/ Mutual C.
  7. Camouflage
  8. Vying
  9. Midway/Bridge/Liaison
  10. Inimical/Incompatible
  11. Antidotal
  12. Affiliated
  13. Symbiotic
  14. Source/Group/family
  15. Version/Inverted
  16. Trio/Quartet
  17. Milder/Intensified
  18. Stages
  19. Sectorial
  20. Cocktail



a)     That which bears an analogy to something else.

b)    An organ or structure that is similar in function to another kind , but is of dissimilar evolutionary origin.

c)     Similar or equivalent in certain respects, close enough to be compared (syn. Akin, Cognate).


  1. Calc, Caust, Con, Lach, Lyc, Puls are analogues of Argentumn.
  2. Analogues of Lyc  are Alum, Ph-ac.
  3. Ars, Bapt, Echin and Ter are nearest analogues of Eucal.
  4. Vegetable  analogues of Arg-n: Gel (Ign is of Nat-m).
  5. Con’s non-traumatic analogue: Hydr.
  6. Bar and Calc are nearest analogues.



Similarity is the base of this RR. The subject of remedy analogues in the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms has been but little studied and offers a fruitful field. Analogue relations are of many types viz. acute, chronic, nearest, vegetable, chemical, mineral etc. Acute intercurrent, acute of chronic constitutional remedy, acute complementary remedies etc. also come under analogous relationships. Consideration of the dominant phase and looking at the phase through totalistic vision helps to select an acute remedy to tide over the acute crisis. A chronic constitutional remedy should then be the follow up.

A single group consisting of many analogous remedies is formed out of analogical remedial functions or characters as given in example three. The basis of this group is infection, inflammation, toxicity and debility. The RR gets developed out of commons symptoms, themes, concepts related to kingdom study and the process of generalization helps deduce the RR. Note that no kingdom is solo or mono. Every kingdom contains attributes/chemicals of every other kingdom. The relationship of remedies according to their chemical constituents is an interesting idea and this study will throw more light on RR. Let us take the example of Lyc. Chemically, the oil globules extracted from the spores contain “Aluminium” and “Phosphoric acid.” We find striking similarity in the proving symptoms and clinical conditions of Lyc, Alum and Ph-ac.  Retrospectively, it shows that source material and symptoms are connected with each other.

Analogous RR should prepare a ground for comparative study of remedies too.

Let us study Baryta and Calcarea. They share huge similarity. But the study through comparisons allows us to focus on qualified attributes. Baryta is retarded, below average while Calcarea is average. Baryta’s dullness is more constant and impenetrable. Calcarea wants company, enjoys company though he may be withdrawn and morose at home due to parental aggression. Both Baryta and Calcarea are shy but Calc’s shyness is not to the same extent as Bar; Bar is very shy and bashful and this gets revealed through the body language. Baryta doesn’t keep eye to eye contact, avoids looking at strangers or a physician and the eyes are looking down at the floor! Asking questions in various ways doesn’t change BL nor does it yield any substantial information. Calcarea’s BL is minimal eye to eye contact and he may look at the physician at least while answering. A tactful persuading can bring some information on the floor.  Baryta harbors a strong delusion of being ‘ridiculed’; he has a strong feeling that he is made a mockery by the others. This is due to his stupidity and inferiority complex.



The portrait of a disease is heterogenous, non-descript, messed-up and hence confusing to a physician as to the selection of a single remedy. With an orderly analysis, one can go in for a cycle of remedies in a consecutive/successive manner.


  1. A patient with abdominal colic requiring Caust —- Coloc —- Staphysagria in succession if the totality is not distinctly covered by a single drug.
  2. The well-known trio of Sul —– Calc —– Lyc   is a good example of cyclic or sequential relationship.



This relationship is about ‘remedies in a series’ and it has  a basis of similarity between many remedies. The remedies must be in harmony with each other. Here the sequential remedy must have the quality of a complementary type and the subsequent remedy must be deeper-acting than the earlier remedy so that the system steers towards recovery or cure. The remedies are to be used according to an order and should not be used in an opposite way. This relationship is not related to only three remedies as we see in ‘trio’ relation.

In cyclical relation we define the stage in operation at the present juncture and the way in which it is now evolving in the next phase. This relationship is seen more in the context of a clinical situation, which is evolving, so more in acute cases. The data is indistinct and it is difficult to find the most similar remedy. You select a remedy but it exerts no action or gives only partial relief to a case and ultimately you have to select the other remedy. It’s like finding an order in the disorderly data and trying to respect the clinical evolution and then covering the totality with many remedies to be administered according to the need. Don’t interpret that this RR is polypharmacy. It is not about giving several remedies at one time.

To sum up cyclical RR, see the similarity, concentrate on the evolving stages of a clinical condition, define also action of related remedies and then prescribe according to the need. In the example of Caust-Coloc-Staph, it could also be possible that Staph could also be followed by Caust again and at this stage it may be with a less intensified portrait, as the system might have used the defenses according to the Hering’s suggestions of cure.



If the status quo is maintained and a case comes to a standstill, a remedy interpolated/ interposed in between, rouses the vital force for the sake of directing the deviant energy towards restoration of health.


  1. 1.     Tub in a case of pneumonia with delayed resolution or in a case of recurrent pneumonia.
  2. Thyr in a case of urticaria with a family h/o thyroid disorder.
  3. DNA in a case of inveterate psoriasis.


Hahnemann himself observed that occasionally constitutional treatment might need to be complemented by the administration of an intercurrent remedy, which is intended to treat miasmatic obstructions and suppressions and thus remove obstacles to the cure. We presume that the previous remedy helps a case only partially and the system now needs a shake up. However, we have to define the system as a whole with its state in terms of sensitivity, susceptibility, genetic/basic energy, clinical condition etc. A relevant polychrest, a sarcode or an isopathic remedy can also be given as an intercurrent. It need not be a nosode always.

Readers are requested to read a separate article on intercurrent prescribing.



Miasms are the morbid constitutions that make the system vulnerable and develop certain traits, tendencies, diatheses etc. Hence, a structural fault has to be corrected at the constitutional level with the appropriate anti-miasmatic treatment. The miasmatic block acts as an obstacle against recovery.

Miasms: Layers

  • Each layer is an entry unto itself.
  • Each layer interacts with other layers.
  • Time dimension plays a major role in the formation of layers.


  1. Gels is a psoric  Kali-c.
  2. Arg-m is  a sycotic Silicea
  3. Calc-sil is a sycotic Silicea                                                                                    
  4. Caust is a psoro-sycotic (like Sul); or a  psoro-syphilitic (like Psor); or a syphilo-sycotic (like Plb, Zinc).                                                                                                                    
  5. Aur has syphilis grafted on a scrofulous background. Aur-m-n has syphilis grafted on sycosis  (like Fl-ac).
  6. Aur-s, Kali-i,  Merc-i-f,  Sul-i, and Syph are ‘syphilitic Sul.’, just as Medorrhinum and X-ray are ‘sycotic  Sul.’
  7. Ran-b is a sycotic remedy of the Bry group.



