Homeopathy Past and Present

Homoeopathy in Colombia, South America

The author, Felipe Cardenas Tamara1, writes about the history and current status of homeopathy in Colombia and the difficulties homeopaths there had and have to face.

Introduction

I want to highlight in this article, in relation to the rich history of homeopathy in Colombia, the following arguments: i) The problem of recognition of homeopathy has to do with a conflict of institutions, which has to be understood from a sociological perspective ii) The conflict about recognition of practitioners, what I call pure homeopaths, by society and the State, has anthropological roots that relate to healing potentials of individuals and societies.
The extinction of homeopathic practitioners, desired by many, has not occurred yet, because of their tenacity and creative efforts to spread their knowledge, and also because homeopathy is an open code science accessible to scholars, wise men and women, who work to deepen the knowledge of homeopathy. This essay will combine historical facts from the beginning and relate those facts to contemporary issues in homeopathy in Colombia. An indispensable text about the history of homeopathy in Colombia is the research done by María del Pilar Guzmán Urrea and called: “”La alopatía y la homeopatía en el siglo XIX: conflicto entre dos prácticas médicas” (Allopathy and Homeopathy in the XIX century: conflict between two medical practices).2

Geographical context
Colombia is located in Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama, in the timezone GMT -5. The country has boundaries of 6,004 – Brazil 1,643, Ecuador 590, Panama 225, Peru 1,496 (est.), Venezuela 2,050 (km), and a coastline of 3,208 (North Pacific 1,448 km, Caribbean Sea 1,760 km) (km). The presence of Colombia in the Caribbean Sea, through its ownership of San Andrés Island and Providence Island, amplifies its boundaries with Nicaragua, Costa Rica, República Dominicana, Haití, Honduras and Jamaica. The major urban areas are: Bogota (capital city of the country), Barranquilla, Cali, and Medellin. Colombia is the second richest country in the world in biodiversity. From a homeopathic perspective there has been almost no research done in terms of exploring the medicinal potential of the territory and its relation to the rich vernacular knowledge systems found among peasant societies and the more than 85 aboriginal groups that exist in the country. The country is considered to have around 10% of all worlds biodiversity. This biodiversity results from Colombia’s varied ecosystems—from the rich tropical rainforest, the Andean region, to the coastal cloud forests, to the open savannas in the Orinoco and to ecosystems found in the Amazon basin. More than 1,821 species of birds, 623 species of amphibians, 467 species of mammals, 518 species of reptiles, and 3,200 species of fish reside in Colombia. About 18 percent of these are endemic to the country. Colombia has a mind-boggling 51,220 species of plants, of which nearly 30 percent are endemic. While on paper nearly 10 percent of Colombia is under some form of protection, its rich biodiversity is increasingly threatened by deforestation, livestock production and urbanization. Today, most of the population (70%) is living in the major cities and in the Andean region. Around 65 % of the country is located in the Amazon and Orinoco basin with a very low population density in those regions.

Homoeopathy in Colombia

Colombia is located in Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama, in the timezone GMT -5. The country has boundaries of 6,004 – Brazil 1,643, Ecuador 590, Panama 225, Peru 1,496 (est.), Venezuela 2,050 (km), and a coastline of 3,208 (North Pacific 1,448 km, Caribbean Sea 1,760 km) (km). The presence of Colombia in the Caribbean Sea, through its ownership of San Andrés Island and Providence Island, amplifies its boundaries with Nicaragua, Costa Rica, República Dominicana, Haití, Honduras and Jamaica. The major urban areas are: Bogota (capital city of the country), Barranquilla, Cali, and Medellin. Colombia is the second richest country in the world in biodiversity. From a homeopathic perspective there has been almost no research done in terms of exploring the medicinal potential of the territory and its relation to the rich vernacular knowledge systems found among peasant societies and the more than 85 aboriginal groups that exist in the country. The country is considered to have around 10% of all worlds biodiversity. This biodiversity results from Colombia’s varied ecosystems—from the rich tropical rainforest, the Andean region, to the coastal cloud forests, to the open savannas in the Orinoco and to ecosystems found in the Amazon basin. More than 1,821 species of birds, 623 species of amphibians, 467 species of mammals, 518 species of reptiles, and 3,200 species of fish reside in Colombia. About 18 percent of these are endemic to the country. Colombia has a mind-boggling 51,220 species of plants, of which nearly 30 percent are endemic. While on paper nearly 10 percent of Colombia is under some form of protection, its rich biodiversity is increasingly threatened by deforestation, livestock production and urbanization. Today, most of the population (70%) is living in the major cities and in the Andean region. Around 65 % of the country is located in the Amazon and Orinoco basin with a very low population density in those regions.

