Homeopathy Past and Present

History of Homeopathy in Argentina

Last modified on September 8th, 2012

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A useful article about History of Homeopathy in Argentina.Full details about History of Homeopathy in Argentina

Translated by Katja Schütt and Alan Schmukler

How homeopathy came to the Argentine Republic and definitely established itself despite the laws!

Argentina is a country populated by means of the arrival of immigrants from all over the world. Today, one can say that we can still see here, what they are doing in Europe in order to decide an action or to imitate a strategy, whether political or in medical care.

1816 – 1817 – During this time homeopathy came to Argentina by means of the Freemasonry, through general San Martín, directly from Hahnemann, who had provided Ángel Correa, a personal friend of both, with a homeopathic medicine chest [1], so that he could help to mitigate the sufferings provoked by arthrosis and a gastroduodenal ulcer, which troubled the military, so they could continue their odyssey to cross the Cordilleras of the Andes on the backs of horses and mules to undertake their liberating action from America.

[1]Deposited in the Museo San Martín in Mendoza.

1845 – According to the Boletín Homeopático it was Dr. Guillermo Darrouzain, a French physician, who created in this year the first homeopathic dispensaries in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. He was persecuted and imprisoned for this act by the Consejo de Higiene (Hygiene Council) of that time, at a moment when the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas had a very difficult political time.

It is known that Dr. Darrouzain could later practice in the cities of Corrientes y Rosario, where he was probably the first physician between 1837 and 1838, until he died on the 27th October 1869 in the midst of poverty, having carried out a self-sacrificing and selfless works for his patients.

The writings of Dr. Gustavo Cataldi, full professor at the E. M. H. A., report that “…other names of that time were Dr. Herculano Antonio de Fonseca in Rosario, Dr. Amado Laprida – son of the national hero F. N. Laprida – in San Juan, Dr. Miguel José Alves in Buenos Aires, next to Dr. Blas Aspiazu, from Buenos Aires and physician.of.the.army.

They all practiced homeopathy in an eclectic way, a practice which did not agree with the thinking of Hahnemann. With this practice, they, like other homeopaths who practiced in Europe, especially in Germany, distanced themselves from Hahnemann’s.ideas.

1865 – The Sociedad Hahnemanniana Argentina (Argentine Hahnemannian Society) was founded by Dr. Claussolles Granados Mejía. Others also took part in the creation of the society.

1867 – The history of villages and whole countries have been altered as the result of epidemics which have devastated humanity throughout history. The great pandemics changed the demographic structures (and also affected the wars), overthrew governments, called religions into question and imposed scientific challenges.

The city Rosario in Argentina, being a seaport, came in contact with contagion from other places, and was significant in the spread of epidemics which affected the world.

Cholera and bubonic plague, as well as poliomyelitis all left indelible physical signs in this seaport.

All this suffering provoked a certain solidarity, but also opportunistic behavior. Political conflicts and scientific struggles were unleashed. Public and private institutions were founded, professional careers were shaped and the urban structure was noticeably influenced. Here the contributions of Dr. Juan Corradi stand out, especially during the cholera epidemic, which devastated the population of Rosario, and this is when homeopathy was used to combat the disease.

1869 –  On the 25th of May the Boletín Homeopático was published to spread the most recent news and to record it historically. The society and its bulletin were born under the sponsorship of Dr. Álvarez Peralta, a Spaniard who passed through South America, being responsible for the business with Spain on this continent. Dr. Álvarez Peralta belonged to the Sociedad Hahnemanniana Matritense and had great knowledge about Hahnemann’s ideas.

1871 – The tragic epidemic of yellow fever attacked Buenos Aires. During this calamity the wise action of homeopathic physicians stands out, especially Dr. Juan Petit de Murat, whose treatments cured more people than any allopath.  These were times of recognition for the obtained results, and  more than 20.000 signatures of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires could be compiled, which were presented to the Chamber, asking for the..creation of a Facultad Homeopática (Faculty of Homeopathy), like those existing in the United States. The decision was lost due to two missing votes, amidst heated discussions of honor because of insults exchanged between Dr. Luis Varela and an allopathic physician who was against the petition.

At this time the Sociedad Homeopática Argentina (Homeopathic Society of Argentina) was created after the dissolution of the former Sociedad (Society), and its president was Dr. Petit de Murat. The organ to spread the news was the newspaper El Homeópata, which was published with the assistance of Sr. E. Jonas, another successful  homeopathic practitioner.

