Materia Medica Homeopathy Papers

Argentum Nitricum

Drs. P. I. Tarkas and Ajit Kulkarni share their very detailed and inclusive materia medica of Argentum Nitricum in this excerpt from their book Absolute Homeopathic Materia medica.

Excerpted from their book:  Absolute Homeopathic Materia medica

Nitrate of Silver

Mucous Membranes: Gastrointestinal. Genitourinary. Upper respiratory. Larynx
Serous Membranes: Pleura
Nerves: Abdominal. Cerebrospinal. Vagus. Solar plexus. Ventral nerve root (motor fibres) of the spinal nerve
Blood and blood vessels
Glands: Liver. Adrenal
Ocular apparatus
Periosteum. Small bones
One side; more left

Extremes of heat and cold
Heat: Of fire, sun, summer, room, clothes, bed, exertion, drinks
Cold: Wet or dry weather, cloudy, stormy
Uncovering. Closed places
Periodicity (not marked); 2,4,6,8,10,11,12, a.m. & p.m., alternate days; menses
Lying on right side
Sleep: During, after, siesta, loss of
Riding in car. Exertion. Walking fast. Overlifting. Looking down. Hurrying. Night watching

Depleting factors: Onanism. Sexual excesses. Bleeding. Menses

Depressing factors: Emotions (bad news, shock, fright, grief, strains, tension, worry, occupation esp. of responsibility, anxiety, brain-fag, suspense, anticipation, vexation, anger, disagreement, disgracement, excitement, mortification

Appearing in public

Blocked exits (crowds, closed places, bridges, tunnels, high places, aeroplanes, precipice)

Toxins [sugar, milk, rich heavy foods, (over) eating, breakfast, tea, tobacco, alcohol, tubers (gastritis), mercury, long after eating. Dinner

Mild, wet rainy weather. Spring
Cool: bath; open air; or water on face
Cold drinks. Ice-cream. Warm drinks. Stimulants. Eating, supper
Eructations. After stool
Travel, riding in wind (Tub.), rapid walking in open air
Hard pressure. Bending double




  • Psycho-(genic) somatic disorders (like Caust.). Gastro-psycho-cardiac neuroses (like Ran-b.). Nervous catarrhs. Nervous breakdowns. Tremulous weakness.
  • Incoordination: Mental and physical. Paralysis. Ulcerations (eyelids, cornea, nose, mouth, stomach, bowels, bladder, genitals). Splinter-like stitches. Expanded, enlarged sensations. Apprehensions. Sweet-craving. Hemorrhagic.
  • Suggestive of a syphilo-sycotic and tubercular miasm (the metal is sycotic, just as is syphilitic. Nat-m., a closest analogue and associate also, is syco-tubercular and syphilitic).

Memorative 21 Is:

  • Incoherence. Imbalance. Indiscretion. Infirm. Irresolute. Insecured. Irrational. Indirigible. Imperative. Indifferent. Insane. Intemperance. Incontinence. Impatient. Irritable. Impulsive. Intuitive. Intoxicated. Illusions. Incarcerated.
  • The more I’s, the more Arg-n.

Memorative Ds:

  • Dysthesia. Dyspraxia (like Lol., Onos.). Dysthrepsia. Dyspepsia. Dyspnea. Dysmenorrhea. Dysentery. Dyspareunia. Dyslexia.


  • Feeble, scrawny, withered, dried up (dehydrated), mummy-like, old looking (infants); dwarfish, puny, stunted; with sunken faces; aged, esp. those who though looking very old resist ageing except in blood vessels (like Lach.). Thin fluoric or phospho-sulfo-fluoric or thin tuberculinic (R.Zissu). Carbo-nitrogenoid. Oxygenoid. Hydrogenoid.
  • Choleric, melancholic, nervous, hysterical persons; tense, impulsive, suspense-hating, impatient, hurried, fast-walkers. Nervous (11 am), restless, weak, tremulous; professionals, artists, musicians, actors, tailors, typists.
  • The over-wrought, worn-out. Neurotic sedentary brain-workers. Herpetic.
  • Gross-eating, sweet-toothed, gassy dyspeptics. Victims of excesses of all sorts: in diet, abuse of sugar, in addiction (tobacco etc.), in brain work, in sex, overstrain, too many cares or shocks.
  • Timid, shy, shirks any new or ambitious undertaking; looks childish or asinine. Antirest. Anxious, fidgety, sighing, palpitating, fears both death and failure, apprehensive.


  • Setting off first from the mucous membranes, goes then straight to the nerves, first vagus and solar plexus, later the cranial (esp. ocular) and spinal nerves.
  • In the nervous system, Arg-n. has diphasic action:
  • A phase of stimulation (contractions, spasms, cramps, sympatheticotonia); followed by: A phase of depression (paresis or even paralysis, vagotonia).
  • Also, alternation of these phases, producing instability, inconstancy, incoordination, festination, dyspraxia.
  • Produces functional and organic nervous diseases, neurotic affections, spinal cord degeneration. Also produces an athrepsia, prostration, deep-in headaches, with depression, vertigo, insomnia, spinal pain and weakness, convulsions, followed by paralysis or paresis of limbs esp. lower (comparable to action of ); and lastly disorganization in most organs.
  • Liver: Increased bile flow and a degenerative congestion.
  • Blood: Dilution, loss of hemoglobin resulting in defective oxidation with lowered temperature.