In Colombia there is a long tradition of practitioners and Medical Doctors who have practiced homeopathy, but as it happens in most of the world, homeopathy has always been in a subordinate condition in comparison to the dominant biomedical model. According to Fabian González Arias, Homeopathy arrived at our country around 1825 and 1830 (1998). Some few doctors started to practice in those early years, but most of the medical community was hostile to the new medical doctrine. As in many countries, homeopathy in Colombia has lived through hard times and many struggles. It was introduced by the doctors Juan Pardo and José Arrubla whom began to bring the first books and materials to the country. In those early days few libraries existed. Probably the coastal cities of Barranquilla, Cartagena and Santa Marta, in the Caribbean Sea, were visited by homeopaths of other countries, but there has not been any research to confirm that assertion. Consequently the history of homeopathy in Colombia is basically expressed in the records found at the capital city of Bogotá in the Andean region of the country.
Doctor Arrubla gave some homeopathic books as a gift to Doctor José Felix Merizalde, who in turn gave them to Doctor Vicente Sanmiguel, who had lost his child in an epidemic. Doctor Sanmiguel started reading the Hahnemann’s Organon of Medicine. He was exceptionally impressed by the ideas of Hahnemann and decided to close his allopathic pharmacy and abandon the practice of allopathy. It seems that he was the first Colombian practioner of homeopathy. Doctor’s Sanmiguel son, an apothecary, who was called José Peregrino Sanmiguel, was introduced by his father to the principles of homeopathy. In the beginning he was especially skeptical. His father challenged him to make a proving of a substance known only by him. His son carried out the proving and felt the effects on his mind and body. The substance came to be Colocynthis. Both father and son became ardent homeopaths and together with Hipolito Villamil started to motivate other doctors of the period in the principles and practice of homeopathy.
By around 1837, with the help of 30 practitioners, they decided to organize the first teaching center called Homeopathic Institute Of The United States Of Colombia, April 10, 1837. The first acting president was Doctor Luis Hernando Alvarez. By 1840, the first journal, called La Homeopatía, began to be published. The European doctors Roberto Bunch and David Castillo gave support by bringing to Colombia books and other documents. A Cuban doctor, Salvador Riera helped disseminate homeopathy in small towns near the capital city, Bogotá, and in some northern provinces. A homeopathic hospital was founded at the town of Socorro, Santander around 1860`s. There was also a homeopathic hospital at Chiquinquira, Boyacá. Many priests by the end of the XIX century practiced homeopathy and were members of the Instituto Homeopático de Colombia. This Institute was the first scientific society and was the entity in charge of the publication and the training of homeopaths and medical doctors up to 1980. Unfortunately, unsteady management by its last director in 1980’s ended with the unclear image of a serious institution. All the journals, documentation, certificates that belong to the origins of homeopathy in Colombia were lost or stolen. It is very difficult to find the complete numbers of the journal La Homeopatía. Not even the National Library of Colombia has a complete series of the almost 143 published volumes. For almost all of the XIX and XX century, the Instituto Homeopático de Colombia was the main entity for the training of homeopaths, both medical doctors and practitioners3.
The presence of practitioners has been important in the history of homeopathy up to the present.4 In many isolated regions and even in the most important cities, many practitioners were recognized by the State and gained their training at the Instituto Homeopático de Colombia. For many of them, living on remote places, their education was carried out through correspondence. Because of the difficult sanitary conditions in a tropical country like Colombia, many doctors understood the importance of practitioners. Others were hostile and ridiculed them by calling them teguas, which was a word used to refer to the person acting as a homeopath. When people in the city of Bogotá, went to a homeopath and their friends or relatives knew who was treating them, people would say : “You are being treated by a tegua, “el que aguitas te da”?(the one that gives you water). Tegua, was the diminutive expression and linguistic turn of water (agua). Over the years it came to express a deceiver. Some MD’s refer to homeopaths as Teguas, forgetting that everyone who is a homeopath is a Tegua, because from a classic chemistry knowledge, which we all know is insufficient to explain homeopathic remedies, really we all are working with water (teguas). In any case, the presence of practitioners has been active and significant throughout the history of homeopathy in Colombia.?By the year 1865, the Institute of Homeopathy of Colombia had five persons performing as teachers: José Peregrino Sanmiguel, Salvador María Alvarez, Saturnino del Castillo, Marcelino Lievano and Ignacio Pereira. Other doctors participated as honorary members of the Institute of Homeopathy.?During the nineteenth century, homeopathy was considered a very precious art and science by some of the most recognized members of the Colombian society. General José Hilario López (Popayán, february 18 of 1798 – Campoalegre, Huila, November 27 of 1869), serviceman, Colombian politician and president of the country (1849-1853) was one of the presidents of the Colombian Institute of Homeopathy (1866). This