Despite these achievements, the pressure against the development of homeopathy was great. Organizations such as the Consejo de Higiene (Hygiene Council), the Facultad de Medicina (Faculty of medicine) and the Academia de Medicina (Academy of Medicine) rejected the supporters of homeopathy in one or another way.

Important doctoral theses to disprove homeopathy were presented at the same Faculty, and the thesis written by Dr. Luis Maglioni was especially aggressive. He went on to be a very recognized physician and president of the local Círculo Médico. Nevertheless, years later, he recognized the goodness of homeopathy and devoted himself to homeopathy.

The resistance to homeopathy prevented its expansion to the extent it might have. In  time the work of the Sociedad Homeopática came to an end and men like Petit de Murat and Clausolles were lost.

1877 – There was a strong parliamentry confrontation in the legislation of Buenos Aires.  During three hotly debated sessions they discussed whether to accept physicians who came from abroad in order to practice as homeopaths. In the final voting their right was refused, and thus they could not practice homeopathy. The decision whether or not to treat patients with homeopathy within the framework of Public Medicine, became a milestone.

1867- Expectations for economic progress were destroyed by an outbreak of cholera during The Guerra del Paraguay (The War in Paraguay), where they mourned 420 dead from the pestilence (and later another 1660 deaths). These contributed to the pathogenic germs disseminated as a result of the war, and the precarious material conditions in the city. Only 10 years later homeopathy’s contribution was recognized.

Foul swamps mobilized the very young civil society of Rosaria, raising the demand to loat off the swamps of the so-called laguna de Sánchez, the actual place of Santa Rosa. This request was supported by the miasm theory and referred to the infectious influence of the terrain with its stagnant water and sludge formation, that contributed to widespread disease.

1879- The newspaper La Nación annouonced that Teniente General Bartolomé Mitre brought to the Triple Alliance a homeopathic medicine chest which was used during the war with  Paraguay [1]. On  4th March there was published an acknowledgement to Dr. Clausolles in the same newspaper, setting a precedent: homeopathy cures different diseases.

[1] The medicine chest is stored in the Museo Mitre in Buenos Aires.

1932 – Until this year only the following physicians were able to continue their personal efforts: the Doctors F. Ortega, A. Domínguez, M. Fuguerto, P. Segress, Roncela, Burgos, J. Tuati, Benavídez.   The Sociedad Homeopática Argentina (Argentine Homeopathic Society) was reborn, which, years later, assumed the name Asociación Médica Homeopática Argentina (AMHA), (Argentine Homeopathic Medical Association). Its first president was Dr. Godofredo Jonas, grandson of the homeopath who performed such outstanding work during the already mentioned epidemic. The brand-new board of directors was completed as follows: vice president Dr. A. Grosso, Dr. R. Semich secretary, Dr. E. Anselmi treasurer, and the Doctors E. Bonicel, F. Monzo y T. Paschero, member of the board of directors. At this time a brilliant future for homeopathy in Argentina began.

Dr. T Paschero perfected his knowledge in the United States with Dr. Arthur H. Grimmer, who was a pioneer in the homeopathic treatment of cancer. Dr. Grimmer courageously demonstrated to his interested homeopathic colleagues, how to apply homeopathy in this difficult and important area of human diseases.

This physician was a disciple of Dr. James Tyler Kent, which is the reason Kent’s ideas dominated his teachings in Argentina.
The Escuela de Graduados of the Asociación had the following professionals as lecturers::

Dr. Tomás Pablo Paschero, was a great Argentine physician who made valuable contributions through his work and teachings. He trained a great many physicians and his ideas continue to influence homeopaths through his writings. For example:

The “Minimal syndrome of maximum value” (the hierarchy of symptoms with the highest value of representation of the totality and individuality) is the clinical synthesis of Master Paschero’s contribution to homeopathy, besides many others.

Dr. Godofredo Jonás was another important homeopath and contributed greatly to the expansion of homeopathy in the Argentine Republic.

Dr. Armando Grosso was a physician with solid training gained in the Hospital Piñeiro in Buenos Aires. Later he changed to the Hospital de Niños (Children’s hospital) where he dedicated himself especially to surgery for children. Grosso became interested in homeopathy through Dr. Manuel Benavídez, a homeopath who practiced in the years between 1924 and 1930.

The results of some cases so attracted his attention, that he traveled to Europe. In Paris he attended a course for physicians given by Dr. León Vannnier. Since that time he specialized in homeopathy and supported the formation of the Asociación Médica Homeopática Argentina (AMHA). Later he became the director of the Revista Homeopática (Homeopathic Journal). Dr. Grosso died in 1949 but left his school in a vigorous state..

