Anton von Storck an Austrian physician ( 1731- 1803) was convinced that plants regarded as poisonous still had medicinal applications if employed in carefully controlled quantities. His experiments with the plants such as hemlock, henbane etc. involved a three-step process. Initially it was used on animals, followed by a personal trial, and finally given to his patients, following a “sliding-scale” approach to determine the optimum dosage. Hahnemann got interested in the works of Storck for his research on various herbs, including their toxicity and medicinal properties.Following the innovative works of Anton von Storck, Hahnemann tested substances for the effects they produced on a healthy individual, presupposing that they may heal the same ills that they caused. His researches led him to agree with von Störck that the toxic effects of ingested substances are often broadly parallel to certain disease states. He later devised methods of diluting the drugs he was testing in order to lessen their toxic effects. He claimed that these dilutions, when prepared according to his technique of ‘potentization’ using dilution and succussion (vigorous shaking), were still effective in alleviating the same symptoms in the sick. His more systematic experiments with dose reduction really commenced around 1800-1801.
Homeopathic remedies were challenged only after the discovery of Avogadro’s number, a number of years after homeopathy came into use. It is true that homeopathic dilutions above the 12c potency are devoid of any medicinal molecules as shown in Table 1 below:
The mother tincture/solution is prepared by dissolving 1gm of NaCl in 9 ml of distilled water( i.e.1:9 w/v). For preparation of a 1C potency 1 ml of mother tincture is added to 9ml of distilled water and then succussed. The 2c potency is prepared by adding 1ml of 1C potency to 99ml of distilled water and succussing. Thereafter, following similar steps further serial dilutions are prepared. The calculations are made considering the density of water 1gm/cc and molecular mass of NaCl=23+35.45=58.45]
|Type of dilution||Solute/Foreign content(in ml)||Solvent i.e. Distilled water (in ml)||Total Solution/content(in ml)||Molecules of NaClpresent||Molecules of H2Opresent||Number of H2O molecules having altered molecular orientations, added to distilled H2O|
|1C||1ml of MS||9ml||10ml||1.1449X1021||3.3461X1023||3.3461 X1022 of MS|
|2C||1ml of 1C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1020||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 1C|
|3C||1ml of 2C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1018||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 2C|
|4C||1ml of 3C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1016||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 3C|
|5C||1ml of 4C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1014||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 4C|
|6C||1ml of 5C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1012||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 5C|
|7C||1ml of 6C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1010||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 6C|
|8C||1ml of 7C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1008||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 7C|
|9C||1ml of 8C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1006||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 8C|
|10C||1ml of 9C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1004||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 9C|
|11C||1ml of 10C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X1002||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 10C|
|12C||1ml of 11C||99ml||100ml||1.1449X100||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 11C|
|13C||1ml of 12C||99ml||100ml||Nil||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of 12C|
|nC||1ml of (n-1)C||99ml||100ml||Nil||3.3461X1024||3.3461 X1022 of (n-1)C|
The working principle of homeopathic medicine which should have been embraced as a great discovery for mankind was instead called unscientific. In modern times researchers have tried to discover the force behind homeopathy. One such researcher was Jacques Benveniste, who was pilloried by the scientific community for his efforts.
With due regards to Avogadro’s concept in homeopathic dilution i.e. finding no molecules of the parent compound beyond 12c dilution, we started searching for peculiar properties of water. After going through different physical and chemical properties we started our work with the electrical properties of water. To our surprise we noticed that even two steel electrodes when touched to some water show some minute voltage. At first we thought it might be due to the presence of ions in the water. When we repeated our experiment with distilled water ( as it does not contains any other ions) we were surprised to find a similar result.
We tried experiments aimed at different aspects of water’s generation, conduction and retention of electrical energy (using distilled water) and below we briefly reproduce some of them:
[A] Generation of electrical energy in various cases:
According to the existing theory, the generation of emf by an electrochemical cell is either due to the
- chemical reactions i.e. at the cost of the electrodes
- Concentration cells wherein the electrodes on the two sides are the same but they are dipped into solutions differing in concentrations of the reversible ions, i.e. Electrolyte concentration cell or the Electrode concentration cell or Amalgam Cells ,wherein the electrodes of different activities are dipped in the same solution of an electrolyte containing an ion of the electrode material. .