The patient and the drug in materia medica represent Psora —Sycosis —Tubercular — Syphilis. The remedy must cover not only the manifestations but also the underlying miasmatic state. Hence, miasmatic relations are extremely important. They give an assessment of layers and follow-up guidance. Let us take the statement ‘Calc-sil is sycotic Sil.’ The meaning of this statement is that when a Sil patient represents the functional and structural pathologies of the sycotic miasm, it is better to consider Calc-sil. This is because Calc-sil has a dominant Calc element as manifested by: Physical: Mildly and slowly developing disease processes. Hydrogenoid constitution. Torpor: Slow/impaired function of organs and glands (digestion, liver, bowels, evacuation). Catarrhal discharges: Copious, thick, yellowish green. Gouty nodes. Renal stones. Mental: Fear of poverty, of an incurable disease. Bashful timidity. Wants to be magnetized. Sensitive to reprimands. Dreams of: dead, death, vexatious, horrible, business etc. Sil represents more tubercular and syphilitic miasms while Calc-sil represents more of sycotic miasm.

Let us elaborate upon the statement, “Arg-m is sycotic Silicea” It means first it is like Sil and then a sycotic Sil. What are the resemblances between Arg-m and Sil? At physical level: Slow, deep, low-grade processes (like t.b., cancer); they come on lingeringly, insidiously, but progress steadily (Silicea). Broken down, emaciating progressively. Make-up: Tall, thin, pale, chilly, nervous, irritable, faggy, hollow-eyed, weak-chested. Indicated for brainworkers, students and readers. Both are rejuvenators of the system. Infiltrations. Thickenings. Indurations. Ulcerations. Nerves: Deep-seated troubles of nerves; growing increasingly sensitive to surroundings. Action on cartilages and bones in terms of degeneration and destruction. Mental level: Profound nervous breakdown.  If a Sil patient presents with sycotic miasmatic expressions, it will be better not to neglect Arg-m.



a) Mostly similar but opposite in some respects.

b) One that exactly resembles another as in function or relation.

c) A person or thing, which has the same purpose as another in a different place or organization.

d) Natural complement.

e) One of two parts that fit and complete each other e.g. seal and its impressions.



Lycopodium is a counterpart of Arg-n and Causticum Arg-n is a counterpart of Kali-c and Causticum This connects Arg-n, Causticum and Lycopodium with Kali-c.

Rad-br is counterpart of Sul.  

Bar-c is chronic counterpart of Bufo.

Lachesis and  Fl-ac are mutual counterparts.



The statement ‘The Indian Prime Minister met his counterpart British Prime Minister’ is appropriate to understand the meaning. The counterpart relation basically deals with similarity at the prime components. It means that the similarity is available at the general level, both at mind and physical levels with the most characteristic pattern. It may be at the pathogenetic action level (pathological general) or it may be also at the particular level. In the counterpart relation, it is to be noted that there are some opposite symptoms also. So the total similarity is not available, while in nearest analogous relation or inversion relationship, there are no opposites, at least strong opposites are not available.

The counterpart relation should be used in clinical practice when one has sufficiently grasped the materia medica and one bases the prescription on this knowledge. In counterpart relation one has also to define the purpose. It means the decided purpose, which allows a physician to select an appropriate remedy. The purpose could be giving symptomatic relief or anti-miasmatic treatment etc.

Again see that in the counterpart relation, the remedy, which you will subsequently give, must be complementary.

Counterpart relations are of three types: acute, chronic and mutual. Mutual counterpart means counterparts of each other i.e. if A is counterpart of B then B is also counterpart of A; it is a double expression. Let us take Caust. It has mutual counterpart RR with Lyc. The meaning is that Caust can lead to Lyc or vice-versa. There is similarity at the prime level, although they may be opposite at remaining ones. The source may be different. What is shared is similarity. The half arrows indicate that they can move in either direction.

Causticum                     Lycopodium

Let us take one more example.Rad-br is counterpart of Sul.’ Both are set to work at the common prime job of disturbed and disrupted metabolism. Further, Rad-br carries forward the work of Sul. Both are indicated for effects of radiation. Both are cancerous, cachectic, rheumatic and skinny. In spite of resemblances, there are opposite symptoms. Under the rubric, Extremities; pain; motion; amel.; continued, Rad-br is present but not Sul. Under the rubic, Extremities; pain; walking agg, Sul is present but not Rad-br. Generally Sul is better by cold while Rad-br is worse by cold. At the skin level, eruptions and itching are > hot application and hot water in Rad-br and Sul is opposite.

Are Sol-n and Bell counterparts of each other? They should not be called as counterpart because the similarity, which they share, is only at the cerebral level. For a counterpart relation the similarity must be present at multiple prominent or crucial levels. Note that in counterpart RR, there are dissimilarity/opposite symptoms or modalities at the remaining aspects. At best RR of Sol-n and Bell may be called as analogous.  



a)     Make two apparently conflicting things consistent or compatible with each other.

b)    Capable of living or performing in harmonious consistent or congenial combination with another or others.

c)     Capable of efficient integration and operation with each other.

d)    Able to exist, live together, well matched with.



  1. Compatible remedies of Carbn-s are Gels (acute), Graph (chronic), Ran-b (acute).
  2. Oleander’s compatible remedies are Bell, Bry, Calc, Con, Lach, Nux-v, Pul, Rhus-t, Sep, Sul.
  3. Compatible remedies of Rhus-r are Cimi, Nux-v, Sep.



The basis of this relationship is harmony and hence, it is expected that the remedies in this category should have no dis-similar basis. Here the remedies may be from different kingdoms, but they share similarity.  In the compatible relations there are no contradictions at pathogenetic action level or at the physical/mental levels. It is as if the remedies have the tendency to exist with harmony. Note that only well matched persons live together happily. When the previously administered remedy doesn’t show its action, one has to think of compatible RR.

Take for e.g. the compatible RR between Carbn-s and Gels. Both are nervy and have depressed function. Both even have the senility but Gels is more for acute and Carbn-s is more for chronic (this is basically because it’s a combination of two basic elements: carbon and sulphur). Hence these two drugs become compatible, as they are able to share in a harmonious way.

Dr. H. A. Robert’s comments on this RR are noteworthy: “Compatibility is based upon several factors: Similarity and the degree of similarity of the remedies; the characteristic symptoms of the patient and the degree in which they present and call for a certain remedy; whether any remedy is really indicated to follow one already given; whether the indications of the patient are sufficient to call for a remedy against which there is any adverse evidence which might prevent its administration in the present relationship.” He further talks about ceasing of action of a previous remedy, “If some time has elapsed, the question of compatibility need not arise, because the remedy given some time ago has probably ceased its action if the patient is now calling for another remedy.



a) Situated or running side-by-side; parallel.

b) Coinciding in tendency or effect; concomitant; accompanying.

c) Serving to support or corroborate.

d) Descended from same ancestor, but through a different line.

e) Very much similar.



  1. Colocynth: Nux-v, Staphysagria
  2. Kali-iod: Lach, Lyc, Phos, Sepia
  3. Fago is a specialized, sthenic, nerve-free Cur, while Ast is a reshuffling of, and an arterial, Cur. Both Ast and Fago are therefore collateral to Cur.
  4. Crot-h: Hippz, Lach, Mur-ac, Sec, Sul-ac, Ter, TNT.
  5. Caust patients may need its collateral Lyc. Bar-m, Kali-c or Con for arteriosclerotic diseases, or Arg-n esp. after abuse of sugar.



