Yellow fever is a viral disease of short duration and varying degree of severity that is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes. The disease has been associated with tropical climates and caused large epidemics in Africa and the Americans.
Cause of yellow fever
The causative agent, yellow fever virus, is transmitted to people via the bite of infected mosquitoes. The most frequent mosquitoes vector in urban outbreaks is aedes aegypti, a species that breeds in close proximately to humans, laying eggs in any small container that container contains water. It feeds preferentially on people and has been responsible for large urban epidemics. Other species are involved in rural and jungle cycles.
Sign and symptoms of yellow fever
Symptoms of infection are variable, probably as a result of natural human resistance factors, and perhaps, differences between virus stains. Less than 30 percent of people who are infected become sick. The incubation period is 3 to 6 days. Disease can be characterized into three phases. The period of infection which lasts 3 to 4, presents as mild nonspecific and flu like symptoms, with fever up to 105 degree F(40 degree C) lasting for three and half days with fatigue, headache, photophobia, back pain, and general Myalgia, nausea, vomiting, and disorientation and dizziness.
Diagnosis of yellow fever
Diagnosis is usually established by blood test showing the presence of antibodies to the virus and by the patient’s history.
Homeopathy Treatment for Yellow Fever
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat yellow fever but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several remedies are available to treat yellow fever that can be selected on the basis of cause, sensations and modalities of the complaints. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. There are following remedies which are helpful in the treatment of yellow fever:
Arsenic Album, Cadmium Sulph, Cantharis, Carbo Veg, Crotolus H, Lachesis, Mercurius, Aconite, Allium Cepa, Antim Tart, Argentum Nitricum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcaria Carb, Camphor, Capsicum, China, Coffea, Cuprum Met, Gelsemium, Gloninum, Hepar Sulph, Ipecauc, Kali Phos, lobelia, Natrum Sulph, Nux vomica, Phosphorous, Platina, Psorinum, Rhus Tox, Sulphuric Acid, Sulphur, Veratrum album, and many other medicines.
Nearly all authorities praise this remedy in the early stage of yellow fever where there is high fever, chilliness and dry skin, bounding pulse and the characteristic mental accompaniments which are quite likely to be present in this disease. It will speedily calm the febrile storm in these conditions.Great fear, anxiety, and worry accompany every ailment, however trivial. Delirium is characterized by unhappiness worry, fear, raving, rarely unconsciousness. Forebodings and fears. Fears death but believes that he will soon die; predicts the day. Fears the future, a crowd, crossing the street. Restlessness, tossing about. Tendency to start. Imagination acute, clairvoyance. Cold stage most marked. Cold sweat and icy coldness of face. Coldness and heat alternate. Evening chilliness soon after going to bed. Cold waves pass through him. Thirst and restlessness always present. Chilly if uncovered or touched. Dry heat, red face. Most valuable febrifuge with mental anguish, restlessness, etc. Sweat drenching, on parts lain on; relieving all symptoms.
Is a remedy for the onset when the patient is apathetic and dull, and Belladonna or Bryonia may also come in during the first stage. Very often, too, Camphora with its coldness and tendency to collapse may be the remedy. The vomiting of the first stage is often controlled by Ipecac. Centers its action upon the nervous system, causing various degrees of motor paralysis. General prostration. Dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, and trembling. Slow pulse, tired feeling, mental apathy. Paralysis of various groups of muscles about the eyes, throat, chest, larynx, sphincter, extremities, etc. Post-diphtheritic paralysis. Muscular weakness. Complete relaxation and prostration. Lack of muscular co-ordination. General depression from heat of sun. Sensitive to a falling barometer; cold and dampness brings on many complaints.Wants to be held, because he shakes so. Pulse slow, full, soft, compressible. Chilliness up and down back. Heat and sweat stages, long and exhausting. Dumb-ague, with much muscular soreness, great prostration, and violent headache. Nervous chills. Bilious remittent fever, with stupor, dizziness, faintness; thirstless, prostrated. Chill, without thirst, along spine; wave-like, extending upward from sacrum to occiput.
This remedy come in most frequently in the second and third stages, and is one of the most important remedies in the disease. The patient has continued nausea and vomiting, and the vomited matter consist of bile or mucosities filled with blackish or sanguinolent streaks; the face is yellow and the pulse is small, weak and tremulous. There is much burning in the praecordial region and intense burning thirst, but, of course for small quantities of water only. No better remedy for these symptoms is to be found than Arsenicum. It sill often alone suffice to cure.