  • Universal Commotion: Formication of limbs. Tingling; soles. Trembling of body, mainly chest (internal), of affected part, of lips, hand while writing (professional neurosis) or after tea, with chest pain; periodical; from anxiety, fright etc.; after breakfast; from flatulence; with most complaints. A nervous tremulous faint-like sensation. Orgasms in whole body with heat (a glow, like ). Unsteadiness or shakiness in feeling or gait (Caust.).
  • Cramps: In legs, calf (toes), (left) at night.
  • Chorea; with tearing in legs; worse night. Fidgety hands, legs.
  • Pains: Increase and subside gradually or quickly; radiating in spots (Lach.); sensitiveness to (Cham.); after anger. Splinter-like. Lightning-like, shooting, or shocks on beginning to move. Band or vise-like (compressing). Bursting. Splitting. Grinding. Piercing. Gnawing.
  • Numbness: Alternates with sensitiveness (Nat-m., Plb.); of left side; esp. termini; of left face after shock of a frightening scene; of limbs esp. left (like , Sumb., Tarax.), nightly, lying on it, from indigestion. Limbs; arms, finger (tips), left leg, foot, toes. Numbness irrespective of pain.
  • Convulsions: With vertigo and transient blindness; tonic spasms at night; during meningitis; puerperal; hysterical (esp. at menses like Plat.). Anxious restlessness between fits. Epilepsy: From fright, tobacco, alcohol; during menses; with constipation; nightly, after heavy meals. Epileptic imbecility. Before: trembling, restlessness, expanded feeling esp. of head and face, dilated pupils. After: restless (or quiet), limbs (hands) tremble, sullen, silly, deep sleep, headache.
  • Weakness: Paralytic (and tremulous) heaviness; a shakiness or unsteadiness (esp. when not observed). Weakness after heavy meals or overeating, hard mental exertion, breakfast, with cold shuddering; followed by apathy and yawning. Left side weaker (Lach.). Weakness with oppression, anxiety, trembling, nervousness, diffidence; faint – like; Weakness < morning on rising. Weakness of legs while walking, with rigidity in calves; from flatulence. Faltering speech. Tottering.
  • Neuromuscular Disorders: Locomotor ataxia; imbalance everywhere (Nat-m.), incoordination, festination, dyspraxia, faltering speech, gait, erections etc; post-malarial; lightning-like (fulgurating) pains. Gastric crises of locomotor ataxia (flatulence, tympanites, diarrhea). Renal crises, scanty (like Ars.) or copious urine. Tottering; staggering in dark or with eyes closed (Alum.).
  • Functional Paralysis: (E.g. intestinal, respiratory) from debilitating / devitalizing / depleting causes; mental, spinal or abdominal troubles, excesses (dietetic, addictive or sexual), traumatic (fall, contusion, spinal compression etc., like Con.), pressure (as in Pott’s disease). Paralysis ascending; transitory; hysterical; epileptic; post-diphtheric, apoplectic (Paralysis or dementia), typhoid. Progressive spinal paralysis with mental and alimentary tract symptoms. Paralysis agitans. Creeping-jerking in paralysed parts. Localised paralysis: sphincters, diaphragm, ocular, arm (left with or after vertigo), lower limbs (with jerking of eyes), wrist drop (Plb.). Slowly developing paralysis ().
  • Sclerosis: Disseminated. Multiple. Amyotrophic. Cerebral (also softening). Posterior spinal (locomotor ataxia). Spinal irritation, with sensory and motor paretic symptoms, nocturnal pains, from sexual excesses, in an aged person. Lateral spinal sclerosis (spastic paraplegia); after epilepsy.


  • Mucous membranes: Everywhere irritated, causing catarrhs or congestions with (destructive) inflammation which may go on to ulceration (like Bufo, Merc., Nit-ac., Sil.). Red, bleeding.
  • Discharges: Green, yellow, black, muco- purulent, copious, membranous, offensive (only stool and urine), thick, tenacious, glairy.
  • Blood: Defective oxidation, destruction of RBC, lowered temperature. Stagnated in vessels causing ecchymoses, cyanosis. Scorbusis. Bleeding from: nose, gums, stomach, bowels, bladder, uterus, lungs. Blood is thick, black, clotted; or diluted. A blood-cachexia from crude poisoning. Orgasms; after emotions; long walk. Thrombosis; cerebral.
  • Muscles: Rheumatism; associated with flatulent dyspepsia. Cartilages show destructive inflammatory changes. Prolapses. (Hernia).
  • Glands: Cervical, indurated, suspected syphilis. Seborrhea (Merc.). Enlarged prostate. Thyrotoxicosis; goitre.
  • Bones: Caries of small bones. Joints: sacroiliac notch, shoulder, left wrist, finger-joints, knee etc. painful. Gout.
  • Emaciation: Withered, oldish look and (darkened) skin; marasmus; more of legs (more of hands, Lyc.). A good builder and rejuvenator (like Con.). Infant loses flesh, gets marasmus, even without apparent (or substantial) cause; though eating well.
  • Dropsy: Hepatic etc. Ascites. Oedema of legs etc. (Arg-met. may be more useful here). Elephantiasis (Caust.).
  • Prolapsus: Rectum, uterus.
  • Growths: Polypi; polypoid growths, in throat. Warts and condylomata. Neurofibroma. Fibrositis: in pleura (heart). (Tumors). Malignancies: epithelioma, lupus, melanosis, liver cirrhosis (malarial), gastric cancer. Excrescences. Prevents excessive granulation in ulcers. Rice bodies. Nodules on voal cords.
  • Degeneration: Fatty, of liver, kidneys, glands (). Pigmentary: abdomen, (retina?). Softening: brain, stomach. Degenerations find fulfillment in Aur-m., Bar-m., Caust., Nat-m. etc. Gangrenous tendency in stomach. Sclerosis. Atherosclerosis. Thickening [eyelids, cornea, skin (like Bar-c., Arg-met.)]. Melan (tongue, vomit, stool, skin). Melanotic cancer.
  • Nervous symptoms prevail over organic changes.