The collateral remedy is one which runs parallel to the remedy that has been given previously. Here the potential remedy action runs side-by-side making the choice difficult. The word parallel is related to similar and analogous RR. Remedies may be equidistant from each other in an independent way. In collateral RR, similarity should be present not only at symptoms level but also at pace level, the pace with which the disease process is evolving.  This RR is observed more in family/group/kingdom study. One amongst the family can be selected as an alternative drug to the previously given one, if it needs, on indications of the patient in question. To illustrate: You have selected a remedy out of a spider group and now it is not helping more. You can select another from the same spider group as similarity is shared well with other spiders. One must go at the level of core/essence/nucleus/kernel to have final choice. To illustrate further, group characters of Baryta are common to all Baryta salts. But when we want to select one amongst them, we need comparative study. Let us make comparisons between Bar-m and Baryta carb. Bar-m shares similarity with its fat brother Baryta carb. But Bar-c is more chilly, more shy, more timid. Bar-c is more innocent. Bar-m is suspicious and fickle minded. Bar-c is  untidy, Bar-m fastidious. Bar-m more wormy than Baryta carb.  Bar-m. more sexual than Bar-c.

Let us take the example of Crot-h. The remedies listed as collateral (Hippz, Lach, Mur-ac, Pyrog, Sec, Sul-ac, Ter, TNT) have profound action on blood: of disorganization, disintegration and decomposition. They act vigorously on fluids and tissues, causing rapid breakdown. Putridity, severe debility and shock characterize the remedies. What makes them parallel is the speed with which the process of a disease takes on a malignant turn.



A remedy is useful in treatment after the first remedy and before the next remedy.

We are defining here the midpoint. It’s a kind of a state which is overwhelming and we need to treat it with an appropriate remedy. Something happens and you identify a remedy. The state evolves and you see a forthcoming state likely to evolve. There are two choices before you, either to prescribe on the current state or to prescribe on the future state on the basis of anticipation. Midway RR allows you to treat the current state with an appropriate remedy.



  1. Caust is midway between Kali’s and Lach (Boger); also between Lach and Lycopodium
  2. Strptc is midway between Phos and Psor.
  3. Iod is midway between Arg-n and Kali-i.
  4. Sol-n is an intensified cerebral close-up of Bell (another Solanum) without its violence but with more accent on drowsiness; it is like Op or Zinc without their gravity; thus midway between Bell and Op or Zincum met.


In ‘Midway’ relation one has to focus upon the mid-stage, which is between the former and the latter. This RR is related to three remedies. It is as if the case presents with a typical data that identifies with a remedy. You also know the outcome of this case in terms of ‘culmination’. The symptoms of that culminated stage have not occurred in the present circumstance, nor is the present totality-covering-remedy covering the pace, the energy and even the symptomatology in a qualitative manner. Then your search is to find a remedy which is complementary to the former one and also related to the latter one and it covers the totality in the current juncture in the most qualitative way.

Any remedy fulfilling the above criteria can come under Midway RR, even an intercurrent remedy or a nosode. You require a good knowledge of reference system from MM, repertory and clinical medicine.  What is the difference between Trio and Midway? In the Trio relation the picture is definite e.g. after Sul a picture of Calc evolves and then a Lyc picture evolves. In Midway relation it is not a priori information on which the physician would like to cast a remedy.

What is the difference between Intercurrent and Midway? The base of an intercurrent remedy is to arouse the vitality of the patient, while midway RR has the base of anticipation and knowledge of evolution of clinical condition and also of remedies. In midway relation the concept is not to arouse the system but give a remedy which comes after a first one and before a next one.



Bridge is for connecting between two remedies. It is intended to reconcile or form a connection. The connection helps to unite two remedies that are at different poles. It is a remedy that acts as an intermediary.



Bufo is a bridge between Bar-c and Tarn.

Lach is a bridge between Bufo and Merc, between Rhus-t and Causticum



Bridge RR comes into operation when smooth sailing is required. Bridge is for support and a mediator, middleman or an intervener to give support. We have a case where the essence of a case is covered by two remedies that are at different locations. But even though the locations are different, they have the capacity to share a lot of symptoms in common. There is a remedy that partakes of the attributes of two remedies and when a case is studied in totality, it becomes clear that this remedy fits in well.

Bufo is a bridge between Bar-c and Tarn because Bufo has the childish immaturity and backwardness of Bar-c and the cunning deceitfulness and sexuality of Tarent. Bar-c focuses on glands, Bufo on CNS. Bar-c slow and timid, Bufo reckless, restless and active. Tarent hyper-active, rather dancing. As an idiot: Bar-c is a protected idiot (due to innocence, shyness and intellectual disability); Bufo unprotected (due to its ugliness, beastly characters and whimsicalness) and Tarent destructive (due to its fox like behavior, insanity and abrupt over-activity). Bufo is more close to Bar-m than Baryta carb.

A bridge RR can be implemented if the locations are at different locations or even at opposite directions.



a) A person/remedy that acts as a connection between the two groups.

b) An instance or means of communication between units, bodies or groups.


  1. Nux-v or Sul serve as a liaison remedy for many remedies in materia medica.
  2. Thuj is the anti-sycotic liaison remedy for chilly remedies in materia medica, just as Med for hot remedies.



A remedy acts as a link to assist cooperation between groups of remedies because it has outstanding characteristics to assume the position of a liaison remedy. It’s a kind of a railway junction where two or more railroad lines meet. Intercurrent RR overlaps liaison. Usually a polychrest remedy is capable of a liaison remedy as it covers a wide and grandiose sweep. Nosodes are also liaison remedies as they are multi-polychrest remedies.



An incompatible or inimical drug is one which does not follow or precede well the previously given drug. Many prescribers observed some injurious effects after the administration of some remedies (like a complex dis-similar disease).


  1. Con is inimical to Psorinum
  2. Caust is inimical to Phos.
  3. Ter is incompatible with Belladonna
  4. Incompatibles of Ran-b are Staph, Sul.
  5. Calc is incompatible with Bryonia



There seems to be a lack of harmony between certain drugs, as is also seen in certain chemical affinities. This may be so marked that when following each other in the treatment of a case, disturbance shows itself and the cure is interfered with and the whole case is mixed up. Hence advice is given not to give these remedies after each other. Inimical RR has the origin of clinical experience. But this is not an incontrovertible fact. It is difficult to rely on limited experiences of previous authors. Inimical relation can’t overrule the similarity principle itself. Ultimately, what is important is to give a remedy covering the similarity. If a Caust patient demands Phos on the basis of indications, then it can be given. But one must be sure that Phos and only Phos is indicated. If Phos is the simillimum (and not only a similar remedy), it will cure regardless, although in the first instance it may cause aggravation of symptoms apparently cured by Caust (they were not cured in reality).  Some authors have suggested interpolating a nosode or Sul and then to give a remedy from the inimical group, but I don’t think that path should be followed.  At the most we can say that a homoeopath should be cautious in giving inimical remedies.

What is the relation between inimical and complementary?

Apparently we think that inimical RR is the very opposite of concordant and complementary. But inimical and complementary are really the same thing. You give a complementary remedy because it is similar to the first remedy and covers aspects that the original one did not. You avoid giving an inimical because it is similar to the first remedy but the result is different. However, a remedy that is very similar to the first one can also act to neutralize the first remedy, if it is ‘too close’ in effect.

Whether a remedy is complementary or inimical is only partly to do with the remedy per se, but is mostly to do with the patient and the specific symptoms a homoeopath is using to prescribe the second remedy, alongside the symptoms that were used to prescribe the first remedy. It is more about the overlap. The degree of similarity varies from patient to patient and one has to carefully deduce whether undesirable effects are produced due to lack of harmony or whether it is just the natural evolution of a disease process.