president was the one that promulgated Law 15 of May 1850, which declared, under a liberal radical philosophy, freedom of education and removed the requisite of a professional title. As a result, the freedom of education opened a great space for the practice of homeopathy, gaining social recognition. A couple of decades later, Rafael Pombo, a prestigious poet from the aristocracy wrote a couple of poems honoring homeopathy. Another prominent person in the history of Colombia and president of the country, Rafael Nuñez, was a member of the Institute of Homeopathy and a great promoter of homeopathy. After 1860-1870 the golden age of homeopathy, or at least its opportunity to gain institutionalization was over. From then on, the evolution of the allopathic Faculties of Medicine would work to label homeopathy as a fraud. In that difficult situation, some homeopaths had relevant positions attending leprosy. That was the case of the practitioner and patient of leprosy named Luis Carlos Pradilla, who practiced homeopathy as a patient of leprosy in the lazaretto, located at the town of Agua de Dios (Water of God) in the state of Cundinamarca around 18005. This homeopath, who was a nephew of the medical doctor Ricardo de la Parra, published with other patients, between 1879 and 1880, a newspaper initially called Hope, but later the name was changed to The Voice of the Banned. The newspaper published local news, poetry and articles written by the people from the lazaretto, along with issues that contained religious, moral and philosophical topics6. The authors recommended the catholic virtues of humility and resignation; and suggested reading and cultivating the spirit in order to overcome adversity. There is no information about the remedies used by this practitioner to treat leprosy. (For the testimony of a contemporary homeopathic patient being treated for flu see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=10DO8BQXdkA)
The Institute of Homeopathy of Colombia was very close in ties and relations with European scientific societies and institutions. The directors of the Institute traveled and participated in world and international congresses. The first homeopathy courses taught in Colombia were copied from the Hahnemanian School of Chicago. The subjects were: General Anatomy, Physiology, Botany, Pharmacology, Practical and pathological anatomy, materia medica, therapeutics, theoretical surgery, legal medicine, clinics, psychology, obstetrics, chemistry and toxicology (1866).
Until 1864 the Institute had few members. Many of the new homeopaths migrated to other countries. That was the case of Doctor José Peregrino Sanmiguel who was the first to take the seeds of homeopathy to the country of Ecuador. On June 8 of 1865, the Institute was reorganized as Homeopathic Institute Of Colombia. The statutes were decided at a work session on the seventh of October, 1865. On that same day the journal “Homeopathy” was born. For almost 132 years this journal was published (143 issues). The last issue was published in January 1998 with a complete compilation of the laws written for homeopathy by the legislative branch of Colombia during the twentieth century.?In 1867, the National University of Colombia was established and a professorship of homeopathy was created. During its history, without a continuous line, homeopathy has occupied some space at that campus. It has been, on some occasions, the institution that has regulated the exercise of practitioners, giving them the opportunity to legalize their informal status. Today, the main goal of the allopathic doctors who oversee homeopathy at that university campus, is to exclude any practitioner from the exercise of homeopathy on a legal basis; they do not care or take into account experience or knowledge, but are aware that homeopaths like Doctor Gonzalo Moncada knows more about homeopathy than all teachers of homeopathy at that university campus. I have personally known practitioners that a couple of decades ago were legalized in their status by assisting training programs at the National University of Colombia. Today the environment at the Faculty of Medicine is hostile to practitioners. Their purpose is to monopolize all alternative medicine in their hands, going against the spirit of the Constitution of Colombia. On the contrary, private universities like Universidad del Rosario have been implementing non-formal training programs called ‘Diplomados’, this type of program does not require permission from the National State. The program from Universidad del Rosario is called Diplomat in Alternative Medicines: Magnetotherapy, Homeopathy, Flower essences, Neural therapy and acupuncture. This program is a step forward if we consider testimonies by practicing homeopaths, that during the 1960’s, some deans of the medical school at the Universidad del Rosario promoted lynching practitioners of homeopathy who lived near Candelaria, just beside the University campus at the capital city of Bogotá. Some homeopaths back then worked as tailors and in the back of their tailor shops they worked as pure homeopaths.
In the year 1869, the sovereign state of Cundinamarca through a law, assigned to the Homeopathic Institute Of Colombia, space for establishing a homeopathic hospital. The idea was to treat the patients who were declared incurable by allopaths. The hospital was never established because of economic problems. The anterior law was derogated by a law of November 3 of 1870. Homeopathy was practised by many priests. The founder of the first Colombian Religious Congregation called Dominicas de Santa Catalina de Siena, was a Dominican priest, Saturnino Gutiérrez (1835-1911) who gained his homeopathic training from the Colombian Institute of Homeopathy.