Peculiar symptoms

  • During neurosis (i.e. when thought or fears make him anxious) he is so restless (like Kali-i.) that he must eat, talk or walk. Will eat out worries, walk out anxiety and run out life, but will only partially talk them out. Wants umbrella when walking in moonlight.
  • Neuralgias seldom acute, but widely spread and deeply seated; peripheral.
  • Sensitive both to cold, low temperature exposures as well as heat. Welcomes cold washing to head, eyes, face; but dislikes cold bath (though it >).
  • Wakes well in morning but a little after, or after breakfast, gets nervous and restless with hot head and tremulous weakness, oppression and distress. A nervous, faintish and tremulous sensation, during day or night.
  • Day-night modalities:
    1. During day feels things are done very slowly and nights seem too long (in absence of work).
    2. More cough during day, more diarrhea during night.
    3. Makes many pleasant plans during day, and have monstrous visions and riotous fancies during night.
    4. Tensions during day and nervousness (with fulness, dullness, heaviness and heat in head) by night.
    5. Wants cold applications during day and warm applications at night on eyes.
  • Anomalies: Head feels tightened in a vise but is better tight bandage. Pharyngeal catarrh of smokers better by smoking. Stools or urine comes not from straining, but after giving up. Chilly when uncovered, but smothers when wrapped up. Increased sensitiveness to contact (hyperaesthesia) but diminished power of distinguishing sensations.
  • Sympathizing troubles: Head sympathizes with other (e.g. gastric) troubles. Eyes sympathize with gastrointestinal or spinal troubles (opp. Euphr.). Nausea accompanies many symptoms. Chill or shuddering with many complaints (Puls.).
  • Sensations: Adherent; ball like; cobweb-like tension; flowing like a hot current, or like water; of dislocation; fullness; lameness, or laming pains; megalic (like ); of being hemmed in (like Lach.); of a sudden push (Dudgeon); of shakiness or unsteadiness; expanded feeling of the whole body, limbs, head, eyes, face, teeth, ovaries, > eructation; stretched feeling in urethra, lumbar muscles, calves; orgasms (or surgings) in the whole body with heat (a kind of ebullition, glow or wave of warmth as after calcium injection).
  • The hysterical quartet [Hysteria + Flatulence + Rheumatism + Heart (like , Kali-c.) is found here too.
  • Attacks: Regular paroxysms of nervous and emotional disturbances. Sudden violent piercing (or knife-like cutting) pain in chest; face and hands very cold; pulse first gone, then rises; face reddened; whole body trembled; cries violently; warm sweat then broke out; and finally slept out the attack. Pains or other complaints appear and disappear suddenly (like ) or gradually (like Stann.).
  • “Sinking downward from head” (Boger). “Narrow traction (= drawing?) in occiput extending into middle of brain” (T.F. Allen). “Shivers through bowels” (Boger).
  • Mental phases: 1. The phase of excitability: State of perpetual agitation, hurried, restless, tremulous, tense, instable characters and hallucinations etc.
  • 2.The phase of depression: sadness, slowness, sluggishness, neurasthenia, melancholia, anxiety, progressive diminution of intellectual capacities etc.


  • Straining from over-lifting. Sprain in back, joints. Falls. Scorpion bite, waves of chill and cold sweat. Paralysis.


Arg-n. case may progress along

  • Nutrition disorder, or
  • Neurosis-psychic or cardiac, or
  • Nervous degeneration: paralysis, sclerosis etc., or lastly
  • Tissue degeneration or destruction: softening, sclerosis, ulceration, malignancy, liposis, seborrhea.
  • Of extensive use in sub-acute conditions esp. ophthalmic, gastro-enteric and thoracic. Of but limited service in neuro or histic degenerations beyond early phase (hence called ‘degenerant’), and when mental and gastric symptoms point to it. Organic changes are resisted till late (like its psoric confrere ) and appear only after exposure to other factors or poisons extraneous or intrinsic. The only likely changes per se are those resulting from natural wear, tear and torture. Stabilized changes may need the metal or other drugs of the cadre of Aur-m. To malignancies the metal is more appropriate. This is however definite: All pathologies are better first handled for the presenting symptoms. This is as true for psycho or neuro-pathies as for physical ills like diabetes or scirrhus. Is not (like Nat-m.) germane to suppressed eruptions; hands over this task to Caust., Sulph., Zinc. etc.