In view of the intense action of the remedy being registered over the system in the form of undesired effects of a drug, either during proving or during its therapeutic use, a physician would like to counteract, minimize or moderate the over-action.

This relationship is like the fire and water relation.


  1. Hep-s is an antidote to Mercurius
  2. Bry antidotes Ins.
  3. Carbn-s antidotes Phosphorus
  4. Ambr is antidoted by Camph, Coff, Nux-v, Pul, Staph, X-ray.



The first RR that got developed in homoeopathy is probably the Antidote. Hahnemann started experimenting with healthy human beings, first with crude medicines and soon he decided to moderate the overreaction by the use of attenuated doses. Hahnemann found that antidoting is essential to nullify the undesirable effects of the previous remedy. The basis of the antidotal relationship is ‘similarity’. The logic is clear: if a natural disease could be removed by a similar artificial disease, there was no reason why one artificial disease, produced, during the proving of a drug, could not be removed or moderated by another similar artificial disease. Experience suggests that the harmful effects of a drug in crude form or low potencies are sometimes antidoted by high potencies of the same drug. Stuart Close has said, “It is a fact that the high potency of a drug is sometimes the best antidote for the effects of the crude drug.” Thus antidotal RR is given on the basis of causal relationship. The isopathic principle is used here. To counteract the bad effects of mercury poisoning or overdosing, mercury in high potency could be given. The tautopathic drugs have the underlying principle of isopathy. Antidotal drugs can be interpolated especially in chronic cases to remove the obstacles to recovery.

The antidotal remedy has to be selected on the basis of similarity from the list of antidotal drugs. It is not that one has to pick up a remedy from the list. See the correspondence between the patient’s symptoms and the remedy from antidotal relation. After antidoting, take the totality afresh and then prescribe.  Antidoting is not the same as masking or suppressing the symptoms. Is it the paradox that the same remedy is mentioned both as complementary as well as antidote? It is not paradox. Sometimes such drugs are capable of both antidoting or correcting the undesired effects and maintaining the beneficial action of the previously given remedy. Further whether a remedy will act as an antidote or as a complementary will depend upon how the previous remedy’s action has been assessed.  Sometimes hypersensitive patients may prove the given remedy, relieving the patient’s symptoms.  The usual rule of the thumb is to verify the symptoms of the patient at every stage of repetition or change of the remedy and act judiciously for the next course of treatment regarding the clinical RR.



The previous remedy has exhausted its action and it needs to be furthered/complemented/ supplemented by an appropriate remedy, analogous but deeper acting (syn. Remedies that follow well, supplementary).


  1. Ars is acute complement of Kali-c.         
  2. Sil is chronic complement of Puls.
  3. Complementary remedies of X-ray are Med, Merc-c, Sepia



A complementary remedy is one that continues or completes the action of the drug that has acted previously, without disturbing the curative action of the previously given remedy. In other words, remedies that are generally indicated and when given produce such a response that clears up the data for the next remedy. I found a good explanation of this RR in Dr. Olds’s writing, “Very often in the treatment of a patient, no matter whether the disease be acute or chronic, we find that after a longer or shorter period of time, the remedy indicated in the beginning of the treatment no longer benefits the patient. We say that the remedy has run out and that another remedy must by selected. If, after the administration of this remedy, the patient progresses toward health, the second remedy, because it completes the work of the first in a greater or lesser degree, is called a complement of that remedy” (Dr. C. L. Olds, The Homeopathic Recorder, April 1928).

Those remedies that remove the remaining symptoms after the action of the previous Simillimum are termed as complementary. They are usually used when there occurs frequent relapse of identical symptoms after amelioration each time with a superficial remedy or in case of incomplete disappearance of symptoms after continued improvement where there remains a tendency of the symptoms to persist. A remedy which is complementary can also act as an antidote. This is based on assessment of the previous remedy’s action. E.g., Acon is both complementary and antidotal to Arnica Acon has the capacity of antidoting or neutralizing the unwanted action of Arn but it doesn’t interfere with the curative action of Arn.

There are main two types: acute complement of the chronic or chronic complement of the acute. For instance, an acute Bell (used for throat symptoms) to prevent recurrence and finish off the case, may need the chronic complement Calc; or a chronic Nat-m case may develop an acute cold which will call for its acute complement, Bry. A chronic remedy may have more than one acute complement, for example, Nat-m has Bry, Ign and Apis. The knowledge of phase and right timing is needed for the successful application of this RR.



a) To form a close relationship with a larger group.

b) To associate (oneself) as a subordinate or subsidiary.


  1. “I am affiliated to University of Health Sciences, Nashik.”
  2. The ‘odorous’ remedies All-s, Ambr, Asaf, Mos, Nux-m, Poth, Raph, Sumb, Val, Vio-o are affiliated to Lycopodium
  3. Kali-c is affiliated to Sul (or via it), to Calc.



The word affiliated is used when a small thing is related to a large thing. A small remedy with scanty proving symptoms or limited clinical field is connected with a polycrest remedy on the basis of some common threads running through and through, for example, Bell and Calc or Acon and Sul. The concept here is that affiliated is a chronic deeper-acting remedy and a smaller one is superficially acting or a sector remedy. A deeper acting or superficially acting drug is decided by several factors like pathogenic action, pace of remedial action, degree and level of similarity, miasmatic influence, etc. It may be possible that affiliated remedies may have some common contents like alkaloids, minerals etc. and hence they may get connected. It is not necessary that all affiliated remedies in materia medica should have a common source. Complementary RR and Affiliated overlap with each other.



a) Two remedies that have some elements in common and are useful one after the other. Potential actions of both remedies are the same. They share the same potential action with the same result.

b) Give and take relationship.


  1. The trio Am-c (psora), Lachesis (syphilis), Rhus-t (sycosis) and Calc (all three miasms) are a symbiotic family.
  2. Symbiotics of Kali-i: Kali-c, Lach,  Olnd, Phos, Sul.
  3. Symbiotics of Kali-c: Kali-I, Kali-n, Lach.
  4. Nat-m’s symbiotics are Arg-n, Bry, Ign, Sepia



Many remedies live together and they have the common purpose to steer towards cure. They live together because they have some similar characteristics. It is expected that the patient should get benefit of the remedies from the symbiotic RR. Otherwise the condition becomes like parasites. We all know parasites have a symbiotic relationship with their hosts, but only the parasite benefits. Here, a homoeopath uses only sectors, only prominent symptoms without paying attention to the whole. The patient becomes only a prey of consuming the remedies and getting only palliation and not getting cure. The parasitic physician receives the benefit.

Symbiotic is a dependent relation and it is as if a patient is dependent on acute or chronic related remedies to deal effectively with the situation(s) getting developed. Let us take Nat-m’s symbiotics. Arg-n is an acute of Nat-m in mental, GIT and CVS crises; Ign is so in acute hysterical and depressive neuroses; Bry in dryness, fever, headache and joint pains etc.; Sep in female’s complaints and in headache, hysterical manifestations and menstruation problems. It must be noted that fixity about RR is a major blockage. Nothing is superior to the law of similars. A homoeopath has to be open minded to expend his vision.



a) An adaptation of a work of art or literature into another medium or style.

b) Original type, form or instance that serves as a model on which later stages are based or judged.

c) Prototype.


  1. Kali-i is a version of Sul, a syphilo-mercurialized Sul.
  2. Nat-m is a version of Medorrhinum
  3. Ambr is a version of Arg-n.
  4. Sumb is a mild version of Lat-m.