Dr. J. Masi Elizalde, who was one of the most important personalities of contemporary homeopathy, died on the 23rd July 2003, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at the age of 71.  He had dedicated his life to the study and investigation of clinical homeopathy.

Thanks to many other professionals such as doctors Anselmi, Marzetti, Gringauz, and Rodolfo Semich, among others, homeopathy in Argentina rapidly achieved international recognition.

Dr.  Alfonso Buchen wrote in his doctoral thesis, “…Only two institutions are officially entitled to teach medicine in the entire national territory (The National Universities of Buenos Aires and Córdoba)”. These organizations, together with the Academia de Medicina and the Consejo de Higiene (Hygiene Council) generated a monopoly that prevented the attempt to create a “Free School of Medicine” and “…made the opening of a School of Homeopathic Medicine impossible. This situation allowed, by means of successive crises, the creation of the consolidation of an increasingly complex professional structure, within which the rebuilding forces were reincorporated back into the system, by some means or other …”

1940 – Some “controversial” aspects of the institutionalization of the homeopathic practice in Argentina were analyzed during the first years of the AMHA (Asociación Médica Homeopática Argentina, founded in 1933) and they succeeded in gaining legal recognition (in 1940).

1973 – The institution Escuela Médica Homeopática Argentina (EMHA) (Argentine Homeopathic Physician School) was created, where Dr. Tomás Pablo Paschero continued to spread the word, together with important teachers like Dr. Eugenio  Candegabe’s (see image), Dr. A. Masi Elizalde and other professionals.

1979 – The Centro de Estudios Médicos Homeopáticos Hahnemanniano was founded. At this time homeopathy gains in importance in the interior of Argentina, especially in the province of Córdoba where the Centro de Estudios Médicos Homeopáticos Hahnemanniano was founded.

1981Dr. A. Masi Elizalde founded the Instituto de Altos Estudios Homeopáticos James Tyler Kent (James Tyler Kent Institute of Higher Homeopathic Studies).

At the same time, the Association continued it’s efforts, together with important professionals like Dr. Francisco Xavier Eizayaga. (see image). He was born in the province of Santa Fe (Argentina) the 23 of January 1923, and graduated as a Medical Doctor from the Universidad de Buenos Aires. He later occupied positions in the Hospital de Clínicas, Hospital Ramos Mejía and in the Urology Department of the Hospital Municipal de Vicente López (prov. de Buenos Aires).

Eventually he studied homeopathy at the Asociación Médica Homeopática Argentina, starting in 1949. At this institution for higher studies he later became an associate professor (in 1954) and full professor ten years later. He was the president of the AMHA for 14 years. He is the author of numerous medical articles about this specialization and of several books, among which stand out Tratado de Medicina Homeopática and his masterpiece El Moderno Repertorio de Kent. Both are required readings in almost every Spanish speaking Homeopathic Schools in the world. Dr. Eizayaga gave classes in many different countries such as Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Venezuela  and Uruguay. In the US he taught his art in cities like Pasadena, New York, Berkeley, Portland, Orlando, Chicago, Seattle and he also traveled to Honolulu. He carried out seminars and conferences in Toronto, London and Glasgow.

From 1951 onwards he regularly taught Homeopathic Clinics in Buenos Aires, especially in the Asociación Médica Homeopática Argentina.  In 1989 he served in the Instituto Superior de Homeopatía Clínica of  the Fundación HOMEOS. He was Vice-president for Argentina in the Liga Médica Homeopática Internacional (founded on the 10th of September,1925, under the terms of the Civil Law in Geneva, Switzerland).  Dr. Francisco Xavier  Eizayaga passed away in Buenos Aires on the 25th of June, 2001.

Dr. B. Vijnovsky, extraordinary professor at the AMHA. He has written various books. Translated the Organón and developed homeopathic understanding in keeping with his era as did Dr. Micaela Moizé a female fighter and Dr. Prebisch of Tucumán.

The process of teaching and promotion in defense of the Homeopathic Doctrine, which started openly in1933, acquired different forms and nuances as the years went by, driven by different professionals, especially Dr Julio Ambrós and Dr Eduardo Yabhes. We are able to recover some of the events of those times:

*Invitation sent out to the official authorities to every Congress, National or International Symposium.