Case 1: Generation of electrical energyin an irreversible cell Zn | H2SO4 | Cu wherein Zn and Cu metals are dipped in Sulphuric acid thereby generating emf of about 1 volt. In this cell electricity is produced due to a chemical reaction at the cost of the zinc electrode.
Zn → Zn+++ 2e ( At cathode) [ Zinc goes into solution as ZnSO4 ]
2H+ + 2e → H2 ( At anode)
Cu & Zn electrodes when dipped in distilled water record an emf of about 850mV in distilled water and 500mV (approximately) in the human body3 as shown at sl no. 12 of Table: 2 below. As there is hardly any possibility for zinc to dissolve in distilled water or to go into the human body, the generation of such emf through chemical reaction undoubtedly indicates a contradiction with the existing theory.
Case 2: Generation of electrical energy in the Leclanche Cell, wherein the Zn plate is the –ve electrode and graphite is the +ve electrode, the electrolyte being a paste of MnO2, NH4Cl and ZnCl2.
Here, also an emf of about 1.5 volts is generated at the cost of the Zn electrode as shown by the following reactions:
At the –ve electrode :Zn+ 2MnO2+ H2O→ Zn++ +Mn2O3 + 2OH –
At the +ve electrode : 2MnO2 + H2O +2e → Mn2O3+ 2OH–
Subsequently, secondary chemical reactions occur which consume the OH– and Zn++ through NH4Cl as :
2NH4Cl+ 2OH– = 2NH3+2Cl– +2H2O
Zn++ + 2NH3+2Cl– = Zn(NH3) 2Cl2
This cell, made up of Carbon (Gr) & Zn electrodes, still generates sufficient emf when the electrolyte is replaced by distilled water and the human body3 as shown at sl no. 2 of Table: 2. In distilled water it shows 1150mV and in the human body about 800mV. Here, also as in case 1 there is no possibility of Zinc going into solution or into the human body, and thus clearly indicates the contradiction with the existing theory.
Case 3: Generation of electrical energy in the Daniel Cell wherein a zinc rod is partially immersed in ZnSO4 solution and a copper rod in CuSO4 solution as the two electrodes. The two solutions are separated by a porous barrier that allows the electrical current to pass through but prevents mass diffusion (Fig.1).
During the production of current, Zn atoms pass into solution as Zn++ ions leaving behind two electrons each in the metal electrode. On the other hand, copper ions from the solution are deposited on the copper electrode by accepting two electrons each from the metal. Thus there is an excess of electrons in the Zn electrode and a deficit of the same at the Cu electrode. When the circuit is closed, the electrons from Zn flow to the copper through the wire to feed the copper ions in the process of its discharge.
The cell being represented as: (-) Zn | ZnSO4 : CuSO4 | Cu (+)
The reaction at – ve electrode is: Zn= Zn++ + 2e (i.e: Loss of electrons or oxidation occurs)
The reaction at + ve electrode is :Cu++ + 2e= Cu (i.e: Gain of electrons or reduction occurs)
The total cell reaction being: Zn +Cu++ =Zn+++Cu
So for production of 1 Faraday of electricity, 1 gm-equivalent of Zn goes into solution and 1gm-equivalent of Cu is deposited on the Cu electrode. The emf of the cell is about 1.10volts. From the above it is clear that for generation of emf some amount of zinc goes into solution and copper ions are deposited on the copper electrode, i.e the Zn electrode becomes thin while the copper becomes thicker.
Now when Cu& Zn are placed in distilled water or the human body they are found to produce a remarkable emf of about 850 mV(0.850 volts) in distilled water and about 500mV on human body3, showing at least some amount of Zn must have gone into distilled water and some amount of copper ions from distilled water have got deposited on the copper electrode. But as per prevailing scientific norms, neither is it possible for zinc to get dissolved in distilled water nor distilled water to supply copper ions to be deposited on the copper electrode for the generation of emf. Here also lies a sound contradiction to the existing theory behind generation of electromotive force (emf).