The word version should be used when the analogy is present at the deeper levels of operation. The similarity is not present only at the symptomatic level but at the deeper levels of pathogenetic action, miasmatic level and the personality essence. It is similar to ‘nearest analogous’. Let’s take for e.g. the relation between Kali-i and Sul. Both are destructive, warm blooded, cancerous, cachectic and also rough in behaviour. Both have detachment in interpersonal relationships. Both are polychrests and cover all the miasms. However, Kali-i is labeled as syphilitic Sul because when a Sul patient (defined constitutionally) comes down with syphilitic expressions, it is better to switch over to Kali-i. This is because syphilitic miasmatic activity is dominant in Kali-i and it is truly termed as ‘pathological museum.’ Further, when a Sul patient is treated with crude mercury (previously it was common; now also mercury is used in dental amalgams and vaccines), the better choice will be Kali-i.

Version RR is for qualitative similarity; there is something unique that binds together. Let us take our three great Indian leaders: Mahatma Gandhi, Lal Bahaddur Shastri and Netaji Subhashchandra Bose. Assume that their photographs are fixed on the wall. They are different in their personalities, but they share in the deeper sense one common attribute and that is patriotism. It’s like a prototype. If one photograph is absent the other one has the capacity to exert the similar impact. The goal here is certain: to motivate towards patriotism. The benefit of this relation is that when you are prescribing Arg-n for GIT complaints, it makes you to think of Ambr too. You are then not using only limited remedies in your practice. Let us see Sumb and Lat-m. Both are hysterical, cardio-neurotic; have sensitive nervous system; quick and lively, fainting; climaxis; biliousness; chilly etc. But the source of musk root in Sumb and that of black widow spider in Lat-m makes a difference as to the pace and intensity. Venom has more intense and rapid effect. Hence, Sumb is termed as a mild version of Lat-m. Version RR demands fine-tuning. Only wrapping of symptoms doesn’t help and version remedies are not for this purpose.



a) To turn inside out or upside down.

b) To reverse the position, order or condition of.

c) Opposite or antithesis.


  1. Sul-i is an inverted Psor.
  2. Pul is antithesis of Nux-v, Chamomilla
  3. Ph-ac is an inverted Phos.



It’s like change in direction from one pole to another. A chilly patient becomes  warm blooded or vice versa. It occurs in thyroid cases, immuno-compromized cases, old age patients etc. It can occur in some psychiatric cases. A lively, cheerful person becomes opposite- depressed, apathetic and discouraged. Let us illustrate. The dark side of Phos is Ph-ac. Phos is full of activity and creativity, brilliance and talent, open in emotions and communication and now due to a disease process, he becomes inverted. He becomes emotionally numb and dry in emotions and assumes the fugitive mode. This state is of Acid-ph.

Let me give you a case. I had a case of eczematous dermatitis and his eruptions were suppressed. Then he developed hyperthyroidism. I treated him with Sul-i and it brought back his eruptions and reduced the ‘heat’ in the body. Sul-i was also covering his mental state of a special royal feeling of self and untidiness. Then I didn’t see him for a long time. When he again consulted me, I found that this proud man is a different fellow and he has become despondent and pessimistic. He took systemic steroids and other potent immune-suppressants and did hemi-thyroidectomy and developed hypothyroidism. Now he presented with debility, pessimism and chilliness as principal characters. I thought why I should not think of Psor in this case?  Psor did help this case in a major way. Clinical knowledge coupled with MM and Repertory knowledge helps to comprehend inverted RR.



Competing, contending (satisfactorily fulfilling the terms).


  1. The broadest anti-psoric nosode par excellence is not Psor, but Tub (Whitmont); thus vying with Sul. Not less extensive than Sul; perhaps more.
  2. Vying with Rad-br are Carc and X-ray.



The process is to compete with a single remedy or many remedies in order to achieve the desired objective. To illustrate: Rad-br, Carc and X-ray are all cancerous and if a case has been irradiated, we have the vying with Rad-br and X-ray.  Rad-br and X-ray are like brothers who are competing with each other. The remedies vie out of their similarity. The vying should go for healthy competition and the patient should get the benefit.



Instead of similarity at total level, it is observed at certain sector(s), region(s), location(s), organ(s), system(s), sensation(s), pathology, symptom(s) or sign(s).


  1. Bry and Nux-v rub shoulders at many sectors.
  2. Expanded sensation: Apis, Arg-n.
  3. Keloid pathology: Graph, Sil, Thuj.
  4. Gradual deepening pathologies: Agar, Caust, Plb-m.



When the sectors are strong in characteristic symptoms, it is possible to find the corresponding remedy. The clinical aspect holds supreme in this RR. Sectorial prescriptions are utilized more for acute episodes either independent or exacerbative.  Causative factors – predisposing and exciting/precipitating, Anatomical locations, Sensations, Modalities and Concomitants are the pillars of sector totality. Many RRs get developed out of them. The concept of generalization applied for deduction after study of multiple sectorial totalities helps to select constitutional and intercurrent remedies.



Any means of concealment. The data disguises a physician owing to similar remedial functions.


  1. Many Calc cases are camouflaged Tub cases.
  2. Bapt’s early prostration should not be mistaken for the aversion to motion of Bry and drowsiness of Gelsemium
  3. Sil child and Sanic child.



This is a common occurrence with physicians, for many reasons. First is lack of knowledge of materia medica. Many physicians do not read MM over months and years. They get deprived of getting acquainted to new remedies and new indications of old remedies. This creates routinism and in turn, favouritism with certain remedies. Such physicians revolve around an eddy of a few remedies.

Sometimes a remedy partakes attributes of several remedies and hence selection of an appropriate remedy becomes tricky. Focusing on hard facts and honest data processing helps to sort out camouflaging.



Many remedies are mirrored in one aspect or another in a remedy. Rather than focusing on sectorial relationship, it gives logical extension at the general level. One can fish out the right remedy on the basis of this relationship, provided sound, organized thinking is available in the mind of a physician.



  1. Psor is a blend of Aur (pessimism, chronicity, syphilitic miasm), Hep (chilly, suppurative, sensitive, < touch), Sil (chilly, suppurative, make-up, and sweat) and Sul (filthiness, lack of reaction, psoric diathesis).
  2. Kali-c: Kali-sil (which is a mineral Psor), Sil and Psor are all mirrored in Kali-c in one aspect or another.
  3. Carb-an is Graph + Carb-v.
  4. Ran-b is a remarkable blend of Bry and Pul.
  5. Kali-sul is a hybrid of Bry and Pul.
  6. Nat-ars is a cocktail of Ars, Nat-m, Sep and Thyr.
  7. Bar-m is a blend of Bar-c (shyness, slowness, childishness, backward, glandular), Nat-m (sensitive; introvert; hot; emaciation; tubercular) and Bufo (childish; backward; epileptic; sexually excited; unsocial).



Life is not solo or mono; it is always a blend. The Cocktail relation speaks for the synthetic approach of a physician towards a case through the consideration of many remedies. I remember a case of a woman with hypothyroidism, urticaria, and hypertension. My case record over years of treatment for her showed that she is being kept on Sep, Nat-m, Thyr and Ars-alb with partial relief. While working over the project of Select MM, I came across Dr. Tarkas’s statement that Nat-ars is a blend of all these remedies and I decided to try for this remedy. Daily repetition of Nat-ars in 30C potency over months gave a good amount of relief to the patient.