About the author

Felipe Cardenas Tamara

Felipe Cardenas Tamara

Dr. Professor Felipe Cárdenas Ph.D has been working for the last 20 years in environmental anthropology, dealing with development projects in the Andean region of Colombia. He is the present director of the Political Science and Human Rights Department at Universidad de La Sabana-Colombia. He has diplomas from the British Institute of homeopathy and the Instituto Homeopático de Colombia and is an honorary member of the Sociedad Homeopática de Colombia.

Leave a Comment

18 Comments

  • Creo que la persona que escribe el articulo describe la verdad a medias. La homeopatia es reconocida por el estado Colombiano como una especialidad de la medicina. Es por esto que la Universdad Nacional elevó a maestria su capacitacion en el posgrado. En Colombia solo los medicos estan autorizados por la ley a ejercer la homeopatia, por tanto no se debe enseñar en el pregrado, debe ser en el posgrado. Son 2 años de maestria con trabajo de investigacion final. Es ceirto que solo hasta 2007 comenzaron estos posgrados pero siento que son grandes avances para el ejercicio de la profesion

    • Translation of above comment:
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      I think the person writing the article describes the half-truth. Homeopathy is recognized by the Colombian state as a specialty of medicine. That is why the National Universdad Masters rose to his training at postgraduate level. In Colombia only physicians are authorized by law to practice homeopathy therefore should not be teaching at the undergraduate level, must be at postgraduate level. They are two years of Masters final with research work. It is only until 2007 ceirto began graduate but I feel these are great strides for the exercise of the profession

      • Es que el argumento central es que la homeopatía puede ser enseñada desde el pregrado pues es una ciencia particular y autónoma que no necesita de la medicina alopática, lo que no quiere decir que el estudiante no deba tener bases de otras ciencias o disciplinas auxiliares como la fisiología, la anatomia, ect. El punto central tiene que ver con la asimetria epistemológica, política y jurídica a la que se somete a la homeopatia. Ver un pensum en medicina homeopática desde el pregrado en:

        http://www.homeoint.org/articles/cardenas/carrerahomeopatia.htm

        • The central argument is that homeopathy can be taught, since it is an autonomous particular science, from on undergraduate level and that their is no need to wait six or seven years in allopathic medicine training to start the process of formation of homeopaths. This does not mean that the student should not have bases in other sciences or auxiliary disciplines such as Physiology, anatomy, ect. The focus of the article explains the epistemological, political and legal asymmetry which is subjected to homeopathy. View a curriculum in homeopathic medicine for undergraduate: It is possible, i we break the monopoly of the allopathic faculties

          http://www.homeoint.org/articles/cardenas/carrerahomeopatia.htm

          • I am impressed with your article as it represents thoughts I have been preoccupied with for a long time as a life long student of homeopathy. I have been treated and met many practitioners who hide behind their diploma’s and insurance company but mostly use their patients to further their personal studies and lack integrity and essential understanding of their activity. This is also a contributor to patients who are dissapointed by their unsuccesful treatment and feel it is the fault of the science of homeopathy instead, which does not contribute to furthering the true spirit in which it must be understood and practiced. Many homeopaths are looking for power through status and regulation just like allopathic doctors instead of being aware they are part of the journey of life and should be proud the be eternal dillitantes only guiding their fellow man.

  • Dr Cardenas:

    La homeopatía en Colombia es actualmente reconocida por el sistema educativo nacional como una especialidad médica; igualmente ocurre en otros países, dado que presenta los rasgos esenciales de una profesión, tener un cuerpo de conocimiento específico adquirido por un largo periodo de formación, disponer de organizaciones profesionales reconocidas legalmente que adoptan un código ético.

