Homeopathy and Acupuncture as Bioinformatics Sciences : A Proposal for the Recognition of the Existence of a Law of Nature –The Law of Therapeutic Neuromodulation

ABSTRACT

The brain and CNS are an organs similar to a computer and is the ultimate director of the body. This means that organs, tissues and cells are under its control and that these parts of the body do not control what happens to them. If the brain is functioning properly, we have health; and if it works wrongly a disease will show. Acting on the brain by neuromodulation, by means of acupuncture, homeopathy or even allopathic drugs can produce a therapeutic response. The purpose of this paper is to recognize this effect and propose the recognition that there is a Law of Cure which explains how several medical systems work. In this theory, homeopathy and acupuncture work by stimulating peripheral sensory receptors and transmitting information to the brain which in turn will trigger a curative response to the affected organ. In this sense, acupuncture is an informatics-cybernetic system for a biological system, and therefore it could be considered part of the informatics sciences, in the same way that the brain is a living computer which has inputs and outputs and controls all processes inside the body. In this paper we present the basis for this theory.

Keywords- homeopathy, acupuncture, bioinformatics, Central Nervous System, computer, brain, therapeutic, neuromodulation, Law of Nature

INTRODUCTION

A brief introduction to Science and the Laws of Nature

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the natural world. Science also is about synthesis, confronting thesis and antithesis in a dialectic fashion, creating new theories based on apparently conflicting ideas. Eventually, some theories are elevated to the status of laws of nature, as they become a theoretical principle deduced from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present [1]. In physics, chemistry and mathematics we have several laws (i.e. laws of motion, of electromagnetism and gravitation, the laws of energy (thermodynamics) and heat transfer, the gas laws and the laws of aerodynamics [2]). There are several Laws that apply to physiology, for example, the Law of Facilitation, Arndt-Schultz Law, Davis’ Law, Reciprocal Inhibition, All or Non, Weber’s Law, Pflugger’s Law, etc. However, in medicine, very few Laws of Cure have been proposed. In fact, western (orthodox) medicine does not recognize a single law other than the laws of nature previously discussed.

On the other hand, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has a series of laws that direct the actions of the physician, both during diagnosis and treatment. In homeopathic medicine the Law of Similars (similia similibus curentur, proposed by Samuel Hahnemann in 1810, states that any substance that can produce a disease in a healthy individual will cure a person presenting the same symptoms when given in a potentized form [3]. Another Law of Cure, about the progression of disease and of the healing processes, was presented by Constantine Hering in 1833 [4], which states that: (1) symptoms will reverse in chronological order to how symptoms originally appeared, (2) symptoms will reverse from above to below and from the inside to the outside, and (3) from the most important to the least important organ. This law is also used by acupuncturists, and predicts the progression of the healing process accompanied by a therapeutic aggravation, which can be roughly simplified as “it will get worse before it gets better” [5].

Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine

Acupuncture is an alternative medicine system originated in ancient China that treats patients by manipulating thin solid needles which are inserted into acupuncture points in the skin (acupoints). According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the stimulation of these points can correct imbalances in the flow of energy (qi) through specific channels (meridians)[6].In TCM, disease is perceived as a disharmony (or imbalance) in the functions and interactions of yin and yang and a reduction in the qi [7]. Diagnosis is based on inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, palpation and examination of tongue and pulse [8]. Acupuncture therapy is generally complemented by other therapies, such as moxibustion, which is the use of moxa, or burning mugwort herb, to stimulate specific acupoints [9].

The insertion of the needles is performed rapidly through the superficial layers of the skin with very little pain, as can be observed during acupuncture treatment of veterinary patients [10]. Stimulation of the acupoints is performed either through variable influences of the needles or by electroacupuncture as well as by injection of drugs, vitamins or herbal extracts [11].  Therapeutic uses of acupuncture which have been approved by the World Health Organization include pain relief, nausea and vomiting, fertility and childbirth, although there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is beneficial in other conditions [12]. Placebo effect in humans is a common controversy but it should be ruled out in veterinary acupuncture, as systematic review of clinical trials shows no compelling evidence to reject or recommend acupunctural treatment in domestic animals [13].

