Natrium Muriaticum – When Bridges Sink

sinking bridge

Natrum mur is often first choice for healing the depressions which don’t seem to go away. But, the rubric SADNESS contains 625 remedies. So why is Nat-mur the most prevalent ‘’sad’’ remedy?

Hey Prozak, I am not broken, stop trying to fix me!

Crises in our lives usually lead us to better lives. Depression cuts us out of social life, of different people and happenings. It deprives us of opportunities to participate actively in anything we’re doing, and stops us in wrong, inadequate ways of living, in order to prevent us from destroying our lives. Depression literally ties man to a bed (sometimes even to a hospital one) so it could make him take his life into his own hands and change it in a positive way.

At that time, we are falling into a very painful and bad mood, we are temporarily losing interest in life and ability to love. We become apathetic. Sadness or sorrow is a primary emotion which appears as a reaction to the loss of something precious, something of great importance for us. It’s a natural answer to a loss of beloved object and it shouldn’t be considered as a disorder. Disappointment is like a chasm between what is expected to happen and what really happens. It appears when the person on whom we projected our expectations behaves completely different from what we had expected. In our culture, there is an unwritten rule which tells us to take only pleasant events as positive ones, while everything unpleasant and painful is considered bad. In fact, there is nothing more positive that could possibly happen to us than facing reality, even if it’s painful and frustrating for a while.

These conditions force us to become a bit isolated, to look at the situation in which we are stuck from a distant point of view, to mourn what we have lost or what we can’t achieve, and to make new plans and accumulate fresh and productive energy. Not every crisis means depression, and not all of them need healing. People who have healthy renewal mechanisms go out of crisis stronger and wiser.

Nat mur is the most popular remedy nowadays. It’s the first choice for healing the depressions which don’t seem to go away. But, the rubric SADNESS contains 625 remedies. This leads us to the conclusion that sadness is a really big and important chapter in everyone’s life. But why is Nat-mur the most prevalent ‘’sad’’ remedy? Let’s start with the rubric

MIND – DELUSIONS – sinking; to be – bridge; stones were sinking under his feet, when crossing a stone

Sometimes it’s hard to find the right words to describe feelings precisely. That’s when we use symbols, that one word or picture which gets broader meaning and sends the right message. The bridge is the connection, transition or phase between two elements, activities or states. It’s also a firm and stable construction which enables us to reach the other side, without the fear and feeling of insecurity. It spreads across the water- the obstacle which separates people and makes things unreachable. Without bridges, we wouldn’t be able to overcome the “trouble’’.

Repertorium also offers us these rubrics:

112341MIND – DESPAIR193
212341MIND – HELPLESSNESS; feeling of51
312341MIND – PESSIMIST37
412341MIND – DELUSIONS – sinking; to be – bridge; stones were sinking under his feet, when crossing a stone1

 

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4/73/53/43/4¾3/43/43/32/62/5
13322222134
2111111113
3211111111
41

 

But only Nat-mur has the feeling that the bridge under his feet sinks. Patient will describe this feeling in various ways. These are some of them.

’’I applied for a job again. This time I have a really strong connection, the director himself promised to hire me, but there is always someone who beats me to the punch.’’ ’’Why do I bother, I won’t succeed anyway. Something always happens’’. “There’s no way it can happen to me.“

That’s the feeling that everything is in vain. No matter how hard we try, even if it’s certain to happen, something turns bad and he doesn’t believe that he is able to ’’reach the other side’’. We’re not born with this feeling, but it appears later in life, after many obstacles and failures.

It’s the consequence of bad experiences in which we classify
• Personal effort which didn’t give us the positive results
• Broken promises
• Circumstances which we weren’t able to change

 

Let’s take a look at the rubrics which describe these states and emotions.

MIND – DELUSIONS – rocked; one were being – lying down and closing the eyes; when
MIND – GRIEF – deception, from

Lying down is a position in which the body stays still and doesn’t make any effort. It’s the position reserved for relaxation and resting. As we close our eyes, we reduce the amount of information we’re receiving. It is well known that we receive the majority of information through the sense of sight.

Rocking  is a pleasant feeling. On a physical plane, parents are using it for calming down their children. But we can consider swinging on a mental plane as well. Those are the activities which someone uses to calm down another frustrated person, or to drag the attention away from the problematic or unpleasant situation.