Carc is a blend of the magnesium (non-protected) and natrum (ill-protected) childhood. From another angle, Lac maternum (estranged from the family) and Saccharum officinale (I am sweet to everyone, but why people are cruel to me) are mirrored in Carc.



This relationship is the derivation of the remedial functionality on the basis of pace / depth / intensity / fury of action.



  1. The lodides and Murs are less deep-acting than the Carbs; and of the former, lodides are more angrily acting than the other two. Iods and Sulphs never disown their parents Iodine, Sulphur.
  2. Carb-v is a lesser Kali-c, a lesser Asct-t, a lesser Bry; also a lesser Am-c.
  3. Lach is an intensified Kali-i.   
  4. Bellis-p is a greater or deeper Arnica
  5. Carl is an earlier, milder Cact.
  6. Rad-br is an intensified Rhus-t.
  7. Syph is an intensified close-up of the broader remedies Phos, Kali-i and Sul-I and also complements them.
  8. Ambr is milder Sil, intensified Pul and X-ray is intensified Ambr.



Life is always in interiorization and exteriorization, in storms and tranquil spells, in speeds of varying degrees. In the same way, our remedies all have patterns of their errant behavior and this allows us to know their hustles and scales. This RR can be studied at the sectorial and general level. Acute/Chronic/Complementary/Remedies that follow well have this relationship as the base. A categorical statement can be made that venoms are intense in action as compared with non-venom remedies.

To illustrate: Rad-br is an intensified Rhus-t. Both Rad-br and Rhus-t share the rheumatic diathesis, < winter and damp weather, < during thunderstorms, pains < beginning of motion, rest; > continued motion; severe sore achings with stiffness and restlessness. However, Rad-br is a radium salt, penetrating deeply in the system and this is the reason it is termed as intensified Rhus-t. Carl is called an earlier, milder Cact because Carl is more functional while Cact is both functional and structural. Both are constrictive-congestive but Cact can be indicated for real angina pectoris while Carl is for pseudo-angina pectoris.



The remedies in materia medica are derived from various sources. On the basis of these sources, one can formulate many relations that may be useful in clinical practice.


  1. Kali-sil is a chemical Psor (filthiness; lassitude; chilliness; averse to open air, to bath; skin phase, lack of reaction).
  2. Mild snakes: Card, Pul, Ust, Kali-i, Sul-ac.
  3. Chemical snake: Am-c.
  4. Bry is botanical congener of Coloc.
  5. Coloc is a vegetable Mag-p.
  6. Gels is a vegetable Lach, also a vegetable and acute Kali-c.
  7. Urt-u is a vegetable; Apis is an animal (and both are acute of) Natrum mur.
  8. Bufo, Carb-ac, Echin, Hippz, Malan a useful group.



This is an interesting study and offers many unfathomed explanations. The basis of this RR is similarity. Different remedies from different kingdoms get connected and we can coin their RR.



Evolution is an integral attribute of remedial action. This gives rise to multiple ways of relations of remedies. Son / Father / Twin / Family, Child / Youth / Old age, Patron / Confrere / Comrade / Friend etc. are types of this relationship.

This facilitates deeper understanding of remedies.



  1. Ambr is old man’s Ign; a negative Puls.
  2. Caust and Kali-c are twins: Kali-c goes deeper in gastro-pectoral-cardiac sphere while Caust does so in paralysis or neuro-muscular sphere, Caust anxiety is more diffuse than Kali-c; Caust has no true inflammation.
  3. Lyc is an aged Arg-n.
  4. Carc is an offspring of Sul and Tub.
  5. Aur-m is patron of and carries forward the work of Asaf, Carb-v, Cocc, Ign, Kali-i, Nat-m, Pul, Sec, Sep, Thuj, Sul.
  6. Children of Ign mother may require Med or Nat-m.
  7. Aged Sep may need Con.



Living MM is understood better through RR! Let us take the last sentence, ‘Aged Sep may need Con.’ We all know that Sep has aversion to sex and this goes for suppression of sexual energy. When Sep becomes old and many degenerating conditions start supervening, the suppressed sex shares in the cause. It is here that Con comes into operation. Con is also for atherosclerosis, hypertension, malignancy and paralysis. Readers are requested to read Dr. Ajit Kulkarni’s article on “On constitution, Inheritance and Relationship of Remedies.”



Trio: A group of three remedies that are useful one after other in a definite order e.g. Sul-Calc-Lyc. This order is irreversible: Lycopodium can not come before Calc or  Sul.

Quartet refers to a quadrilateral picture.



  1. Kali-c -Caust-Lycopodium  Sul- Calc -Graphites 
  2. Hydr- Con- Bar-m. Nux-v-Lycopodium -Bar-m.    


  1. Ambr, Arg-n, Nat-m and Kali-c present a complete quadrilateral picture of hysteria, flatulence,  rheumatism and heart.
  2. Arg-n-Caust-Con-Lyc: a collateral quartet.
  3. The odorous quartet Ambr, Asaf, Carb-s, Poth form a remarkably  associated  group.


Comments over Trios by Nash and Kent

There is always a choice for every homoeopath to develop his own trios, given his personal experience and interpretation, but it is necessary to evaluate them.

Let me comment over the trio – Fluent coryza – Ars alb-Allium cepa-Merc sol of Nash. It can be accepted that these three remedies are frequently used for coryza. If I apply the logic of deeper acting, more intensified, fixed order, evolutionary sequence etc. to Nash’s trio, then the problem is faced. I understand that Arsenicum album is deeper acting than Allium cepa. Does Nash want to say that illness begins with Arsenic album, and then the situation worsens and demands Allium cepa and then Merc sol symptoms step in? It is understandable that Merc sol can come at the last when the final target of throat in the form of tonsillitis or pharyngitis or suppuration sets in. As a matter of fact, many trios are borne out of personal references, preferences and inferences.

The trio on Grief – Ignatia-Nat mur-Phos-acid as given by Kent is, however, acceptable in terms of evolution and magnitude. All have basic melancholic temperament and ailments from grief; further each one has silent grief. Ignatia, Natrum mur and Phos-acid isolate themselves when grieved. So they share a lot in common as cognates. Hence, there is every reason to announce them as a trio. It’s a time-tested statement- “Ignatia is useful for the acute stages of grief, Natrum mur for its chronic effects.” Phos-acid has profound grief. It is more pathological. There is paralysis of emotions after grief. Grief can come in many forms- Loss of hair, prostration, can’t eat anymore, loss of weight etc. In serious grief, Phos-acid becomes very indifferent and he doesn’t care anymore about his life. In the evolution Phos-acid shows characters like non-communication, ‘still’ depressiveness, emotional numbness, low energy, slow-in thinking and speaking. This is a furtherance state and aptly fits in the criteria of Trio. It is not just three favourite remedies of grief. There is logic behind it.

Let me address the Nash trio: Profuse stringy expectoration – Kali bich-Hydrastis – Coccus cacti. It is clear that Nash wants to present his favourite list of three remedies for profuse and stringy discharge. If you want to examine this trio as an irreversible order, the logic goes off. Hydrastis is more for decrepit old people, and hence I will prefer it to be at the last. Even Kali bich is deeper acting than Coccus-cacti. The appropriate trio should be Cocc cacti-Kali bich-Hydrastis.