According to scientific research, no histological or physiological structures correlate to these principles [14], however, it is a subject of serious research by governmental agencies [15]. Several theories about the mechanisms underlying pain relief are related to an increased release of endorphins, serotonin, norepinephrine or GABA [16]. For example, Yoshimoto et al. (2006)., discovered that acupuncture stimulates the release of serotonin, but not dopamine, in rats [17]. Most of these theories and counter-theories are based on the premise that cure is produced at a local level, and only very lately, new theories about the role of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and specifically about the neuromodulation of disease, have emerged, [18]. Previous publications of the author describing the CNS as a cybernetic, self-regulatory system, in charge of both controlling health and disease, have raised interest and expectations in the medical and scientific community [19].  The informatics-cybernetic conceptualization applied to medicine, synthesized in this document, is a simplification of the understanding of what health, disease, and cure are from a purely physiologic point of view. In this context, for example, “disease is a CNS dysfunction” but then, it should be also true that “health is a CNS function”.

Therapeutic Bioinformatics and Neuromodulation

Although bioinformatics is generally regarded as the use of computer science to facilitate research in molecular biology, a broader view of bioinformatics should include the use of information and systems theory to understand health and disease. Of special interest is the input of sensory stimuli, data processing and output of biological responses coordinated by the CNS, an organ similar to a computer.

Acupuncture, in making the CNS react with its various methods and media, uses the “acupoints” in a way that resembles the way we handle information and correlate media in the mechanical-electronic-brain computers with the keyboard or by means of tactile media, like “touching the screen” or “clicking in the mouse”. Acupuncture uses insertion of needles, digital pressure and energies (photonic energy, LASER and heat) to produce an input of information, as one does in computers. When we stimulate a specific acupoint, a nervous impulse is transmitted towards the CNS, which receives the impulse, processes it and reacts accordingly. According to the type of disease treated, either due to a reduction in its metabolism or to a degenerative disease or an increase in the metabolic activity of an organ (inflammation, neoplasia), two basic types of reactions can be expected. Stimulation of a group of acupoints can in turn stimulate the CNS to trigger a positive feedback mechanism that will reactivate the organ, or, on the other hand, another group of acupoints will produce a negative feedback mechanism, regulating the excessive reactivity of an organ or system. In both cases, the process of health was controlled by the CNS and was not a local, isolated, event.

Inflammation is part of a complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Although it is correctly regarded as part of the healing process, orthodox medical treatment is generally focused on suppressing it with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSIADs) and steroids (cortisol and its derivates). By acting on the organism as a whole, and not only locally, acupuncture, homeopathy and herbal treatments, are used to control, rather than to inhibit, the inflammatory response by stimulating it via the CNS, through neuromodulation.

In understanding acupuncture in this way, we may call it bioinformatics. Also we see that each and every health science that is based on  cybernetics-informatics systems of the living organisms are bioinformatics. For example, psychotherapy, which tries to modify the workings of the mind (a CNS function) through reprocessing of a person’s thoughts, also uses the neuromodulation capacity of the organism, producing changes in conduct and psychosomatic manifestations. Even chemical drugs used as a support for psychiatric therapy use neuromodulation as a mechanism of action.

Also, the placebo effect is another neuromodulation healing process where the patient takes a pill believing it has a real therapeutic effect (input), processes the information in the CNS and produces a healing or therapeutic effect (output).

DISCUSSION

The CNS is Responsible for Health

There is common consensus in the scientific community that the CNS is responsible for running the organism as a whole. This means that health, keeping the economy properly functioning, is its obligation and that is what it does. If we look at this from another point of view, we understand that the other organs are not responsible for their proper functioning, their health, because, as we just saw, such responsibility is the brain’s. Thus, neither the heart nor the liver or any other organs are the architects of their own destiny; it is the brain. The same happens with tissues and cells. For example, the elements that require chemical energy for muscle function, synthesized by the liver, are carried by the circulatory system, which is the responsibility of the CNS. And for the liver to function correctly it needs a number of variables that are only controlled by the brain and in no way by the liver itself. Consider any other organ and it will be the same picture.

The CNS is Responsible for Sickness

The conclusion of this series of events is that the organs are not responsible for their disease and that this issue resides in the brain. This concept does not apply in cases in which the body is affected by external agents such as toxins, or energies like electricity or heat. So, disease is a reflex of a dysfunction of the brain.

The CNS is Responsible for the Healing Process

In this context we can suggest that the healing process is also the responsibility of the CNS and not an independent process of each organ, tissue or cell. Most notably the cell, by virtue of her staple constituent of tissues and organs, does not have any control command. In fact, cells can be regarded as babies who need to be provided everything they need and eliminate what is harmful to them, and this is an exclusive task of the CNS, and that is what acupuncture does.