    Aunque mundialmente existen Escuelas de homeopatía desde el siglo XIX, la integración de su enseñanza en las universidades se estructura en el siglo XX solo en algunos países que fortalecen sus aspectos culturales y de responsabilidad social en la educación médica; a nivel mundial Brasil, México, Inglaterra, India y Francia entre otros, asumen estos modelos educativos mediante la aplicación eficiente del conocimiento especializado enmarcado en una rigurosa autorregulación. En Colombia, aunque también se reconoce su existencia desde comienzos del siglo XX, solo en los últimos años se viene discutiendo la posibilidad de asumir la práctica homeopática en el sistema general de salud del Estado.

    La discusión sobre la profesionalización de la homeopatía se genera porque no obstante este sistema médico terapéutico se estructura hace casi 200 años, fundamentando en el paradigma medico vitalista, y aunque su uso se ha extendido mundialmente, el reconocimiento por parte del estado y sus instituciones académicas es todavía precario en algunos países, como es el caso de Colombia. Para aportar a esta discusión es necesario, preguntarse en qué sentido es posible hablar de la homeopatía como una profesión.

    El sistema médico alopático es el dominante en el mundo occidental. Sin embargo, gracias a distintas formas de abordaje del conocimiento, se hacen visibles otros sistemas médicos denominados “alternativos y/o complementarios”, como es el caso de la homeopatia.La Organización Mundial de la Salud reconoce a la homeopatía dentro de estos sistemas médicos aunque dentro de sus preceptos no explicita una cosmogonía homeopática, sino una cosmovisión, es decir una mirada heurística o parcial dentro del paradigma vitalista

    Por todo esto pienso que es importantisimo para un médico homeopata se medico, entre otras cosas para poder comprender desde la individualidad, pero de una manera integral al paciente, tambien debemos comprender la farmacologia y el efecto que en el organismo producen el sinnumero de medicamentos que actuan por la ley de los contrarios, no es una ciencia autonoma de la medicina, el sistema medico

    De todas maneras, estos aportes no son con el animo de entablar una discusion sino de enaltecer el ejercicio de la profesión en Colombia.

    • Translation of the above comment:
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      Dr Clark:

      Homeopathy in Colombia is currently recognized by the national education system as a medical specialty, also occurs in other countries, because it presents the essential features of a profession, have a specific body of knowledge acquired over a long period of training, organizations have legally recognized professionals who adopt a code of ethics.

      Although there are schools of homeopathy world since the nineteenth century, the integration of teaching at universities in the twentieth century structure only in some countries that strengthen their cultural and social accountability in medical education worldwide Brazil, Mexico, England, India and France among others, these models assume education through the efficient application of expertise embodied in a rigorous self-regulation. In Colombia, but also recognizes its existence from the early twentieth century, only in recent years been discussing the possibility of taking homeopathic practice in the general health system of the State.

      The discussion of the professionalization of homeopathy is generated because despite this therapeutic medical system is structured almost 200 years ago, basing on the vital medical paradigm, and although its use has spread worldwide and the recognition by the state and academic institutions is still precarious in some countries, as is the case of Colombia. To contribute to this discussion is necessary, ask in what sense one can speak of homeopathy as a profession.

      The allopathic medical system is dominant in the Western world. However, through different forms of knowledge approach, become visible other medical systems called “alternative and / or complementary”, as is the case of homeopatia.La World Health Organization recognizes homeopathy doctors in these systems but within its provisions do not explicitly a homeopathic cosmogony, but a world view, ie heuristic or partial look inside the vitalist paradigm

      For all this I think is important for a homeopathic medical doctor is, among other things to understand from the individuality, but in a patient holistically, we must also understand the pharmacology and effect in the body that produce the myriad of drugs act by the law of opposites, is not an autonomous science of medicine, the medical system

      In any case, these contributions are not in the mood to engage in a discussion but only enhance the practice of the profession in Colombia.