*In January 1955, the constitutional president Juan Domingo Perón, was interviewed, just before he was removed from office by the Army, to ask for the official recognition of Homeopathy in Argentina.

*Implementing informative courses and teaching at medical and ‘non-professional’ levels, including:

a) Since 1934 the development of regulated courses of three year durations  for medical doctors, and since 1984, for veterinarians.

b) In 1943 they approved the incorporation of Pharmacy into the course, a unit which included “Técnica Homeopática” (Homeopathic Technique). In 1960 the program was widened to  Farmacotecnia Homeopática (Homeopathic Pharmoceutical Technique).

c) Conference delivered by Dr. Ángel Marzetti the 28th of June,1945, at the Instituto de Perfeccionamiento Médico-Quirúrgico (Institute for the Improvement of Medicine and Surgery) at the Hospital Durán.

d) Since 1948 annual courses are given at the AMHA, in Farmacia Homeopática (Homeopathic Pharmacy), exclusively for chemists.

e) Dr. Paschero and Dr. Alcalá Hernández presented a paper at the Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Neurología (First Latin American Congress in Neurology) in April 1957.

f) Curso de Medicina Homeopática (Course in homeopathic medicine) at the Facultad de Medicina de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Faculty of Medicine of Buenos Aires), — were the Professor of Pediatrics Dr. Florencio Escardó taught, also Dr. Paschero in 1964.

g) The president of the AMHADr. Tabanera, also gave a Homeopathy Course in Mendoza, in the Facultad de Medicina de Cuyo (Faculty of Medicine of Cuyo).

h) In 1983, Dr. Julio Ambrós gave a conference at the XXXII Curso Intensivo de Perfeccionamiento para Graduados (XXXII Intensive Post Graduate Course), in the Hospital de Clínicas in Buenos Aires, under the guidance of Dr. David Grinspan.

We must also remember the innumerable occasion’s on which the AMHA teachers  — doctors, pharmacists and veterinarians have given interviews in diverse mass communication media. They have published articles, participated in radio or television programs, in an attempt to illuminate the public about the fundamentals of homeopathy.

There are many people who, by one means or another, have collaborated and continue collaborating daily spreading the Hahnemannian ideas of healing: helping man to reach greater heights and bringing light to the current development of Homeopathy in Argentina.

The current situation in Argentina is such that in order to practice homeopathy, one has to first qualify as a medical doctor. To enroll in any of the national schools of Homeopathy it is necessary to have the professional title and preferably two years of clinical specialization.

1982.- One of the most regrettable acts generated by a authoritative provincial government, on the 22nd of November of that year,  the governor de facto of Córdoba, passed a law which prohibited purely and simply the practice of Homeopathy (together with acupuncture and iridology) in the entire province.

In view of the atrocity of the situation, the AMHA decided to send a letter to the governor in question and to his minister along with notification to the various National Universities, both public and private, medical and pharmaceutical colleges and to the Ministers of both Public Health and of the Interior. They also spread the news of this sad affair to the journalists. The letter sent by the AMHA, was signed by then president Dr. Jorge Casale and the secretary Dr. Mario Draiman.

1986 – On the 14th of November of this year, the Senate and house of Representatives of Cordoba Province, brought together in the General Assembly, sanction Law  7514, which establishes:
“…article 1°: Abolish the Decree 6823 of the 22/11/82…”

1987 – This year saw the formation of another organization with a worldwide scope, the Organización Médica Homepática Internacional (OMHI) (International Homeopathic Physician Organization), which came into being as a result of a rift between an important number of members. The separation occurred during the development of the 42° Congreso de la Liga (42nd Liga Congress) in Washington. The dissident doctors which later gave birth to the OMHI, criticized the “archaic and anti-democratic” structure of the Liga, with its exaggerated centralism and lack of tolerance for the existence of different schools of thought or interpretations of the  Hahnemannian Doctrine.

1994 – The advancement of a fraternal relationship between these two institutions, made possible the signing of the founding act of the  Federación de Asociaciones Médicas Homeopáticas Argentinas (FAMHA) (Federation of Homeopathic Medical Associations in Argentina), on the 19th November of this year. This has facilitated the defense of the common concerns institutions and the improved organization of academic events, i.e. congresses, conferences, seminars, symposiums, etc., which periodically bring together the great majority of professional homeopaths in the country.

In short we can say that despite all the imaginable difficulties in an unequal fight against a multifaceted opponent, homeopathy in Argentina has fulfilled Guizot’s prophesy. Homeopathy disseminated despite all the opposition which fundamentally derived from ignorance and economic interests.