Comments over E. A. Farrington’s Trio

Masturbation and excessive venery trio – Nux vom-Sulphur-Calcarea carbonica

The general rubric Masturbation contains Calc for 1 mark, Nux vom for 2 marks and Sulphur for 2 marks. But in the sub-rubric, excessive masturbation, Calc is for 3 marks and there is no mention of Nux vom and Sulphur. How will you explain all these calculations? (Reference: Kent’s Repertory and Synthesis 9.1). I am interested to know what logic of rigid order and evolution this trio represents. One can intellectualize, pseudo-intellectualize, super-intellectualize, but I fear if it will be figured out adequately. My list of prominent remedies for masturbation is Bufo rana-Lachesis-Medorrhinum


Comments over A. G. Clarke’s Trio

Climacteric trio – Lachesis – Sepia – Sulph

In this trio, in the middle, there is an extremely chilly remedy and two extremely hot remedies at the sides. It can be understood that these are often indicated remedies for climacteric disturbances like hot flushes, DUB, post menopausal depression, anxiety etc. These three remedies have space of their own and they try to maintain their image before others. Have all these considerations any place in this trio? If it is just a collection of three prominent remedies of climaxis, why should I stretch myself? About sequence, anything can happen. A patient of Sepia can present symptoms of Lachesis and then of Sulphur. Or, it may also be possible that chilly Sepia presented herself as a chronic remedy and because of menopause, she became hot and showed herself as Sulphur. But hot flushes and other symptoms didn’t respond to Sulphur and finally she required Lachesis. Possibilities of thinking patterns are diverse and that makes the situation confusing for a homoeopath.


Interchangeability in the trio remedies

About the trio, Sulph-Calc-Lyc, the same issue of hot then chilly and again warm blooded comes up. The king of anti-psora (by the way, I have a strong opinion that Sulphur is more tubercular in miasmatic preponderance than psoric, given its lean, thin constitution, voracious appetite but emaciating, every little injury festers, rapid metabolism, destructive disposition, phthisical and cancerous diathesis etc.) comes first as a consequence of suppression of skin or discharge; the condition becomes chronic and sycotic and finally culminates into the syphilitic stage where Lycopodium pathology is produced.

Recently while searching the old jottings of Dr. Tarkas, I found his views, “The classical trio Sulph-Calc-lyc should rather begin with Calc and end with Sulph; psoric miasm to be removed last. Moreover Calc’s first miasm is already psora; this way too, Calc should take up the beginning”. Let me introduce the trio Nat-mur-Nat-carb-Aur-met. This trio is at the mind level. It also depicts the evolution of personality, changes in dispositions. Aurums have been termed as intensified Natrums, given their profound grief and suicidal disposition. Natrum mur invests a lot of emotions and energy in others. The heart rules the head and if he sustains disappointment, he is severely hurt and offended. He feels defeated and develops a melancholic temperament. His ego acts as a barrier in maintaining the healthy relations and he goes into the state of self-reproach. His conscience starts biting him and this is the state of Nat-carb. Nat-carb is one of the prominent remedies for conscientious about trifles. The carbonicum element makes him more sensitive (music <, for example) and weak (‘feels stupefied if he tries to exert himself’). He develops misanthropy, starts estranging himself from family and society and drives himself to an Aurum met state. Miasmatic evolution from psora-sycosis-syphilis is also represented by the trio.



Readers are requested to read Dr. Ajit Kulkarni’s two papers (“Trinity in Holism” and “The Trio Pulsatilla- Silicea and Fluoric-acid” published in previous NJH journals).



Body language is a very good theme to discriminate between remedies. All the basic elements of body language viz. Appearance, Gestures, Postures, Space and Distancing, Touch, Facial Expressions, Eye expressions, Voice and Intonation etc. could be utilized for the sake of RR. The readers are requested to refer to Dr. Ajit Kulkarni’s book, “Body Language and Homoeopathy”.



Many questions from different parts of the world were asked to Dr. Ajit Kulkarni about remedy relations. The answers threw light on this important subject.
Q. Osmium is lycopodized Allium-sativa?

A. Osm shares similarity with All-s at the respiratory and gastrointestinal level. In a way, All-s is an acute of Lyc and Osm is also an acute of Lyc.
When a case presents with data not only of All-s, but also of Lycopodium or there are definitive elements of Lyc, but a physician doesn’t want to give Lyc out of fear of aggravation, one should think of Osm. In other words, when All-s fails, one can think of Osm before one wants to push Lyc.>

Q. What do you mean by “There is no bar in Arg-n ripening with Lyc?

A. To understand this statement we must define the pattern of energy of Arg-n that culminates in a Lyc state. Arg-n is always hurried, always on the go and it goes unrestricted. Once Arg-n starts going into degeneration from sycotic to syphilitic, there is no bar, there is no restraint as the syphilitic miasma starts telling upon the economy. Given the pace of energy that Arg-n has, it goes into the state of Lyc as both Arg-n and Lyc are nearest analogues. Lyc is, however, deeper- acting, deeper in terms of pathological and miasmatic activity than Arg-n.   Q. What do you mean by “Calc is energized by Nit-ac”? A. The concept is that Nit-ac is deeper-acting and complementary to Calc being an acid remedy and also because it covers tubercular and syphilitic miasms. It moves the indolent, lazy Calc. For example, in cases of warts and cancer, Nit-ac will arouse the vitality in an otherwise sluggish, sycotic Calc patient.   Q. Bry polarized into catarrh is Nux-v. What is the meaning of that? A. Polarization is a process of trasversing to the opposing side , i.e. from dryness to catarrh. Both Bry and Nux-v are sycotic but Bry is dry and Nux-v is with discharge. For example, coryza or cough may begin as dry (Bry) and can move to wet (Nux-v).   Q. ‘Bry is inchoate Penic, which manifests catarrh latent in Bry’. What is the meaning? A. Inchoate means just begun and so not fully formed or developed; rudimentary: For example, Pakistan has still inchoate democracy. Here both Bry and Penic are sycotic in nature. But Bry turns into Penic as the catarrh develops further. In other words, Penic follows well after Bry in inflammations.
Q. What do you mean by shock stage the “Camph of meningitis”?
A. Am-c acts as Camph, activating the low state, of adynamia.

Q. What do you mean by “Ambr is receptionist of Sul?

A. Ambr is more for functional pathologies, more for hysterical disposition. Sul is a deep acting constitutional-functional as well as structural. Both Ambr and Sul are psoric and both have ailments from suppression of skin eruptions. But the energy pattern of miasmatic influence differs. Ambr is soft and gentle; while Sul is like an owner, king of antipsoric remedies. Ambr behaves with less ego projection, while Sul has high ego and there is roughness and coarseness in behaving with others. Ambr is called a receptionist in view of attributes of a receptionist who has to be mild and gentle in dealing with people. Ambr is an acute of Sul and it follows well after Sul. A case can be opened with Ambr like Sul.

Q. What is ‘Asterias rubens reshuffling of, and an arterial, Cur’?

A. The word reshuffling is used in the context of ‘designed newly’. It means that if we look at Cur with the vision of Aster in our mind, we may come across some striking similarities. Both are congestive, ulcerative, degenerative, cachectic and cancerous. Aster acts on arteries, but Cur has no deep action on arteries.

Q. What do you mean by “Iods and Sulphs never disown Iodine and Sulphur”?

A. The meaning of this sentence is that in any remedy where Iod or Sul is present in the form of either cation or anion, the remedy is bound to reflect characters of Iod or Sul. It’s as if they are the parents. To illustrate, in Ars-i, you get reflections of Iod or in Kali-s, you will get those of Sul.