      • Doctor Martilletti:

        Homeopathy is a particular science, which means that its comprehension requires a particular epistemological approach, which does not mean that homeopaths shouldn’t be regularized. The point is that legal norms are subject to cultural perspectives. The dominant cultural perspective is yours, but I should remind you that, being or having a dominant view doesn’t mean that a society is functioning with the truth. History and the sociological data prove that your perspective is wrong: First, States as a form of organized groups arise rather late in human history and in many occasions, States represent the views of the dominant groups and societies. Second, in many societies and historical periods, like in the feudal Europe, many norms, like canonical laws, laws for the burguiese, peasant laws, etc, never were sanctioned, and did not require for its vigorous functioning the recognition of the State. Even today, many organized groups out of the State, have legal norms that have never been sanctioned by the State. Similarly, what we know us customs, international law and canonical law, and even common law, were never create it by the State; even in some occasions they originated against the authorities of the State. So it is clear, that from a sociological and historical perspective, it is totally false that law is inexistent without the state. As a result, an erroneous perspective, in relation to the possibility of understanding, homeopathy as a discipline, produces an epistemological asymmetry, and generates physical and symbolical violence. Just a question: ¿Why is it possible to study homeopathy from an undergraduate level in Mexico and in India? And why is not possible to do it in a country like Colombia? The answer my friend, is not a discussion about science, it is a political and legal debate. You can be sure, as history has proven it, that we can have Homeopaths MD´s. I have students of medicine on undergraduate levels. Most of them ignore, in the last semesters of the profession, the medicinal properties of pure water. I am just talking of PI structure water. Very sad, and that occurs in all of the Faculties of Medicine around the world. Why is that they have to wait so many years in order to have access to the deep knowledge of homeopathy and other natural healing therapies? As I have told you before, a pure homeopath requires deep and rigorous training, which means the study of the ordinary topics taught at a Faculty of Medicine, but enriched with the philosophical, theoretical, and practical perspective of the homeopathy and its auxiliary disciplines and sciences.

  • bueno Dr Cadena
    Me queda claro que ambos estamos convencidos del bien de la Homeopatia para los pacientes, yo como medica y jefe del departamento medic del Instituto luis G Paez y usted como antropologo y director de la fundcion CENTIR. El punto es que el problema juridico limita a las personas de buena voluntadque quieren estudiar Homeoopatia.
    Pienso de todas maneras que el acercamiento a las Facultades de Medicina permitirán quelos medicos conozcan las bondades de las Medicinas Alternativas antes de acabar la carrera. Muchas facultades ya estan incorporando en el pensum del pregrado las medicinas alternativas y complementarias.

    Cordialmente
    Alba Martilletti
    Jefe departamento medico FICH Luis G Páez

    • Translation of above comment
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      It is clear that both are convinced of the benefit of homeopathy for patients, medical and I as head of the Institute medic Luis G Paez and you as an anthropologist and director of the fundcion CENTER. The point is that the legal problem limited to people of good voluntadque Homeoopatia want to study.
      Anyway I think that the approach to medical schools allow physicians chelae know the benefits of Alternative Medicine by the end of the race. Many schools are already incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum of complementary and alternative medicines.

      Cordially
      Alba Martilletti

  • Dr. Cardenas demontrates that homeopathy is actually part of medical history and really can not be seperated from mainstream medical history as being “alternative”. Modernization and social scientific concepts which emereged from modernization and unilateral perspectives of development seem to largely account for notion of “alternative” medicine. Congratulations on this article.

  • Hi:

    I enjoy very much Ezine and all the wonderful articles. I have a friend in Colombia that is ill and believes very much in homeopathy since I have successfully treated her in the past when I was visiting Colombia. Since I don’t live in Colombia, I e-mailed her and recommended that she call the phone numbers in Bogota that are listed at the bottom of the youtube presentations to find out if they could recommend an experienced homeopathic doctor for her to visit in Medellin. She wrote back and said they don’t answer. Can you help me solve this problem? Thank You

  • Dr Cardenas’ article has addressed the global condition concerning the bio-medical bullying of alternative models of medicine. The Columbian homeopathic climate of past and present is peppered with pockets of opposition and is similarly reflected elsewhere throughout the globe. The phrase “mono-cultural scheme of thought” is applicable in almost all areas of government these days. Bravo to the pure homeopaths and others who support this petition. It is the responsibility and obligation of all committed homeopaths to engage in the political conversation that will protect our wonderful science and allow the medical and biological diversity that a healthy world population has the right to expect. I would like to offer personal thanks to Dr Cardenas for such a pertinent and well written article.

  • Dear Dr. Cardenas,
    I enjoyed your article thoroughly and was wondering if you have any advice for an aspiring homeopath like myself. I am applying for a Fulbright next month and was looking to travel to Colombia to study under someone at the center, would this be possible in any way? Do you have any advice as to whom I can contact?
    Best, Mariana