This remedy has given very satisfactory results in yellow fever, especially when vomiting is present, abdominal tenderness, brown tongue, delirium, slow speech, nausea, offensive discharges and black urine. It corresponds to nerve-poisoning and suits bad looking cases.
#Sulphuric acid [Sul-ac]
Is a useful remedy for haemorrhages of black blood, profuse sweat with exhaustion, foetid stools and diminished secretion of urine. The “debility” common to acids shows itself here, especially in the digestive tract, giving a very relaxed feeling in the stomach, with craving for stimulants. Tremor and weakness; everything must be done in a hurry. Hot flushes, followed by perspiration, with trembling. Fretful, impatient. Unwilling to answer questions; hurried.
#Argentum nitricum [Arg-n]
Is also one of the best remedies in the disease. It covers the vomiting; especially is it of use when the patient sinks and the vomiting become worse. Chills with nausea. Chilly when uncovered, yet feels smothered if wrapped up. Fearful and nervous; impulse to jump out of window. Faintish and tremulous. Melancholic; apprehensive of serious disease. Time passes slowly (Cann ind). Memory weak. Errors of perception. Impulsive; wants to do things in a hurry (Lilium). Peculiar mental impulses. Fears and anxieties and hidden irrational motives for actions. Headache with coldness and trembling. Emotional disturbances cause appearance of hemi-cranial attacks. Sense of expansion. Brain-fag, with general debility and trembling.
Phosphorous with its haemorrhages; jaundice and other symptoms is a close simile to certain forms; it was successfully used in an epidemic occurring in Rio de Janerio. Chilly every evening. Cold knees at night. Adynamic with lack of thirst, but unnatural hunger. Hectic, with small, quick pulse; viscid night-sweats. Stupid delirium. Profuse perspiration.
This remedy produces a perfect picture of yellow fever, and it corresponds to the stage of black vomit and blood poisoning- there is a low delirium, yellow skin and oozing of blood from every orifice of the body, even bloody sweat is sometimes present. The yellow skin produced by this remedy is characteristic, and denotes blood poisoning rather than jaundice. Cadmium sulphate has also the symptoms of black vomit, and its study in the disease is suggested.
#Carbo vegetabilis. [Carb-v]
This remedy has been considered as a preventive of yellow fever. Hering says this remedy more than any other drug corresponds in the totality of its action to yellow fever. It suits the third stage where collapse, coldness, extremely foetid discharge and great exhaustion of the vital forces are present.
Prevention of Yellow Fever
Vaccination is the most important means of preventing yellow fever.
The yellow fever vaccine is safe, affordable and a single dose provides life-long protection against yellow fever disease. A booster dose of yellow fever vaccine is not needed.
Several vaccination strategies are used to prevent yellow fever disease and transmission: routine infant immunization; mass vaccination campaigns designed to increase coverage in countries at risk; and vaccination of travellers going to yellow fever endemic areas.
People who are usually excluded from vaccination include:
- infants aged less than 9 months;
- pregnant women – except during a yellow fever outbreak when the risk of infection is high;
- people with severe allergies to egg protein; and
- people with severe immunodeficiency due to symptomatic HIV/AIDS or other causes, or who have a thymus disorder.
2. Vector control
The risk of yellow fever transmission in urban areas can be reduced by eliminating potential mosquito breeding sites, including by applying larvicides to water storage containers and other places where standing water collects.
Historically, mosquito control campaigns successfully eliminated Aedes aegypti, the urban yellow fever vector, from most of Central and South America. However, Aedes aegypti has re-colonized urban areas in the region, raising a renewed risk of urban yellow fever. Mosquito control programmes targeting wild mosquitoes in forested areas are not practical for preventing jungle (or sylvatic) yellow fever transmission.
Personal preventive measures such as clothing minimizing skin exposure and repellents are recommended to avoid mosquito bites. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets is limited by the fact that Aedes mosquitos bite during the daytime.
3. Epidemic preparedness and response
WHO recommends that every at-risk country have at least one national laboratory where basic yellow fever blood tests can be performed. A confirmed case of yellow fever in an unvaccinated population is considered an outbreak. A confirmed case in any context must be fully investigated. Investigation teams must assess and respond to the outbreak with both emergency measures and longer-term immunization plans.
- Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed, McGraw-Hill
- Davidson’s Principles and Practise of Medicine, 17th ed, 1996, Churchill Livingstone
- New Manual of Homeopathic Materia Medica & Repertory, William Boericke, 2nd revised ed., 2001, B. Jain