In a recent study, Prahlad and Morimoto (2011) found that neuronal cells of C. elegans respond differently to acute stress such as heat shock and chronic stress caused by the expression of misfolded proteins, suggesting that neuronal signaling determines the course of cellular proteotoxicity [20].

Thesis, Antithesis and Synthesis

As an antithesis to previous medical paradigms, where the CNS controls only homeostasis but not disease, our personal point of view is that the CNS also controls disease. Synthesis of both theories suggests that the CNS is responsible for health, disease and cure. Acting on the brain, acupuncture can heal organs, tissues and cells, which is definitely proven in clinical research and this is precisely the mechanism by which this therapy works. This new theory provides a new medical and physiological paradigm: that acupuncture (and other medical therapies) actually work through neuromodulation.

Acupuncture proved by neuromodulation

Neuromodulation by acupuncture has been proven through experimentation using imaging technologies, such as fMRI, PET and SPECT. Hui et al. (2000) evaluated how acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain using fMRI studies in normal subjects [21]. Lewith et al. (2005) reviewed research involving acupuncture using brain imaging techniques in order to show the specific areas of the brain influenced when acupuncture was used [22].

The current state of knowledge regarding the effect of acupuncture therapy on humans and animals suggests that specific areas of the brain are influenced when acupuncture is used. Additional papers on acupuncture neuromodulation: can be found at several websites (i.e. http://www.equimagenes.com/index.php/resonancia-pet-acupuntura). Dhond et al. (2007) reviewed several neuroimaging techniques at the moment where acupuncture treatment was performed [23]. For example, different central manifestations were found if electroacupuncure was applied at analgesic and non-analgesic acupoints in rats [24]. Also, Yan et al. (2005) found specific fMRI patterns in human brain triggered by stimulation of special acupoints [25]. Woo et al. (2006) demonstrated in double-blind trials stimulation or inhibition of brain function by the use electroacupuncture [26]. Similar results were obtained by Kong et al. (2002), however different brain networks were activated when using manual or electroacupuncture stimulation of acupoints in normal subjects [27]. All data points at the possibility that acupuncture works by stimulating the CNS and then it is up to the brain and other CNS structures to produce a healing process.

Homeopathic Neuromodulator Verifications

Dr. Devendra Kumar MD from India has conducted a study [[1]] in which he found evidence that homeopathic medicines produce some change in the physiological variability, which means that the homeopathic remedy acts on the brain and the hypothalamus, directly.

“Homeopathic medicines of 200c potency are applied orally to human subjects. ‘Physiological variability in temperature’ from skin of forearm is measured with the help of temperature data logger and water/soil temperature sensor. Temperature readings are taken at an interval of 1 second for 5 minutes. Time series spectral analysis is performed by using statistical processing software. The statistical procedures like Auto Regressive Spectrum (ARS) and Parametric Prediction and Reconstruction (PPR) are used to study the change in temperature variability. There is marked change in temperature variability after applied homeopathic medicine.
The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System. It synthesizes and secretes neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian cycles. So, one of the regulatory fuctions of the Hypothalus, ‘Thermoregulation in human subjects’ is understood as a primary subject to understand the action of homeopathic medicine. The parameter “Physiological variability in human body temperature” (Vital Heat) is selected for the study.

The following studies were made by Dr. Nirmal C. Sukul et al [[2]]:

1.-Sukul, N.C. Bhattacharyya, B and Bala, S.K.1985. Influence of homeopathic drugs on neurotransmitter systems. Sci.CuIt.51: 161-163.
2. Sukul,N.C, Bala, S.K. and Bhattacharyya, B. 1986. Prolonged cataleptogenic effects of potentized homeopathic drugs. Psychopharmacology. 89:338-339.

12. Paul, A., Sinha Babu, S.P., Sukul, N.C., Kurzina, N. and Batuev, A.S. 1992. Effect of two potentized homeopathic drugs on the hypothalamic neurons of rats on salt diet. Proc. Zool. Soc, Calcutta, 45(A): 307-310.
13. Paul, A., Sinha Babu, S.P., Sukul, N.C., Kurzina, N.P. and Batuev, A.S. 1992. Effect of a potentized homeopathic drag (sic), Nux vomica on alcoholic rats and their hypothalamic neurons. Proc. Zool. Soc, Calcutta, 45(A): 311-314.