  • The arch solar plexus: Apprehension; fears or shocks (of bad news etc.) strike at the pit of stomach (causing acidity, incarceration of gas, sweat, diarrhea or anxious oppression in chest). Anxiety when anything is expected of him, e.g. an interview, viva voce, a trial (ordeal), appearance before public, an engagement or any responsibility (esp. one about a serious illness). Anxiety makes him go into the open and better walk rapidly about, and better still go away on a journey. Anxiety, in morning, with a nervous weak faintish and tremulous sensation (or a curious feeling) which makes him walk (rapidly); irritability and chilliness (like Nux-v.); from exaltation of fancies. Anxiety neuroses after unhappy experiences; with hematemesis. A sort of tremulous hurry or nervousness (bordering on the neurotic); esp. when anything is in the making, or when required to arrive at a stipulated or appointed time (Ars.), or after breakfast (with hot head) or when gas was forming and rising up (with distress and melancholic depression). Agg. when riding in a car (due to vibration and buzzing).
  • An anticipatory anxiety masquerading as fears of a grave disease; failure in an undertaking (which makes him shun any enterprise), becoming late (which makes him hurry); heights, higher storeyed or projections of buildings (makes him giddy and shaky); precipices [standing there causes anxiety and strumming (trembling) in legs]; surgery or even unfavorable diagnosis (noticing her pulse or BP enhances their fears); plots against him; snakes or animals; all sorts of fears in short (Calc.).
  • Fears: Of closed places (claustrophobia, like Lach.), of open space (agoraphobia, like Gels.); sits in last row or near a door; bypasses certain places to avoid a sensation; a fear of publicity. Howsoever afraid of facing public straightway he is always at home in a closed place or in a crowd. Scared of problems and difficulties, he seeks or prefers company of the happy.
  • A timid approach to life (like ; but is not calculative or greedy; does not harbor hatred, and is an easy victim to flattery and prone to trust anyone, and is moreover driven by impulses). Down with depression and anxiety neurosis (like Plat.), hence a shirker, escapist, a back-bencher, even a coward, always willing to pass responsibilities (“bucket”) on to others.
  • Yet tense (like ) and therefore impulsive, eccentric, whimsical, a quicksilver man (Merc.), or (rarely) dictatorial. Always on the run (like Aur-m., lod.), restless and in a hurry; on the move and walking fast, though it may increase his anxiety (and it may then make him walk faster still); can take long walks without difficulty. A hustler; time for him seems to pass too slowly, others work too slowly, hence takes the work himself, but does it tremulously. He is impatient, intolerant of waiting, or of suspense, but also unable to take the work successfully from others. This tension (coupled with a lack of perseverance) makes him change occupation (a vagrant like Sulph., but is decidedly better after a bath, which opens up his appetite, though both are sweet-cravers and lack method), but perhaps not places; travelling always interests him.
  • He begins a dyspeptic and ends a neurotic, and tension again backfeeds dyspepsia. Begins with a “soldier’s diarrhea” (a bowel neurosis), and ends with a “soldier’s heart” (a cardiac neurosis). Any excitement tells upon him; any unwelcome news, event or entry causes an urging to stool, or sinking in pit of stomach, or even a chest pain; an animated or prolonged dialogue causes anxiety, polyuria, or ovaralgia etc., gluttony too takes him left and right.
  • In spite of this extraordinary timorousness he has some tenacity within him, which helps him to keep up a show of distinction so long as he can (e.g. an actor), though somewhat unmethodically; he has not (unlike Lyc.), the cool, calculated perseverance to accomplish the goal he may have set about (unlike the more impressionable Calc.). Also, active, composed, conscientious persons; or officious, but awkward, slipshod and hurrying, always feeling amidst an unfriendly set-up or forsaken.
  • A sort of perversion or irrationality; a pseudo-rational; ‘a prize rationalizer’ (i.e. a champion in rationalizing). Has hidden irrational motives for his actions. He has strange notions, ideas, impulses and fears. May be a liar, or a superstitious person. A cynic, loath to give credit, plays down others’ claims or succor received. Have queerest objections or arguments against whatever was proposed; ever ready with (unconvincing) explanations. He may have an artistic temperament, a musical bent, yet not of a benevolent kind (and yet may not perhaps be a cynic, may be officious, altruism does not contraindicate); perhaps also a person with understanding winning over passion or sentiment, and having a courage of conviction; lastly, deceitful; an “oh no” chronic liar.
  • Imagination runs riot, various illusions. Delusion that everything will fail.
  • Subsequently, depression and neurasthenia; of the overwrought, overtired, over-shocked; after fright or grief, over-eating, alcoholism or sex-excesses. This may be preceded by: hiccough, acidity, (pseudo-) angina pectoris, shocks in heart, headache, (tearing) pain (with stiffness) in calf or (broken) pain in tibia etc. Brain fag of scholars and professionals with tremulous weakness, mental depression or irritability; confusion; failing memory; hypochondriasis; tormented by a forsaken feeling, or as if surrounded by unfriendly people. Depression, after a heavy meal, esp. of fluids.
  • Stupor, with dilated pupils, from flatulence; with vertigo.
  • Brain deterioration/degeneration; GPI (general paresis, dementia paralytica). Post-apoplectic dementia. An imbecility; does foolish things. Paranoid, schizoid or obsessive states; preceded by attacks of strange ideas and emotions (more at night); incoherent, ill-assorted and disquieting thoughts running riot at night in bed (like , Sil.). Bouts of depression and suicidal mania (Aur., continuous). Cyclothymic imbalance. Mental deterioration of paranoiac type (Agar., Stry-p., Zinc-p.); after apoplexy; this usually comes very late (later than in the metal), of disposition and behaviour comes earlier; indicative of a syphilitic trait. Confusion, vanishing of thoughts, failure of senses, with stupefaction, even loss of identity (thrombotic).

Additional Notes:

  • ‘Anankastic’ personality (characterized by a hard sense of personal insecurity, associated with excessive caution and conscientiousness) (cp. ).
  • ‘Karoshi syndrome,’ an occupational disease due to fast living, accelerated tempo of life, chronic time shortage etc. make a person workaholic (work-maniac) – the consequences of modern life style-show a correspondence to Arg-n.; as evidenced by multiple fears; of health, of death, of being alone, of closed places and heights, of crowds etc.; hurried in activities and time-conscious.
  • Represents mental state of a ‘trapped’ person. The person feels that all exits are blocked (e.g. claustrophobia), there is no way out of the situation (problem with space). The person becomes impatient to get over the situation. Thus, any suspense or waiting intensifies the anxiety and the person develops the feeling that ‘time passes too slowly’ (problem with time) urging him to walk rapidly. The person, thus, develops problem with both time and space.

Some Clinical Tips

  • A good remedy for diarrhea in children due to lactose intolerance. The stools are watery, green mucus (like chopped spinach) and are expelled with considerable noise, force, gas and odor.
  • Near specific in cases where sudden bad news, shock or fright results in involuntary defecation or has to hurry for closet (Gels.).
  • A prominent drug in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (I.B.S.), a disorder of colonic motility influenced by several psychic factors.
  • A good drug for acute ‘migraine’ type headaches, esp. if Nat-m. is the chronic constitutional remedy.
  • As a rejuvenator, revitalizer esp. after neuro-surgery, or cerebro-vascular stroke; for improvement of nerve function.
  • Highly indicated in cases of ‘cardiac neurosis’ where palpitation, pain, fear, anticipation, anxiety with concomitant GIT disturbances are present.
  • Can be tried in mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, microcephaly, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, parkinsonism etc.



  • Vertigo: With staggering (during headache which may alternate with stomach or chest pain); nervous affection; sleepiness; epilepsy, transient blindness; buzzing in ears; general debility of limbs and trembling; locomotor ataxia; on looking up, or down from a height (with strumming in legs); walking in dark or with eyes closed; (on turning in bed; in the act of lying).
  • Faintish and tremulous; with brain fag; faintness (and/or vertigo, headache) from wind pressing upward, incomplete eructation.
  • Headaches: Various. Gastric. Congestive (Gels.); bursting; pressing; stitching; boring-digging or dull stupefying. With expanded feeling, chilliness, cold extremities, trembling, biliousness. < when constipated, in open air, in Sun, exertion (mental or physical). Alternates with pain in stomach or chest. > closing eyes, tight bandage, cold applications, warm (hand on forehead), eating, eructations, stool. Apoplectic. Hemicrania: left sided periodical sick headache, suddenly coming and going, cold forehead, vertex feels lifted off, the patient has a post-grief (cardiac) angina too.
  • Cerebro-spinal meningitis: First stage; vertigo, throbbing headache (with, shattered feeling in skull), fulness and ringing (or buzzing) in ears, chilliness, trembling, epileptiform convulsions; during epidemics (like yellow fever etc., where a prophylactic too), or typhoid. Meningitis rheumatica; with trembling (Lol.).
  • Scalp: Constriction (as if drawn tight), itching, creeping, crawling; bones feel enlarged or separated; boring; burning herpes on occiput. “Narrow traction in occiput extending into middle of brain”? (T. F. Allen).