This rubric conveys that Nat-mur feels he has to be conscious and ready for  action all the time, because any second he is not fully concentrated brings the risk of someone trying to mislead him.

– Circumstances that can’t be influenced, which reoccur.

MIND – SADNESS – fortune; from reverse of
MIND – UNFORTUNATE, feels
MIND – INSANITY – misfortune after
MIND – DELUSIONS – doomed, being

Fortuna was a Roman goddess who had the ability to control everyone’s destiny and to bring peace and prosperity. She was presented with a helm in her hand; symbolically she controls destiny, or she stands on a ball to show how unstable happiness can be. Nat-mur feels as if someone is controlling his destiny and he believes that nothing good will ever happen to him. Even if something good happens, things will turn bad any second. He is a perpetual looser.

MIND – DWELLS – recalls – disagreeable memories
MIND – CHECKING – twice or more; must check

He will recall the unpleasant memories from his past to justify his attitude which is that nothing in the future is going to be any better. If something good happens, patient will declare: ’’That is impossible! Are you sure that is true?!’’

MIND – DELUSIONS – bed – touch the bed when lying; as if she did not

Bed is a place which reduces the tension and gives you release. I would like to stay a little longer on a word ’’TOUCH’’. Through touching we make connection with another person or an object in order to realize some of our current necessities. If we pay attention to “as if’” in this rubric, we’ll see that a certain physical contact with our bed exists, but the person doesn’t feel like he/she is there. We can see that the patient turned down his consciousness and he can’t feel relaxation. Despite the good things that happen to a patient sometimes, he doesn’t seem to feel it.

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – different; appear
MIND – DISCONTENTED
MIND –LUDICROUS, things seem

The main point of this rubric is the word ’’DIFFERENT’’. Different means not the same, not equal to something else.We see that there is an unfulfilled expectation. Something unexpected appears instead of what we wanted to happen. When he gets something, Nat-mur will say: ’’What in the world is this?!That’s not what I wanted!’’

MIND – DESPAIR – pregnancy, during
MIND – CHILDREN – beget and to have children; desire to
MIND – AVERSION – children, to – get children; to – world is so bad; as the

Pregnancy is a period from conception to birth. That’s the period in which the embryo grows, develops and becomes mature enough to be born. Nat-mur will feel desperate during pregnancy, both literally and metaphorically. There are two strong emotions fighting inside him. First is the desire to have a child, and the second one is a belief that the world is a very bad place so the child’s suffering is inevitable.
We can easily recognize this feeling in Nat-mur patients. It’s wrong to think that they will have this feeling only during pregnancy. It’s overwhelming the whole being of Nat-mur. It doesn’t matter whether it’s a male or a female patient, weather he’s really expecting a baby, or some project or an activity which should give him a result. He simply doesn’t expect anything good to happen.

MIND – CONSOLATION – agg.
Consolation means giving up on something unachieved and replacing it with some different or smaller, more achievable goal. As a healthy defense mechanism, it protects people from suffering, but it requires giving up on something that we can’t achiever something harmful that we want badly just the same.For example, we want to go on a vacation to some exotic place on the other side of the world, but in time we realize how unrealistic that wish is, so we start to think of a simple vacation in a nearby country as a completely satisfactory one. If Nat-mur accepts the consolation, he’ll lose a lot of his image of an unfortunate person who can’t do anything because of others.

MIND – DESPAIR – perspiration, during
Sweating is a process which happens as a consequence of our organism’s work. It’s a symbol for the effort which we put in our work in order to achieve something. In the context of the other rubrics, here we can easily recognize the feeling that even though he’s giving his best, he stays desperate. The idea that we tried hard enough and we deserve the reward is deeply rooted in human nature. If we don’t get the reward we deserve, the first thing that we think about is who is to blame, and we always blame the other people for taking our stuff or rights. But nothing can be stolen before someone owns it completely. You can’t steal something if it doesn’t belong to anyone. In that way, the Nat-mur feels that some things belong to him and he fears that someone could possibly take them away from him, or he feels as if they are already stolen.