14. Sukul, N.C. 1995. Anticataleptic effect of Agaricus muscarius at ultra high dilutions. Ind. J. Physiol. Allied. Sci., 49(1): 52-58.
15. Sukul, N.C, Paul, A., Sinha Babu, S.P. and Ghosh, S.1995. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice and rats suppressed by orally pre-administered potentized Agaricus. Br. Hom.J. 84(1): 6-11

38. SUKUL, N. C, BHATTACHARYYA, B. and BALA, S. K 1985. Influence of homeopathic drugs on neurotransmitter systems. Sci.& Cult. 51: 161-163.

52. SUKUL. N.C, BALA, S.K. and BHATTACHARYYA, B. 1987.  Cataleptogenic effect of a homoeopathic drug mediated only through the alimentary tract. Env Ecol. 5(3): 411-415.

Master Hahnemann knew that the homeopathic influence reaches the CNS

Now a series of observations are made to show that the informatics-cybernetic interpretation is Hahnemannian.

Organon [[3]] Paragraph § 16 Fifth Edition [[4]]

“Our vital force, as a spirit-like dynamis, cannot be attacked and affected by injurious influences on the healthy organism caused by the external inimical forces that disturb the harmonious play of life, otherwise than in a spirit-like (dynamic) way, and in like manner, all such morbid derangements (diseases) cannot be removed from it by the physician in any other way than by the spirit-like (dynamic, virtual) alterative powers of the serviceable medicines acting upon our spirit-like vital force, which perceives them through the medium of the sentient faculty of the nerves everywhere present in the organism…”

Hahnemann’s “ Chronic Diseases” [[5]] Page #45: “When the smallpox or the cowpox catches, thus happens in the moment when in vaccination the morbid fluid in the body scratch of the skin comes in contact with the exposed nerve, which then, irrevocably, dynamically communicates the disease to the vital force (to the whole nervous system) in the same moment”  Page #49 of the same book:  “As soon as the miasma of Itch,     e. g. touches the hand, in the moment when it has taken effect, it no more remains local…The nerve which was first affected by the miasma has already communicated it in an invisible manner to the nerves of the rest of the body…”

Master Hahnemann understands that the vital force is in the nerves: “which then, irrevocably, dynamically communicates the disease to the vital force (to the whole nervous system) in the same moment. Obviously he did not say “the central nervous system” because it is understood when he says “the whole nervous system”  I have no doubt that he did understand that the influence was on the CNS [[6]].   It is fundamental in the understanding of his concept of how does remedies operate, because without that neuronal influence, they do not operate.

It is important to see this is a transcendental and fundamental matter in the Hahnemannian homeopathic conception. It is about a different interpretation of the theories of the possible direct influence of the remedies in the misbalanced vital energy. Homeopathic medicines do not directly produce energy equilibrium. This equilibrium is reached through an influence in the nervous system. Taking into account Hahnemann’s genius I cannot think that he have missed the leadership role of the CNS and therefore the influence of homeopathic medicine.

Homeopathic Cellular Influence

Homeopathic medicine acts on beings with no CNS such as plants, microbes and cells. But there are profound differences between them and if the CNS is not properly functioning, those cellular actions are useless and have not a deep effect. Let’s imagine arthritis in a hand finger joint. We may apply in the joint an injection of cortisone and the cells of the area will cease to be inflamed. But at the time the cortisone effect passes on, the swelling will come back because it does not change the way the control centre, the CNS, is working. The cells don’t handle what it takes for them to swell or not to swell. This is a CNS job. Acupuncture and homeopathy do make a deep action, a true curing one, not only in the cell, because their action is on the brain.

Healing only cells is not enough if the CNS is improperly functioning. The improvement is not deep, but rather in the surface. If cells get from their environment what they need, their health is good, but if something fails, they get sick, and that medium does not depend on them but from the homeostatic mechanisms (Walter B. Cannon)  of the organism which  is mediated by the CNS.