  • Opthalmias: Syphilitic, of newborn, croupous (membranous); discharge muco-purulent, yellow, bland, (scanty). Worse: fire, heat, warm room; better: open cold air, cold applications.
  • Conjunctiva hyperemic, red and swollen towards inner canthus like a ptepygium. Acute granular conjunctivitis, discharge profuse, muco-purulent; gonorrheal; catarrhal, pustular. Sub-acute conjunctivitis, every summer. Later atrophy. Chemosis, with strangulated vessels. Pterygiums; pink.
  • Chronic hypertrophic blepharitis, bright red granulations or thick crusts on lids, canthi red, red swollen caruncula like proud flesh, injection, bland tears. Ulceration of margin of lids with thickening. Ciliary blepharitis; ectropion. Edema of lids. Scaly tarsi. Pannus. Iritis, pustular keratitis, thickening. Ulceration. Opacity (left); after exanthem. Tendency to slough. Fistula (silver-nitrate touch). Retina, pigmentary inflammation. Retroubulbar neuritis. Optic nerve atrophy in locomotor ataxia; paralysis. Glaucoma; eyestrain from sewing etc. Cataract from nervous disturbance or disordered nutrition, abuse of sugar, tobacco.
  • Pupils dilated; unequal; with drowsiness; before convulsion; “pupilliary atrophy” (Boger-Boennighausen.).
  • Aching, tired feeling in eyes, > closing or pressing cold.
  • Sudden hypermetropia from congestion. Weakness, atony, paretic condition of ciliary muscles (Caust.). Paralysis of internal rectus; suddenly becomes hypermetropic. Myopia, dim, after drugs for goitre. Paralysis of accommodation from errors of refraction, glasses failing; from eyestrain; after diphtheria. Unable to keep eyes fixed steadily (Con.) due to muscular atony. Weak sight, after close thinking, with photophobia. Vanishing of sight, constantly tries to wipe mucus. Transient blindness, with confusion, buzzing in ears, nausea, trembling.
  • Vision: Affected from gastric troubles (). Errors of perception (distance, size, etc.) from atony or imperfect coordination of muscles. Cloudiness over left eye. Grey spots and serpentine bodies before eyes. Black moles. Filaments. Flocks. Diplopia, vertical. Wavy vision.
  • In general, eyes sympathize with gastrointestinal (or spinal) troubles (opp. Euphr.).


  • Congestive tinnitus; humming; with vertigo; Meniere’s disease.


  • Epistaxis; with palpitation (, Ictod.). Allergic rhinitis. Septal ulcer.


  • Swollen (left). Numb one side. Likes cold air or cold water on.


  • Sensitive to cold water. Toothache when chewing; eating cold or sour things. Tartar on.


  • Salivation, mercurial, after sugar; or dryness with (or without) thirst. Unable to speak from spasm of muscles of tongue and throat; stammering.


  • Clergyman’s sore throat.
  • Catarrhal pharyngitis; of smokers or drunkards; fishbone or splinter sensations (Hep., Nit-ac.); ulcerated, scrofulous, syphilitic or mercurial. Constricted-chocked feeling when preparing for something or when going to sleep or walking.
  • Thyrotoxicosis; (along with adrenal cortex malfunction) cause of metabolic disorder; goitre.
  • Post-diphtheric paralysis.


  • Craving for and troubles (including myocardial) after sweets. Appetite good, or on the diminishing side, but stimulated after bath or in pleasant company. Gastric troubles of brain workers or businessman. Alcoholic gastritis. Nausea with faintness, apprehension, oppression, palpitation; < or > eating. Gastric neuroses; catarrhs. Simultaneous vomiting and diarrhea (Ars-v.).
  • Worse after: Sugar or candy (acidity, eructations, fetid flatus, diarrhea, low blood pressure etc.). Starches, (rice, new bread, tubers). Proteins (milk, esp. from cold), legumes, cabbage. Fats; fatted vegetable proteins (oil-seeds, nuts etc.); fatted starches (pastry). Cold-chilled foods and drinks (shocks in head, flatulence, fever, etc.). Tea (flatulence, tremors, insomnia). Coffee. Apples, sour foods. Brinjals (eggplant). Beans. Gourds. Heavy foods better tolerated than light (Nux-v.). Vegetables do not suit.

Miasms and Foods:

     < <<              <<                            < or 0

  • Fats Sycosis          Syphilis/Psora          Psora/Syphilis
  • Proteins Psora             Sycosis/Syphilis       Sycosis/Syphilis
  • Starch Syphilis          Psora/Sycosis          Sycosis/Psora


  • Psora Proteins          Starch                    Fats

Proteins          Fats                        Starch

  • Syphilis Starch             Proteins                  Fats

Starch             Fats                        Proteins

  • Sycosis  Fats                 Proteins                  Starch

Fats                 Starch                    Proteins

  • Starches are a major problem in the syphilitic, less in psoric (and sycotic) and none in (psoric and) sycotic. Proteins are a major problem in psoric, less in sycotic (and syphilitic) and none in (sycotic and) syphilitic. Fats are a major problem for sycotic, less in (psoric and) syphilitic and none in syphilis (and psoric). Fatted (lipo-) proteins (also vegetables) do not suit the psoro-sycotic, and fatted starches the syco-syphilitic. The psoro-syphilitics are hostile to starches and/or proteins.
  • Flatulent (or atonic) dyspepsias, with anxiety, pulsation, palpitations, oppression and troubles akin to pent-up gases; flatulent twinges above diaphragm. Loud explosive belching (Coca). Gastralgia; pains accompanied by intense spasms of chest muscles, seizing shoulder or scapula and running down (left), arm, flatulence, a nervous feeling or a sensation as if squeezed in a vise. Hyperacidity; after emotions. Ulcerated; after emotions (e.g. during wartime); with palpitation. Flabbiness; dilatation. Softening (gastromalacia).
  • Pit of stomach is a special butt: esp. of emotions; various sensations like anxiety, distress, oppression, sinking, pulsations, trembling, vibrations (or a ‘working’) are felt there.