MIND – FEAR – robbers, of
MIND – FEAR – robbers, of – night – midnight – waking; on
MIND – FEAR – robbers, of – waking, on
SLEEP – DISTURBED – fear, by – robbers, of
DREAMS – ROBBERS
DREAMS – ROBBERS – menses, during
DREAMS – ROBBERS – sleep, until the house is searched; and cannot
MIND – DELUSIONS – thieves – frightened on waking and thinks dream is true; dreams of robbers – search is made; and will not believe the contrary until
MIND – SEARCHING – thieves, at night for – after having dream of them
MIND – DELUSIONS – thieves – seeing
MIND – DELUSIONS – thieves – house, in

Statement of a daughter-in-law:

“My mother in law stole joy from my life. I was happy before I met her. There is no more joy in my life because of her”

Statement of a mother:

„The new girlfriend of my son comes in my house when I am not there. She brings the food for my son and he only eats her food. She takes care of him. He is not my child anymore…“

Sooner or later, the desperation will spread through her whole being. He will carry the feeling of other people having control over her life, and are making  decisions instead of her and she can’t do anything about it.

MIND – DELUSIONS – head – belongs to another
MIND – DELUSIONS – net; as if in a

Do you remember the story about a little milkmaid? A mother sent her daughter to sell a bottle of milk and to buy something nice for herself with the money she earns. The girl started thinking this way: I’ll sell the milk and buy a hen, which will give birth to a few chickens. Then I’ll sell those chickens in order to buy a calf. I’ll replace that calf for a bull, and after I sell the bull, I’ll buy a new house…. While she was making plans, she tripped on a rock, fell down and broke the bottle of milk.

MIND – ABSENTMINDED – dreamy

In this story, something went wrong. We’re not going to define precisely how realistic her plans were, but that could also be the point of Nat-mur. She tripped on a rock, fell down and spilt the milk. Our first impression is that she wasn’t careful enough. And that’s the key. Nat-mur lacks the attention, the feeling of being present here and now, creative adaptation on circumstances.

This story is an excellent illustration of what Nat-mur regularly faces in life, and Nat-mur is the leading remedy in this rubric.

MIND – PROGRAMMING – everything
Programming means making a plan of actions which will help us achieve our goal. It differs from planning because plans are general ideas which are meant to be elaborated before their realization. (Next year I’ll go to Spain. I plan to enroll in the Music academy…) Programming is a reversed process in which the actions are precisely programmed in order for us to achieve our goals. When we program something for the first time, it continues flowing all by itself. In this rubric we find two remedies: Arsenicum and Nat-mur. They program everything. Arsenicum will do it out of a deep sense of insecurity and fear for themselves and others. Nat-mur will program his life as well as lives of those closest, their education, career…and he expects everything to work out perfectly, just in the way he has planned. He turned on his program and if anything bad happens, it’s not his fault. He doesn’t face reality and doesn’t act according it.With this kind of attitude, failures and disappointments are guaranteed.

Beliefs cause actions, and actions make conditions. Our behavior and attitude always has it’s meaning, and it never happens without reason. Although it’s often unpleasant, we hold onto our harmful beliefs and we continue behaving in the same way. In that way, we always create the same conditions for the same things to happen. We’ll never betray our attitudes even when it seems that we’re trying really hard. What’s the use of this kind of life for Nat-mur?

First, he didn’t achieve his goals and it has to be someone’s fault. It’s very typical for Nat-mur patients not to ever think that they have even the smallest responsibility for what has happened to them, and that their behavior only makes things worse, or that maybe their time will come soon and they shouldn’t stop trying…

Natrium muriaticum is the best known remedy which can’t stand when someone feels compassion for him. Compassion is like a polite sorrow which someone feels over someone else’s misfortune. He thinks that he’s better than everybody else and he can’t picture himself failing at something as a result of his own mistakes and imperfections, or maybe it’s circumstances which are to blame.

“Everybody told me, what’s wrong with you, calm down, it’s not such a big deal. It can always get worse, it could be cancer. I’ve been telling doctors for years that I have cancer, but they didn’t believe me! I finally proved I was right! But what now? Now I’m gonna die because of their mistake!’’