Cellular Support and Homeopathic Action

Another cellular homeopathic possible influence is a support to the Central Nervous System. It is obvious that there are occasions in which that system needs an exterior help, and it is in those cases that chemical drugs designed to act only on cells may be useful, and it is also on those occasions that the homeopathic medicines help the CNS to fulfill its goals. Another study [[7]]  proves the neuromodulator effect of homeopathic action. “Chamomilla homeopathic dilution effect on central nervous system. A. Cristea, S. Teodorescu-negres and V. Darie.” la sal sala la salasa. Dr. José Raúl Guerrero Ramos call the attention on another research [[8]] which shows neuromodulator action (sleep patterns) of homeopathic medicines.  “Abstract “ The effects of Coffea cruda 30 and 200c and caffeine on the sleep pattern of rats were investigated.”

I.          Paolo Bellavite et al [[9]] from the Verona University:

II.         “In this work, we have reported the evidence for the effectiveness of some homeopathic remedies in controlling anxiety symptoms in animals”
Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioral and psychopathological model”

The CNS is Responsible for the Healing Process

In this context we can suggest that the healing process is also the responsibility of the CNS and not an independent process of each organ, tissue or cell. Most notably the cell, by virtue of her staple constituent of tissues and organs, does not have any control command. In fact, cells can be regarded as babies who need to be provided with everything they need and eliminate what is harmful to them, and this is an exclusive task of the CNS, and that is what homeopathy and acupuncture does.

In a recent study, Prahlad and Morimoto (2011) found that neuronal cells of C. elegans respond differently to acute stress such as heat shock and chronic stress caused by the expression of misfolded proteins, suggesting that neuronal signaling determines the course of cellular proteotoxicity [20].

We have to point out that healing is a very complex process. Each and every part of the organism takes part in it: the liver does its chemical part; lungs provide oxygen, and so on. The entire organism plays its part for a new single cell to be born, and the only organ in the body that can coordinate all that healing process is the brain.

Conclusion

Homeopathy and Acupuncture are, in a sense, bioinformatics sciences; with physiological signal processing (needles sending signals to the CNS) and the brain acts like a biological computer and produces a specific output. Cybernetic and self-regulatory mechanisms (homeostasis and homeorresis) help maintain the internal milieu and restore the health of the patient. Acupuncture and homeopathy accomplish their healing processes through an effect on the CNS, and therefore it is important to recognize that it follows a Law of Cure: “Law of Therapeutic Neuromodulation”.

REFERENCES

[1] Wikipedia (2012). Science, URL::http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science

[2] Wikipedia (2012). Laws of Nature. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laws_of_Nature

[3] Hahnemann, S. (1810) Organon of the Medical Art. Available online at: http://www.homeopathyhome.com/reference/organon/organon.html

[4] Vithoulkas G. (1980) The Science of Homeopathy. Grove Press, NY

[5] Juliano L. (1995) Laws of Cure: Getting Worse Before Getting Better. Available at: http://www.reikistudio.com/law_of_cure.pdf

[6] Maciocia, G. (1989) The Foundations of Chinese Medicine: A Comprehensive Text for Acupunturists and Herbalists, Second Edition. Churchil Livingston, Edinburgh.

[7] Kaptchuk, T.J. (2000) The Web That Has No Weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine. Contemporary Books, McGraw-Hill, NY.

[8] Tietao, D. (2004) Practical Diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Translated by Ergil, M. & Sumei, Y. Churchil Livingston, Edinburgh.

[9] Xin-Nong, C. (2010) Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 3rd Ed. Foreign Languages Press, China.

[10] Xie, H. and Preast, V. (2007) Xie’s Veterinary Acupuncture, Blackwell Publishing Professional, Iowa, USA.

[11] Aung, S.K.H. and Chen, WPD. (2006) Clinical Introduction to Medical Acupuncture, Thieme Medical Publishers, NY.

[12] WHO (1997) Acupuncture Review and Analysis of Reprots on Controlled Clinical Trials. WHO Consultation on Acupuncture. World Health Organization. Available at:

[13] Habacher, G., Pittler, M.H. and Ernst, E. (2008) Effectiveness of Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine: Systematic Review. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 20 (3) 480-488. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb02885.x/pdf

[14] Singh S. and Ernest, E. (2008) Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts About Alternative Medicine. Bantam Books, UK.

[15] National Institutes of Health (1997) Acupuncture. NIH Consensus Statement 1997 Nov 3-5; 15(5):1-34.