  • Liver: Tender; a band-like tension around hypochondria, (or in waist); pains, periodical; degenerative congestion; enlarged; cirrhosis, from malarial cachexia; pigmentary degeneration; fatty, with transitory paralysis, coma or convulsions; liver diseases of brain workers.
  • Flatulent distension, tympanites etc., hysterical (like , Tarax.); reaching up into chest, even brain, long after eating (a colon dyspepsia); bursting (Lyc.); pains felt in distant parts (radiate, Lyc.).


  • Gastroenteritis, even pseudo-membranous enteritis or muco-membranous colitis, in the neurotic, when perturbed mentally. Diarrhea or urging from (various) shocks (affecting the vagus). Chronic (rather nervous) diarrheas after abuse of sugar; of children after weaning; worse after midnight. Cholera infantum. Cholera (or cholerine) with suppression of urine, spasms of diaphragm or respiratory muscles, easy suffocation, anguish, dehydration. Advanced dysentery with (suspected) ulceration, sans tenesmus.
  • Constipation: Of sedentary brain workers; flat tape-like stools, with croupous-aphthous proctitis; alteration with diarrhea; worse when constipated (opp. ).


  • Renal congestion, calculus, inflammation (with gastrointestinal irritation); chronic renal failure. Bladder paretic; retained, dribbling or involuntary urination. Dysuria. Violent pains from kidneys to bladder. Sphincter paralysis. Enlargement of prostate. Urethritis (simple or specific) with burning or splinter-like pains; stricture.
  • Urine copious in nervous troubles or diarrhea; scanty in daytime or in gastric troubles; incontinence in paralysis.
  • Diabetes insipidus or mellitus (in initial stages). Adrenal malfunction; Addison’s disease.


  • Gonorrhea and orchitis; contusive pains. Syphilis; small chancre-like ulcers on prepuce; secondary syphilis; gastric crises.
  • Coition painful; urine and se-men burning; impotence.


  • Inflammation of all pelvic organs, with soreness. Ovaralgia (left) from excitement.
  • Menses irregular; dysmenorrhea-gastralgia at beginning, spasm of chest muscles, nightly tormenting (vibration) in epigastrium and urging to stool which amel. (in short a solar plexus disturbance). Worse at the menses and free at all other times ( Lach.). Amenia; from depression. Metrorrhagia: periodical; in young widows; barren women; after coition, with nervous erethism, at climacteric (menopausal psychoses cp. Plat.). Nightly orgasms.
  • Leucorrhea: Copious, yellow, corroding; with severe dysmenorrhea; from erosion of cervix.
  • Ulceration of vagina, os and cervix.
  • Prolapsus in scrawny dried-up, feeble women.
  • Mastodynia (and sore nipples) from nursing. Suckling infants die early from marasmus. Tendency to ulceration (‘proud flesh’) of mammae.


  • Laryngeal troubles alternate with uterine. Catarrh or chronic laryngitis; of singers (raising tone causes cough; of smokers (with amel. from smoking). Phthisical degeneration of cartilages of larynx. Aphonia from nervous excitement or depression; clogging by a growth, during indigestion.
  • Dyspnea in a warm close crowded room, better walking about and open air (Puls.); either nervous, of acidity or flatulence; with gastric or cardiac pains; spasms (even paralysis) of diaphragm or respiratory muscles. Respiration after catching, gasping, deep sighing, hurried, panting. Asthma: pure nervous (i.e. spasmodic); or also catarrhal (bronchial).
  • Cough: Various coughs, generally loose but also dry, in single turns; agg. any exertion, emotions, on awaking, smoking; speaking; laughing; of tobacco heart; with soreness in (left) chest. Splinter sensation in throat provoking suffocating cough.
  • Pleurisy: Subacute (left), with emaciation in phthisical subjects; adhesions, fibrosities, attacks of pressing pain for years after it (Ran-b. eating, exertion after). Congestion of chest; at climacteric. Pneumonia. Pleuro-pneumonia.
  • Chronic pleurodynia or intercostal neuralgia; (left); pain almost about heart, causing uneasiness (distress) in chest and forcing him to walk; from exertion with arms; mainly tensive, splinter-like or sore. Cramps and spasms of chest muscles, with cold face and hands, amel. eructations or sweat.
  • A heavy distressed feeling; < midnight or towards morning; oppression with fullness, anxiety and sighing; atelectasia, chest feels stuffed, stony or solid; gastro-pectoral dyspepsia, flatulent twinges. Orgasm; from blocking of gas after an unpleasant emotion; a glow or burning feeling. Quivering, vibration, fluttering, tremulousness, or strumming (thrills) in chest or precordia (like , Lyc.). Threatened paralysis of lungs; with gastric involvement.