There is growing demand from doctors, veterinarians, pharmacists, and recently dentists, for a technical and practical training that will allow them to practice homeopathy responsibly. This need reflects the extended acceptance and requests from innumerable patients (humans and animals) for a therapeutic approach that is neither palliative, invasive, aggressive nor that generates new illnesses.

Today in Argentina, one can safely say that homeopathy is a booming alternative therapy, capable as Hahnemann said, of restoring lost states of health, using techniques that are “rapid gentle and permanent” and of holistically preventing a large number of diseases.  This is valid not only in the treatment of mankind, but also in the treatment of other species of domesticated animals and plants.

Veterinary Homeopathic Medicine was born when Hahnemann treated his own horse. The master from Meissen said “…if the laws that I proclaim are Nature’s Laws then they will hold true for all living beings…”

His animal seemed to suffer from a disease of the eye which today is called periodic conjunctivitis and the remedy prescribed was Natrum Muriaticum.

At a conference in Leipzig in 1815, the master suggested carrying out provings with animals and always demonstrated a great interest in the animal world. He was a protector of the species along with other figures of his time such as Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and Goethe.

Even in modern times, systematic provings of remedies on healthy animals have not been carried out and so a homeopathic veterinary materia medica does not exist.

The problem with carrying out provings on animals is a complicated one, not only because of the demands and difficulties of the provings themselves but because the results would only be valid for the species involved in the proving. And it is well known that veterinarians treats an increasing number of domesticated and domesticable species.

Dentists also fought for their place and today they qualify in the management of acute dental ailments, thus becoming the allies of the doctor in homeopathic treatment.

At any rate, the world continues evolving and new information becomes shared over the internet. The world becomes increasingly globalized, and time and place are no longer an impediment to accessing the knowledge of other authors and countries.

2005 – With the aim of breaking the space/ time barrier, Campos de Salud® (Health Fields) and its Escuela Internacional de Homeopatía Campos de Salud® (International Homeopathic School Campos de Salud), has qualified doctors, veterinarians, dentists and pharmacists under the tutelage of various authors and teachers. The first teacher in this school was another giant in his field, Dr. Victorio Contento, and with his disappearance, the general running of the school has been taken over by myself.

The fundamental idea is to demonstrate homeopathy to qualified professionals in an introductory form and later as a master course, which lasts for 3 tears and consists of over 2000 certified hours via internet… ie. at distance…
The students understood that the growth they obtained from the school was important and proposed the organization of a Primer Congreso Virtual de Homeopatía (First Virtual Homeopathy Congress), and subsequently created the Primera Base de Datos Homeopáticos en Español (First Spanish Homeopathic Database), so that those who want, can access the accumulated work of homeopaths. In this way Homeociencia.org. was born.

2007- A part of the EMHA, lead by Dr. Marcelo Candegabe, also understands the need to favorably disseminate homeopathy via the internet and so created the  Distance Learning University “Universidad Candegabe de Homeopatia”. In this way a greater diffusion of Dr. Eugenio Candegabe’s knowledge is achieved by means of his seminars, and everything is expanded auspiciously by use of the Internet.

2008 – The 3rd Virtual Homeopathy Congress was held and successfully brought together great national and international homeopaths. They were invited to discuss the following hot topics:

l        Who should be allowed to learn the healing art of homeopathy?

l        Should they be health professionals?

l        Would it be feasible to qualify a technician for homeopathic primary health care?

l        Along what lines and with which limitations?

Dr Marcelo Candegabe of Buenos Aires, Argentina, was invited to open the discussion and the following doctors were invited to participate:
*Ider Salgado creator and director of the 1st Escuela de Homeopatía por Internet (First Internet Homeopathic School) from Ecuador,

*Iván Silva Talavera,  Doctor, Master in Homeopathy – Director of the Homeopathic  and Alternative Therapies Policlinic “Homeovida” – Member of the Asociación Peruana de Medicina Homeopática – full professor at the University José Carlos Mariategui in Arequipa-Perú – 2nd Specialization in Homeopathy –  and teacher in Homeopathic courses at Hospital Goyeneche in Arequipa -Peru.
*Gustavo Pirra – President of the  AMHA of Buenos Aires , Argentina.

*Lodovico Corradín – Farmaceutical Master in Homeopathy, Trento, Italia.

*Roberto Guadarrama Esparza – Homeopathic Physician, Chihuahua / Mexico.