[16] Omura, Y. (1989) Connections found between each meridian (heart, stomach, triple burner, etc.) & organ representation area of corresponding internal organs in each side of the cerebral cortex; release of common neurotransmitters and hormones unique to each meridian and corresponding acupuncture point & internal organ after acupuncture, electrical stimulation, mechanical stimulation (including shiatsu), soft laser stimulation or QI Gong. Acupuncture & Electrotherapeutics Research 14(2):155-186.

[17] Yoshimoto, K., Fukuda, F., Hori, M., Kato, B., Kato, H., Hattori, H., Tokuda, N., Kuriyama, K., Yano, T. and Yasuhara M. (2006) Acupuncture stimulates the release of serotonin, but not dopamine, in the rat nucleus accumbens. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 208(4):321-326.

[18] International Neuromodulation Society (URL: http://www.neuromodulation.com/) which has an indexed Journal: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface

[19] Zuno Arce, A.A. (2005) Homeopatía e Informática: Bioinformática: Manejo curativo de la computadora-cerebro Guadalajara, México

[20] Prahlad, V. and Morimoto, R.I., (2011) Neuronal circuitry regulates the response of Caenorhabditis elegans to misfolded proteins. Available at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/08/10/1106557108.abstract.

[21] Hui, K.K., Liu, J., Makris, N., Gollub, R.L., Chen, A.J., Moore, C.I., Kennedy, D.N., Rosen, B.R. and Kwong, K.K. (2000). Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: evidence from fMRI studies in normal subjects. Human Brain Mapping, 9(1):13-25.

[22] Lewith, G.T., White, P.J. and Pariente, J. (2005) Investigating Acupuncture Using Brain Imaging Techniques: The Current State of Play. eCAM 2005; 2(3)315-319. Advanced Access Publication 10 August 2005.

[23] Dhond, R.P., Kettner, N. and Napadow, V. (2007). Neuroimaging acupuncture effects in the human brain. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, (6):603-616.

[24] Chiu, J.H., Chung, M.S., Cheng, H.C., Yeh, T.C., Hsieh, J.C., Chang, C.Y., Kuo, W.Y., Cheng, H. and Ho, L.T. (2003) Different central manifestations in response to electroacupuncture at analgesic and nonanalgesic acupoints in rats: a manganese-enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, (2):94-101.

[25] Yan, B., Li, K., Xu, J., Wang, W., Li, K., Liu, H., Shan, B. and Tang, X. (2005) Acupoint-specific fMRI patterns in human brain. Neuroscience Letters, 383(3):236-240

[26] Woo, Y.M., Lee, M.S., Nam, Y., Cho, H.J. and Shin, B.C. (2006) Effects of contralateral electroacupuncture on brain function: a double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(8):813-815.

[27] Kong, J., Ma, L., Gollub, R.L., Wei, J., Yang, X., Li, D., Weng, X., Jia, F., Wang, C., Li, F., Li, R. and Zhuang, D. (2002) A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain during manual and electroacupuncture stimulation of acupuncture point (LI-4 Hegu) in normal subjects reveals differential brain activation between methods. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 8(4):399-401.

 


[[2]]

[[3]]

[[5]] Indian books and periodicals syndicate. Vol. 1 http://www.homeoint.org/books/hahchrdi/hahchr03.htm#P30

[[6]] http://www.historiadelamedicina.org/willis.htm Thomas Willis, creator of the term “Neurology” (1621-1675) since then the CNS was known.

[[7]]  Chamomilla homeopathic dilution effect on central nervous system. A. Cristea, S. Teodorescu-negres and V. Darie.

About the author

Andres Amado Zuno

Andres Amado Zuno

Andres Amado Zuno Arce is Associate Professor of the "Universidad Candegabe de Homeopatía" Argentina, and also of the "Escuela de Homeopatía del Instituto Hahnemanniano Internacional" also from Argentina. He is author of two books about homeopathy: "Homeopatía e Informática" and "Acupuntura y Homeopatía.

About the author

Carlos Haubi-Segura

Departamento de Disciplinas Pecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México

3 Comments

  • Interesting article. However the CNS is the physical channel for the flow of the vital force, not where the vital force originates. Just in case that is what you were saying.
    The idea of principles and laws is certain to reveal many more truths in science, medicine, theology and all areas of enquiry will be based on furthering our knowledge of these principles.

  • We have a mistake, instead of writing “The brian is an organ…” we wrote “The brain and CNS are an organs…” We mixed singular with plural. Sorry.
    The brain and CNS are an organs similar to a computer and is the ultimate director of the body.

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