  • Fullness, heaviness with anxiety and disposition to sigh; paroxysmal anxiety in precordia (also faintness) and a feeling of heart disease; restless sensation in heart, anxiety at heart, when thinking of it, after dinner or sudden effort (, Crot-h., Dig.); vibration, strumming, quivering, fluttering or trembling (from nervousness, thinking of it or flatulence); orgasms, nightly, from emotions, after long walking (opp. Carl.) accompanied by a glow. Tormenting pressure or soreness in precordia, < night, > deflation or stool.
  • Beats: Irregular; intermittent; strong beats from exertion, when noticing it, lying on right side, amel. moving about (Gels.), when resting feels his heart stops beating. Palpitations; paroxysmal; with faintish nausea (qualmishness); from sudden emotions or shock or effort; riding in a wagon; after bath; wine; from incarcerated flatulence (Coca), < lying on right side (Lil-t., Plat., Spong.). Fluttering; when thinking of it.
  • Sub-pseudo angina pectoris (a gastro-cardiac syndrome): Heart’s action disturbed by stomach disorder (Ang., Carl., Lact.); gastric pain through precordia to shoulder, scapula or left arm with tingling in palm; also pain in left sternomastoid, on ulnar side of left hand and little finger, with cold and numb toes (when walking); flatulent twinges.
  • Pseudo-angina pectoris: Cardiac neurosis of the neurotics, tobacco addicts or sugar fiends. At night tormenting pressure, anguish in precordia; during menses. Hysterical irritable heart with flatulence etc. (Ictod.). Neurosis plus pains.
  • Angina pectoris: Ischemia, from sudden emotions, or atherosclerosis. Intense precordial or retrosternal pains, with suffocation, after meals or nightly. (Contra Otto Leeser “Palpitation and unrest in cardiac region are functional, with no special alteration of cardiac action”). Suggested in threatened coronary thrombosis or after it to prevent recurrence or for post-infarct anginas; myocardial degeneration, malarial, influenzal, or from abuse of sugar. Threatened cardiac arrest. < in afternoon > walking in open air ( has < walking).
  • Organic heart (and liver) troubles of brain workers, businessmen, gluttons, sugar fiends, tobacconists, victims of shocks and reverses (Arn.).
  • Blood vessels: Full feeling in. Perceptible pulsations, < lying on left side; of left temporal artery, abdominal aorta. Arteriosclerosis and atheroma (i.e. atherosclerosis); unstable angina. High blood pressure with gastric overtones. From sugar abuse, Low BP. Veins varicose; dilated. Sometimes “brain and spinal cord degeneration is more severe than (or precedes) actual vascular or cardiac degeneration”. ‘White-coat hypertension’ (blood pressure temporarily raised on a visit to a doctor).


  • Heaviness or fatigue. Pain after a fall; from flatulence; between scapulae; after eating. Myelitis. Stiff, sensitive, sore. Spinal irritation after sexual excesses, in aged, with sensory and motor paretic symptoms. Lumbago, > standing or walking. Lumbo-abdominal neuralgia, during pregnancy, from flatulence. Heaviness in sacrum as before menses, during stool; pain in.


  • Heaviness, weariness, soreness, jerk during sleep. Sciatica, periodical. Calves: cramps, weary, stiff, tension in, twisting in, tormenting-tearing pains all night. Unsteady-tottering-staggering gait, except when observed. Crawling in legs as in incipient fever. Toes cramps. Lameness of (left.) arm during sleep. Arms weaker than legs or vice versa.


  • Sleepless from uncontrolled ideas, horrible dreams, or else a yawning soporous condition. During sleep: catching respiration, jerking limbs, numbness of arms, incarceration of flatulence, oppression of chest.
  • Dreams: Of dead, snakes, frightful, ghosts, of being engulfed by something huge, quarrels, creative.


  • Dried up, withered, wrinkled. Turns blue-grey, violet, bronze (as in Addison’s disease), to quite black; darkened and indented under constant pressure; brown, tense, hard. Irregular blotches. Drawing, tension, as from a cobweb or dried albumen (esp. of face). Inelastic, hide-bound.
  • Neuro-skins. Emotional eczema. Pustulous ecthyma. Bluish black eruptions (comedones). Scabies. Impetigo. Herpes zoster. Erysipelas. Urticaria. Wart-shaped excrescences (secondary syphilis). Bed sores (erysipelatous). Rash. Dermatitis liable to occur on the neck.
  • Ulcers: Hard margin; excessive or warty granulations; splinter like or digging pains < motion; angry, deep; corrosive bloody discharge.

Thermic states:

  • Chilliness with many complaints; with nausea; when uncovered, yet smothers if wrapped up. A feverish coldness, subnormal temperature, from feeble circulation.
  • Sudden profuse nervous sweats.
  • Fever: Intermittents. Relapsing. Feverish sick feeling in afternoon, head hot, hands cold, nausea. Yellow fever with black vomiting, meningeal symptoms. Typhoid meningitis, with trembling, fullness and ringing in ears. Septic fever; after scarlatina (bluish black eruptions). Stammering in typhoid.
  • Typhus: Nervousness, oppression of chest, stupor with muttering delirium, (complete) deafness, tongue black, fetid breath, voluntary motion impossible, general (but esp. arm) trembling, erysipelatous bed sores at left shoulder etc. Utter insensibility of body but sensibility to lowered temp, stays, involuntary stool and urine, hemorrhage, temp, subnormal, no sordes.
  • Mild lingering fevers (like ).