*Miriam García de Vallerotto Homeopathic Physician, Cordoba – Argentina.

*Isauro Puente Dávila – Homeopathic Physician, Ecuador.

*Antonio de Oliveira Lobão – Medical Veterinary – Director of the Centro de Estudos Avançados em Homeopatia  “CESAHO”, a Civil Society founded on 06 September 2002 in Brazil.

* Miguel Longo – Veterinary Homeopath – Director de Ecoanimal – Buenos Aires – Argentina.
The author of this work, Dr. Rosalía Villoldo Pérez, co-ordinates the Conference Hall.

The following results emerged from the discussion:

1)      It is imperative and necessary to differentiate between the terms “Homeopathic Practitioner” and “Homeopathic Physician” for the sake of the good practice of Homeopathic Physicians and the reliability of information given to the  patients.

2) A poll carried out during the 45 days of the congress showede that 75% accepted that “Technicians would be feasible as long as they work alongside doctors”. For this, it is necessary to adapt the homeopathic schools to different members of the heath sectors to enable them to be adequately trained in homeopathy.

2)      Globalization requires that homeopathic education should become more accessible by using the newly available study methods.

3)      Taking into account the new information society in which we human beings live, there is the need to spread homeopathic knowledge in a trans-sectoral way, so that also agrohomeopaths will have their place, as well as researching biologists, chemists etc.

4) Any person who wishes to use homeopathy to improve their health should be able to access homeopathic health care, which is very different from the allopathic medical system. The actual bio-medical model does not have anything in common with the vitalistic, bio- homeopathic model which should be disseminated and generate a  strong and expanded action so that “Homeopathy becomes the medicine of the future.”

2009 – The Escuela Internacional de Homeopatía Campos de Salud® (e-learning), (International Homeopathy School Campos de Salud, e-learning), is converted into the Universidad Homeopática Campos de Salud® (e-learning) Formación Holística (Homeopathic University Campos de Salud –  Holistic Formation)with the premise of fighting for an informal virtual formation that is protected and respected by law.

Dr. Rosalía Villoldo Pérez

Doctor MA Homeopathy

Pediatrician – GP.

References

– Forma y función de un sujeto moderno. Bernardo Houssay y la fisiología argentina (1900-1943), Buch, Alfonso, Tesis de doctorado, Universidad autónoma de Madrid, 2000, p. 7.

Articulo sobre “HISTORIA DE LA HOMEOPATÍA ARGENTINA” –  Dr. Gustavo Cataldi. Profesor Titular. E. M. H. A.

Bases y fundamentos de la doctrina y la clinica medica homeopatica

Marcelo Candegabe, ed. Kier – 1990

La construcción de legitimidad a través de una revista. lucha por el reconocimiento jurídico de la homeopatía en buenos aires (1933-1940) Manuel Alejandro González Korzeniewski (Universidad Nacional de Quilmes),  Victoria Virginia Salvia y Alicia Marina González  (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Argentina .

La Homeopatía en el mundo, en argentina y la medicina veterinaria – Dr. Horacio del Medio – pag. 62 -83 – Editorial Kier – 1993

Tratado de medicina Homeopática – Dr. Franciso Xavier Eizayaga  –  Ediciones Marecel –  1991.

–   Fotos e investigación del Museo de la Ciudad de Rosario, Investigación histórica: Agustina Prieto. (Fuentes: GARCIA, Lía Claudia. Comunidad médica e iniciativas estatales ante las epidemias de poliomielitis en Rosario 1932-1960. III Congreso de los Pueblos de la Provincia de Santa Fe: Historia y Prospectiva. Santa Fe, 1998. PRIETO, Agustina. Rosario: Epidemias, Higiene e Higienistas en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Universidad Nacional de Rosario. ARMUS, Diego. Enfermedad, ambiente urbano e higiene social. Rosario entre fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX en Sectores Populares y Vida Urbana. Ediciones CLACSO, Buenos Aires, 1984.
BIALET MASSE, Juan. Informe sobre el estado de las clases obreras en el interior de la República. 1904).

Dr. Rosalía Villoldo Pérez

About the author

Rosalia Villoldo Perez

Rosalia Villoldo Perez

Rosalia Villoldo Perez

2 Comments

  • I am a principle of Scientific Bio Logics. We are master distributors of integrative medicines. I am trying to find out if there are any anti-aging or homiopathic or integrative medicine expos or conventions held in Argentina. Can you possibly lead me in the right direction?
    Thank you
    Paul Damigos

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