A physician, who aspires to become an artist of healing profession, can’t brush aside the concept of RR. The study of MM through RR is a practical and advanced study of MM. The follow up of a case involves many aspects, one of the major being RR. RR is all about identity, about connections, about practical utility.

RR is all about individualization, the central tenet of prescribing in homoeopathy.

RR is all about rapport, with remedies, with patients; for healing.


  • Boger C.M., Synoptic Key of the Materia medica, B. Jain Pub., New Delhi
  • Farrington. E.A., Comparative Materia medica, B. Jain Pub., New Delhi
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  • Kent J.T., Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy, B. Jain Pub. New Delhi.
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  • Gibson Miller, Relationship of Remedies, B. Jain Pub. New Delhi.
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  • Dr. Abdur Rehman, Encyclopedia of Remedy Relationship in Homeopathy, Narayana Publishers, Germany
  • Nicola Henriques, Crossroads to Cure, Totality Press, CA
  • Philip Bailey, Homeopathic Psychology, B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi
  • Candegabe E. F., Comparative Materia Medica, B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi
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  • Tarkas P. I. and Kulkarni Ajit, A Select Homoeopathic Materia Medica, B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi
  • Kulkarni, Ajit, Body Language and Homoeopathy, B. Jain Pub., New Delhi
  • Gaskin A., Comparative study on Kent’s Materia medica,  B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi
  • Dockx And Kokelenberg, Kent’s Comparative Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia medica, B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi
  • Luis Detinis, Mental Symptoms in Homeopathy, Elsevier, New Delhi

About the author

Ajit Kulkarni

Ajit Kulkarni

Dr. Ajit Kulkarni M.D. (Hom.) is a veteran homoeopath, an academician and a famed international teacher, known for his innovative ideas. Dr. Kulkarni has presented 70 international seminars around the world and more than 100 seminars in India. He is Director of the Homeopathic Research Institute, Pune, India. He is a prolific writer on homeopathy and his works include co-authoring Absolute Homeopathic Materia Medica, and authoring “Law of Similars in Medical Science”, “Homeopathic Posology”
“Kali Family and Its Relations”, Body Language and Homeopathy”, as well as 22 books in the Russian language. He received the Award of Excellence in Homoeopathy (2011), from the Post-Graduate Association of India, the ‘Homoeo-Ratna’ award (2014) from ‘Homoeo-Friends’, India, and the “Life Achievement Award”, (2018), from the Sontara Bhansali Charitable trust and Indian Homeopahic Forum.” Dr. Kulkarni has represented homeopathy on Bulgarian TV and gave an address at Kachare Classic, Erandwane, near New Karnataka High school, Pune. Visit him at his website: Website: www.ajitkulkarni.com E-mail ID: [email protected]


  • Dear Dr Kulkarni: Your article is very comprehensive, detailed and is the fruit of much thought, labor and research into homeopathy – past and present.
    But in regard to INIMICALS & ANTIDOTES, there appears to be an inexplicable dis-obedience to the traditional relationship rules. In my very limited research into of the use of LM remedies (aka 50 Millesimal remedies), the “new rules apparently is – there are no rules”. Paras 248 & footnotes of the Organon 6th edition described how to prepare LM potencies. Subsequently, many followers, primarily the honorable Dr R.P. Patel gave their clinical experiences that by using LM potency, the inimicality and antidotal effect of remedy relationships could be put to rest. It was as if, the LM scale made friends out the former centisimal “antidotal and inimical” foes. But my real question is how does the LM scale keep the complementary, counterpart, midway, bridge and other “positive” relationship of remedies intact while only doing away with “negative” inimicality and antidotal actions. I don’t know the answer, but surely food for fleeting thought. I say ‘fleeting thought’ as there are so many other pressing questions in Homeopathy today – Sensation, Constitution, Tradition, Medica-memorization, Repertorization?…(On a lighter note, if only human relationships could be LM scaled!! for better world peace and harmony!) ….But I do end this comment by thanking Dr Kulkarni for presenting his various levels of understanding about remedy relationships. Before reading his article, all I used to use was Gibson-Miller’s Hot-Cold remedy relationships etc. Now, my horizon has broadened much more. Thank You.

  • Dear pgjhpathy, thanks for your appreciation.
    Remedy relations is a field related to the action of the remedies. The use of different scales of potencies is a different issue. RR is present with the remedies of all scales of potencies-decimal, centesimal or LM, below or above Avogadro’s number. It is difficult to accept that LM scale is always a heaven’s nest.

  • This article as New Approach is ocean of thought, universal thought, dived into multiple books, picking gemstone, from all the stalwarts of past & present, various references collecting in this article as ‘ Relationship’ . Very long article of 38-40 pages , no area of Homeopathy is untouched i.e. Disease, Constitution, Miasm, acute/ chronic, vital force, Organan, MM, Repertory, Philosophy, Body Language remedy of all type , comparatively its action on different stages of life, numerous heading , its jotting, and what not ? After going through the same one feels very satisfied, leaving lasting impression that we got everything under a roof.
    This article is a final touch of a writer through which a Homeopathy treatment can be ‘PERFECT”. Thanks to Dr. Ajit Kulkarni, for this very stupendous work. Some Other important articles are published in The Homeopathy Heritage & National Journal of Homeopathy which are also gemstones over the different t subject.
    Thanks to Hpathy who is enlightening and modernizing the homeopathy through this platform.
    P.S- Is this excerpt is part of book by Dr. Ajit Kulkarni ji or exclusive for this site. I would like to have the book if any on the Relationship by the author.

  • Respected Dr. Kulkarni: In reference to LM potencies not needing antidoting of previous administration due to inimicality (unlike the Centisimal scale) – I was quoting the experiences of Dr. Ramanlal P. Patel’s work “My experiments with 50 Millesimal Scale Potencies” 5th Edition, CMS Press, Page 64, Point # 21. It says”You can do away with drug relationships in a number of cases with the 50 Millesimal potencies as they are highly dynamised. There is NO need to antidote the action of the previous medicine” (end-quote).
    Dr. Patel was one of the pioneers to use LM scale and he personally travelled to Germany and researched the various papers written by Hahnemann there. He experimented widely with LM potencies before publishing his book. I have met him personally and he didn’t come across as one who would publish findings without painstaking research.

    I do realize that LM scale is not the universal panacea in every case and Dr. Patel himself admits certain cases responded to Centesimal scale better. One’s own practice and experience is the ultimate judge and jury and differs from homeopathic practioner to practioner (unfortunately, as this leads to a lack of consistency in the Principles of the Science). So, I am agreeing with your feedback that LM scale is not the heavenly nectar or amrit in every case, but my personal experience tells me to validate Dr. Patel’s findings also and let that be a good starting point. Aude Sapere.

    Regards & Thanks.

  • A mind tickling article, and will take many readings and thinking before i at least can start assimilating it .

    “The study of RR is all about quality and not quantity. A high quality system is one that meets a physician’s needs, is reliable, is flexible enough to meet future needs, and enhances physician’s efforts in clinical practice and hence a qualitative, refined methodology developed out of raw and haphazard data is the most important.”

    Thank you Dr K for this well researched and educative write up.

    Dr Wequar

  • How wonderful the relation of remedies are in our materia medica was never known before reading this article.
    Every thing in the world is connected to each other in a different way and so are our medicines.
    Hence we should not get stuck to the relations which are given in few of our important old books.
    This must be followed carefully while prescribing.
    Thankyou Dr. Ajit Sir for enlightening us in this subject.

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