  • Close-ups: (in liver), Ran-b. (in chest), Dios. (in heart).
  • Nearest analogues:, Caust, Con., Lach., Lyc., Puls.
  • Vegetable analogues: (Ign. is of Nat-m.)
  • Symbiotics:, Calc., Glon., kali-i., Lach., Lyc., Med., Merc., Nat-m., Nit-ac., Puls., Syph., Sulph.
  • Precede well:, Bry., Caust., Gels., Glon., Nux-v., Ran-b., Spig., Spong., Verat.
  • Counterparts:, Caust., Chel., Ign., Kali-c., Lach., Lyc.
  • Follow well: Bar-m., Cal-c., Carc., Hydr., Kali-c., Lyc., Merc., Nat-m., Puls., Sel., Sep., Sil., Sulph.
  • Antidotes:, Bell., Calc., Cina, Iod., Lyc., Merc., Nat-m., Puls.
  • Acutes:, Ant-c., Ars., Bry., Cact., Cham., Chel., Colch., Coloc., Dios., Gels., Glon., Lach., Merc., Naja., Puls., Ran-b., Rhus-t., Sep.
  • Similars: Abrom-a., Aeth., Arg-i., Arg-m., Cup-m., Dys., Lach., Lol., Nit-ac., Onos., Plb.r, Puls., Tarax., Zinc.
  • Arg-n., Caust., Con., Lyc.: a collateral quartet.
  • Is an intensified, sycotic
  • Is a mild snake (i.e. etc.); it is Lach. of Nat-m. people; Arg-n. walks out while Lach. talks out (and Kali-i. doing both) tensions.
  • Antidotes to Arg-n : Am-c., Con., Nat-m. Ars., Cimic., Cina., Lyc., Tarent.
  • Inimical: , Vesp.
  • Compare: , Kali-bi., Merc. and Plat. in catarrhs and action on CNS. Merc. has more active inflammations. Aur. and Plat. have a slant for nervous system, Kali-bi. for mucous membrane. Arg-n. resembles the ‘thin tuberculinic’ as opposed to Aur. which suits the ‘ fat psoro-luetic ‘ (Zissu).
  • : Arg-n. is restless, active, tense, hurried, impatient, impulsive while Gels. is slow, sluggish, dull, and doesn’t want to be disturbed.
  • Arg-m.: Arg-m. is more chilly, more reserved and less impulsive than Arg-n. Arg-m. acts more on cartilages, Arg-n. more on mucous membranes.
  • is connected to Arg-n. through Gels, which is acute of both Bapt. and Arg-n. Bapt. – Arg-n.- Gels. a trio.
  • Phos: Both Arg-n. and are open, enthusiastic, intelligent; have multiple fears and panic attacks of anxiety; both crave salt, but Arg-n. has craving for sweet and sugar while Phos. has aversion to both; Arg-n. warm blooded while Phos. is chilly; ice-cream desire more marked in Phos. than Arg-n.; Phos. is frankly hemorrhagic, tubercular and destructive.
  • Nat-m.: Touches tangentially, esp. in degenerations; exhibits salt abuse while Arg-n., exhibits sugar-abuse and has more cachexy. Nat-m. is pale, Arg-n. is withered. It may be timid like Arg-n. but more often it is bold. Nat-m. exhibits brooding and miserability; Arg-n. confusion and tenseness; Nat-m. harbours resentment, Arg-n. Silver nitrate is antidoted by Nat-m. Nat-m. patients require a preparatory course of Arg-n. to bring up tone.
  • When you are undecided between Arg-n. and , think of Sep.
  • Ars.: Both are anxious, restless, active, sharp, hypochondriac and panicky; but is more cautious, perfectionist and domineering; Ars. chilly, Arg-n. warm-blooded; Ars. tubercular, Arg-n. more sycotic; offensiveness and destructiveness more marked in Ars.
  • Nux-v.: (unlike Arg-n.) starts from nerves and then goes to mucous membranes. Both have anxiety but Nux-v. is more irritable, ambitious and abusive.
  • activates Arg-n. and leads it to Calc. (in sycotic) or to Sil. (in syphilitic).
  • Ran-b. is a remarkable blend of , Arg-n. and Kali-c.
  • : Both are anxious, apprehensive, impatient, restless and vagrant; both are warm blooded, glandular, malnourished. lod. is a midway between Arg-n. and Tub., also between Arg-n. and Kali-i.
  • and Arg-n. often run on the same line making a choice sometimes difficult. Both Arg-n. and Lyc. have their focal points in the G.I. tract with flatulence and ailments from fright. Both crave sweets. But Arg-n. craves cold drinks while Lyc. craves hot drinks. Craving for salt in Arg-n. is a point of differentiation. In addition to GIT action, Arg.-n. affects the spinal cord and the cerebellum with resulting ataxia and involuntary movements. Arg-n. prefers the left side, Lyc. the right. However, there is no bar in Arg-n. ripening with Lyc. (which is an aged Arg-n.).
  • More points of differentiation at the level of personality:

Arg-n. – Recessive. Impulsive-emotional. Credulous. Trepid.
Lyc. – Dominant. Calculative. Sober thinker. Cautious. Fagged.
Arg-n.Hustler-impatient. Generous. Sophist. Initially neurotic.
Lyc. –Slow-steady. Greedy. Snobbish. Initially neurasthenic.
Arg-n.-Insanity more. Shaky. Scrawny. Slipshod. Unmethodical. Non- persisting. Inconstancy. Resists ageing. Not much responsibility -sense.
Lyc. – Imbecility more. Puffy. Prone to ageing. Greater sense of responsibility.
Arg-n. – Tense. Escapist. Deceptive-minded. Kleptomaniac.
Lyc. – Tranquil. Responsible. Honest. Sincere.
Arg-n. – Leads to Nat-m. Lyc. leads to Sulph.
Lyc. – Cognate   with   Sil. (But   Lyc.  has   fatigue   in mediocre brains, Sil.  in the bright.) (Kent)
Arg-n. Cognate with Sulph. (But Sulph. is shabby, careless and has ‘let go’ attitude).

* * * * *

About the author

P I Tarkas

Dr. P. I. Tarkas (1908-2000), the doyen of homoeopathy, belonged to the 20th century generation of sincere and dedicated homoeopaths of India. He worked like a Trojan throughout his life for the cause of homoeopathy. The work he left to posterity will not go into oblivion. Upgrading materia medica and Repertory in an authentic way was the mission he took up in early 1950 and worked endlessly and selflessly for over 50 years.

About the author

Ajit Kulkarni

Dr Ajit Kulkarni M.D. (Hom.) is Director, Homeopathic Research Institute, Pune, A veteran homoeopath, an academician and a famed international teacher. A classical Homeopathic physician, he has been practising for 35 years. He has given over 100 international seminars and workshops in different parts of the world. Dr. Kulkarni is co-author: Absolute Homoeopathic Matera Medica, Five Regional Repertories: AIDS, DM, Thyroid, HTN and Trauma . Also, author of Body Language and Homeopathy, Homeopathy through Harmony and Totality (Three volumes),
Law of Similars in Medical Science, Homeopathic Posology, Kali Family and Its Relations, Homeopathic Covidoscope (published by Amazon) and over 100 publications on various aspects of homeopathy, papers and books translated in several languages, He has Award of ‘Excellence in Homoeopathy, Award of ‘Homoeo-Ratna, Life achievement Award, Dr. B. Sahni Memorial Award.,
He is a member, Editorial Board, National Journal of Homeopathy, Mumbai / E-mail ID: [email protected]

1 Comment

  • Very perfect druc picture. Dr. Ajit Kulkarni has mastery over penning down very accurate words, synonyms, adjectives to grasp in human mind. This MM of arg Nit has is one of the best examples. The Hpathy team must incorporate one drug picture written by Dr. Ajit & his team.

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