“You will see what you have done when I die!“

MIND – AVERSION – persons – certain, to
MIND – REPROACHING others
MIND – ACCUSATIONS
MIND – DELUSIONS – pitied on account of his misfortune and he wept; he is
MIND – FEAR – pitied, of being
MIND – WEEPING – pitied, if he believes he is

MIND – MASOCHISM
Underneath his arrogance, there is a coward hiding from his problems and feeling that he isn’t able to face them, so he makes everybody else do the ’’dirty jobs’’ for him, in other words, to revenge someone who harmed him or made him suffer. You can often be accused by Nat-mur’s friends and relatives for being bad, arrogant and unscrupulous, while Nat-mur will stay hidden somewhere in a safe place. Without any remorse, he’ll pretend to be your friend, while doing you harm behind your back. Although he considers himself an honest and honorable person – with Nat-mur there will never be fair play.

MIND – HAUGHTY
MIND – COWARDICE
MIND – AFFECTATION
MIND – JEALOUSY
MIND – MALICIOUS
MIND – LIAR
MIND – DECEITFUL – perjured
MIND – SPITTING
MIND – CURSING
MIND – DIRTY
MIND – VIOLENT

MIND – SLANDER, disposition to – denounce

Second, there is something dignified in suffering. When you’re sad, you have a feeling that someone did you harm while you weren’t able to give adequate answer to his provocations, and to defend yourself.
The higher the intellectual and spiritual development, the lower the aggression and desire for conquest. Nat-mur thinks he’s better than everyone else, and he finds it really hard to survive in the world full of people who are controlled by their passions and aggressiveness. Although “defeated”, Nat-mur will keep his dignity because he was defeated by people who are worse than him. He never lets his instincts control his behavior.

He believes that he should play dirty and learn to be rough, but it’s beneath his dignity to fight in the same way everybody else does. He would rather feel like a victim, than descend to their level. A typical Nat- mur attitude is described in the next quote:

“Just help yourself, use my kindness, squander my honesty, feed your ego with my love, and tread my emotions like an old piece of paper. Your effort is wasted.
It won’t help you be better, you won’t become me, because you need soul, too. You can’t take that away, and as long as I have it, I will remain Human”.
Meša Selimović

MIND – DELUSIONS – succeed, he does everything wrong; he cannot
MIND – RESIGNATION
MIND – DIGNIFIED
MIND – ELEGANCE – want of elegance
MIND – MORAL FEELING – want of
MIND – PROPER – too
MIND – SELF-CONTROL – increased

We all have to face some failures and losses in our lives. But healthy people will feel better in time, and sooner or later, they’ll be able to live normally, be satisfied with their lives, and feel happy. But with Nat-mur, this is not the case. He decides to stay in the past and refuses to enjoy the present. He’ll go back to those painful and harming moments in the past again and again, hurting himself so he could tell how somebody else did that to him.

MIND – MASOCHISM
MIND – SADNESS – dwelling constantly on her condition
MIND – DWELLS – recalls – disagreeable memories
MIND – DWELLS – past disagreeable occurrences, on – grieve therefore; to
MIND – DWELLS – past disagreeable occurrences, on – night- midnight; after
MIND – DWELLS – past disagreeable occurrences, on – night
MIND – DWELLS – past disagreeable occurrences, on
MIND – DWELLS – disappointments, on

It’s not a question of being satisfied with his life anymore. The problem comes from his inability to assimilate pleasant feelings. Maybe this is the key to Nat-mur.

MIND – DISCONTENTED – reserved displeasure
MIND – DELUSIONS – bed – touch the bed when lying; as if she did not
MIND – INDIFFERENCE – pleasure, to
MIND – COITION – after agg.
MIND – IRRITABILITY – coition – after
MIND – MOROSE – coition, after
MIND – SADNESS – coition, after
FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX – COITION – aversion to
FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX – COITION – enjoyment – absent
GENERALS – COITION – after – agg.
GENERALS – WEAKNESS – coition, after

Third, he finds the inspiration in his pain. He writes verses. Poems  are a kind of literary work written in verse that contain metrics and rhyme. In poetry, figures of speech are used more often than in prose literary works. It raises the intensity of emotions which poets writes about. He wants to suffer more, because his suffering has its purpose, and it’s to enhance his creativity. He exploits his pain. The world’s greatest poets must have been Nat-mur patients.

MIND – VERSES – making
MIND – VERSES – making – sleep; on going to
MIND – BROODING – grief; over

These rubrics can also be applied when the patient doesn’t write poems literally, but gives his suffering poetic or sublime meaning.

Nat-mur is a suicidal remedy and the uniqueness aspect is hypochondria. It’s the state in which the person is too aware of all little details and gives them too strong meanings, stronger than they deserve. It’s the state of being too sensitive in which Nat-mur brought himself, as we could see in the previous rubrics. There’s a well know quote by Ivo Andric, which states  “ Prettier soul beautiful cry’’. The most famous suicidal writers were Vladimir Mayakovsky, Ernest Hemingway, Yukio Mishima, Jean-Pierre Duprey, Sergei Yesenin, Nikola Koljević, Branko Ćopić, Branko Miljković, and many others…

MIND – SUICIDAL disposition – hypochondriasis, by

We’re often surprised when we get Nat-mur instead of Veratrum after repertorizing our patient. Is this some kind of mistake? Let’s take a look at some similarities between these two remedies.
Both remedies have similiar feelings:

MIND – ANGER – violent
MIND – DELUSIONS – doomed, being
MIND – DESPAIR – perspiration, during
MIND – DESIRES – full of desires – everything; desire for – another person is using; which
MIND – DELUSIONS – persecuted – he is persecuted
MIND – GRIEF – deception, from
MIND – DWELLS – past disagreeable occurrences, on
MIND – JEALOUSY
MIND – INJUSTICE, cannot support
MIND – HYSTERIA – hypochondriasis; with
MIND – WEARY OF LIFE
MIND – AILMENTS FROM – anger – vehemence; with
MIND – AILMENTS FROM – business failure
MIND – AILMENTS FROM – scorned; being

Both of remedies have similar behavior:

MIND – COWARDICE
MIND – CURSING
MIND – DECEITFUL
MIND – HAUGHTY
MIND – HEEDLESS
MIND – INDISCRETION
MIND – LASCIVIOUS
MIND – LIAR
MIND – MALICIOUS
MIND – RAGE
MIND – REPROACHING others
MIND – RUDENESS
MIND – SELFISHNESS
MIND – SHAMELESS
MIND – SUICIDAL disposition
MIND – UNFEELING
MIND – VIOLENT
MIND – WEEPING – consolation – comforted; no desire to be

None of these rubrics surprise us when it comes to Veratrum, but we haven’t expected many of them to describe Nat-mur, because we connect Nat-mur with deep and long lasting sadness. Rage and sadness are just two sides of the same suppressed energy. Rage is an active sadness. When it shows, we don’t always think of it as the other side of Nat-mur. Let’s take a look at some more rubrics for Nat-mur which don’t describe Veratrum.

MIND – ANGER – paralysis from anger
MIND – BLASPHEMY
MIND – DECEITFUL – perjured
MIND – HATRED – revengeful; hatred and
MIND – SLANDER, disposition to – denounce
MIND – MALICIOUS – anger, with
MIND – MASOCHISM
MIND – MISANTHROPY
MIND – BOASTER
MIND – CHARLATAN
MIND – SOMNAMBULISM – strike sleepers from vengeance; to
MIND – HELPLESSNESS; feeling of

The best way to see the difference between these two remedies is to pay attention to miasm. Nat- mur, as Hahneman says, belongs to the sycotic miasm. The main characteristic of this miasm is giving up on fight, and trying to hide and justify his situation. It’s the feeling of helplessness. On a physical plan, it will be followed with excessive cell growth, many growths on the skin, warts, moles… The same thing happens on a mental plan…weakness or failure must be hidden. The patient has to cover himself in every possible way and Nat-mur does that by making someone else feel guilty for what has happened to him. He uses slandering, he deceives and lies to others… His strategy is to put the blame on someone else.

Veratrum, on the other hand, belongs to acute miasm. At first, it was only used for acute diseases like scarlet fever, pneumonia and delirium. Later they discovered its usefulness in curing chronic diseases where the patient feels the same way as he feels in acute diseases. He feels as if he’s in an unexpected, dangerous situation (disease, attack, misfortune, etc.). He gets strong attacks of fear, and has the feeling that he has to fight hard or he’ll be ruined. It’s interesting to notice how, apart from rubrics about anger, rage and aggressiveness, we don’t see Veratrum in rubrics connected to hatred. Apart from Stramonium, which has only one point in this rubric, no other remedy for acute miasm expresses hatred, although they can be very furious.

This tells us a lot about the difference between Nat-mur, the remedy that belongs to the sycotic miasm and is the main representative of the rubric

MIND – HATRED – revengeful; hatred and

Veratrum is a remedy for acute miasm, which carries the feeling of fighting for survival for one’s entire life. His actions in this fight have the purpose to provide him security, like good social status, enough money, presence of protective authority. There is no hatred in him. It’s just uncompromising fight to the death.He will do it to anyone who stands in his way, even if it’s someone close, someone he loves, and there will be nothing personal about it.

The Sycotic miasm is known for hiding imperfections (weaknesses), rapid growth in all aspects, giving up the fight and reaching opposite emotions and extreme states. Generally, in sycotic miasm remedies, we’ll find a lot of hatred and jealousy. Nat-mur hatred is always very personal, towards a specific person who he believes is the greatest enemy or the main culprit. Therefore, although they’re alike in actions, the reasons for their actions differ a lot.

Nat-mur is very occupied with religion, and his religiousness is unique. In the beginning, Nat-mur has a very strong faith that carries him through difficulties. He believes problems are temptations to overcome through God’s assistance. But suffering never ends and he doesn’t try to understand his contribution to the situation, but sees everything as God’s will. As a person who had gone through so many failures and suffered a lot, his religiousness came into question.  He doesn’t understand why he has to suffer so much when he is such a good and moral person. He starts questioning the meaning and justification of believing in God from all the suffering on Earth. If God is such a good creature, why does he let so much evil exist on Earth? If He is so righteous, how can he let innocent people suffer?

About the author

Maja Letić

Maja Letić

Maja Letic graduated from homeopathy school 'Simillimum' in Belgrade, Serbia. She has published several articles in Homeopathy journal 'Simillimum Times', Belgrade. She also works as an associate of the same journal and as a technical advisor of several school editions. Homeopathy World Community and Hpathy.com published some of her articles: Adamas – Who is the woman that needs a diamond, Sulphur – Tragedy of genius and Nat-mur – When bridges sink. She is engaged in promoting homeopathy in treatment of children with special needs and disabilities. She is a student of Gestalt Training Institute in Belgrade. She continues to further improve her homeopathy knowledge in seminars at home and abroad.

11 Comments

  • The author has given a very nice picture about the nat mur, a best medicine known to all of us. Thanks for her presentation.

  • Hello Maja, I have liked your article about Natrum muriaticum. But I want to ask in which repertory is possible to find a rubric: MIND – Delusions – sinking;to be – bridge; stones were sinking under his feet, when crossing a stone
    I can not find it in Murphy, of course, translated into our language, neither on the Internet. Thanks Yitka

    • Dear Yitka, I am glad that you liked my article. I use repertories Syntesis 8.1 and 9.0 the most in repertorisation. You can find this rubric in both of them. Nat-mur is single remedy. Author is Roberts Herbert (rb2) A: (Sensation as if), Calcutta: Economic Hom. Pharmacy (1960)

  • One of the best Materia Medica articles I have read in this site, definetly I will use it with my students with your permission

    • Thank you very much. I am honored that Hpathy.com published my two previous articles also: “Adamas – Who is the woman that needs a diamond”, and “Sulpur – Tragedy of genious”. All of them are free for sharing and I will be very happy if I help others to understand better Materia medica of this remedies.

  • question- natmur is one of the few remedies with the delusion wretched when looking in the mirror. Can this be used for people with Body dysmorphic disorder- feelings of being ugly and cannot look in the mirror or who constantly look in the mirror and keep finding faults and therefore are depressed?

    or does this rubric mean something else?
    thanks

    • I would say that mirror reflects the real state or look. If a person feels wretched when see his/her real look, it means that in reality he/she has delusion that he/she looks fine, better than he/she really is.

      I wouldn’t conect this rubric only with physical look. It could also be the nature of person (that she/she thinks she is better than really is).

  • Dear Maja , Thank you very much for writing about Nat Mur in such detail. Has been of great help to me.

  • I am very well impressed with articles, carboanimalis and diamond. But I donot know by diamond which remedy means. The pschycology of patient has been related to remedies with some more clarity. I wish articles be more b[in brief and sbbstnce. Let almighty bless for serving the humanity.
    With regards
    Ramachandra Mohanty from India. Email “rcm_999@rediffmail.com”

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