Homeopathy Repertory

Delusion and Repertory

Dr. Rajeev Saxena discusses delusions and gives examples from various repertories. The delusions include those of grandeur, infidelity, self-accusation, poverty and religious delusions.

Abstract:

Delusions are false beliefs, firmly held by the patient, even in the face of clear evidence that they are untrue. There are various theories and explanations for delusion formation and our repertories contain abundant rubrics regarding delusion which are important in individualization.

Definition:

“There is no delusional idea held by the mentally ill which cannot be exceeded in its absurdity by the conviction of fanatics, either individually or en masse”…Hoche.

Delusion is false belief based upon a misinterpretation of reality. It is not, like a hallucination, a false sensory perception, or like an illusion, a distorted perception. Delusions vary in intensity, and are not uncommon among substance abusers, particularly those who use amphetamines, cocaine, and hallucinogens. They also occur frequently among individuals who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, or Schizophrenia, and during the manic stage of bipolar disorder. 1

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV), defines a delusion as:  A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everybody else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.

According to Dr. R. Sankaran:

“There is one large but little used portion of the “Mind” chapter in our Repertory. This is the section on “Delusions. Delusions are feelings which are not fully based on facts, but they are feelings nevertheless. The difference between delusions and feelings is that delusions are exaggerated, more fixed and often expressed in terms of images.” (The Spirit of Homoeopathy)

We cannot always find the rubric readily in the Repertory. Often, we have to search among various rubrics – including the ones under “Fears”, “Sadness”, etc.  Indeed, we may have to search in the whole “Mind” chapter to find a remedy with the same delusion, or its equivalent feeling.

“Disease is a restriction of vision; it is a narrow way of looking at things. Only awareness of this delusion can remove it, just as light removes darkness. Delusion disappears only with awareness. Much of what meditation, philosophy and psychoanalysis have to do with is creating awareness of a person’s false perception of the present. Homoeopathy is also based on this. Awareness of your delusion is created by the remedy by putting you in touch with the original situation from which this delusion came. Thus, it is based on the same truth: Disease is delusion, awareness is cure.” (Sankaran, 1992, p.30)

“…I have tried to bring out the innermost feelings of the remedy and it is not easy to discover these in patients other than by artistic case-taking which delves deeply into such things as the patient’s delusions, dreams, hobbies, etc. What appears on the surface might be quite different from what is actually inside…” (Soul of Remedies).

Types of Delusion:

  1. Grandeur
  2. Persecutory delusions
  3. Delusion of reference
  4. Delusion of infidelity
  5. Delusion of self-accusation
  6. Nihilistic delusion
  7. Hypochondriacal delusion
  8. Religious delusion
  9. Delusion of poverty
  10.  Erotomania
  11. Mixed

Delusion Descriptions 1

  1. Grandeur:

A person with this type of delusional disorder has an over-inflated sense of worth, power, abilities, knowledge, or identity. The person might believe he or she has a great talent or has made an important discovery. Sometimes, the individual may actually believe that he or she is a famous person (for example, a rock star or Christ). More commonly, a person with this delusion believes he or she has accomplished some great achievement for which they have not received sufficient recognition.

These types of delusion are seen in delirium tremens.

Example –

  • DELUSIONS, great person, is (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, identity, errors of personal (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, God  he is, then he is devil (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, goose, that he is a (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, head belongs to another (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Persecutory delusions:

These are the most common type of delusions and involve the theme of being followed, harassed, cheated, poisoned or drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or obstructed in the pursuit of goals.

Example-

  • DELUSIONS, poisoned, thought he has been (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, injury injured, is being (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, injury injured, is being  surroundings, by his (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, insulted, thinks he is (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, persecuted, that he is (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Delusion of reference:

The person believes that people, things, events, etc., refer to him in a special way. He believes that even strangers in the street are looking at him and are talking about him, or items in the radio or newspapers are referring to him.

 

Example –

  • DELUSIONS, rowdies, brawlers, will break in when she is alone (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, watched, that she is being (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, sees, thinks someone else sees for him (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Delusion of Infidelity:

A person with this type of delusional disorder falsely believes that his or her spouse or lover is having an affair and believes that his or her sexual partner is unfaithful. The patient may follow the partner; check text messages, emails, phone calls etc. in an attempt to find “evidence” of the infidelity.

Example –

  • DELUSIONS, wife faithless, is
    • Will run away from him (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Delusion of self-accusation:

This is a false feeling of remorse or guilt of delusional intensity. For example, a person may believe that he or she has committed some horrible crime and should be punished severely. Another example is a person who is convinced that he or she is responsible for some disaster (such as fire, flood, or earthquake) with which there can be no possible connection.

Example-

  • DELUSIONS, crime committed, he had(complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, crime about to committed a (Kent’s Repertory)
    • As if he had committed (Kent’s Repertory))
  • DELUSIONS, criminal, that he is a (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, wrong , fancies he has done (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, wrong he has done (complete Repertory)
  1. Nihilistic delusion:

A delusion whose theme centers on the non-existence of self or parts of self, others, or the world. A person with this type of delusion may have the false belief that the world is ending.

Example-

  • DELUSIONS, alone  castaway, being a (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, devils he is a, that (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, asylum, that she will be sent to (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, belong to her own family, does not (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, deserted, forsaken (Kent’s Repertory))
  1. Hypochondriacal delusion:

A person with this type of delusional disorder believes that he or she has a physical defect or medical problem. Usually the false belief is that the body is somehow diseased, abnormal, or changed. An example of a somatic delusion would be a person who believes that his or her body is infested with parasites.

Example-

  • DELUSIONS, sick he is (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, sick, imagines himself (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, liver disease, he will have (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, disease  incurable, has (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, health, he has ruined his (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, heart diseases, is going to have, and die (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Religious delusion:

Any delusion with a religious or spiritual content. These may be combined with other delusions, such as grandiose delusions (the belief that the affected person is a god or chosen to act as a god).

Example-

  • DELUSIONS,  God that he is in communication with (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, God  presence of God, that he is in the (Complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, heaven, is in (Kent’s Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, Christ, thinks himself to be (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Delusion of poverty:

The person strongly believes that he is financially incapacitated.

Example-

  • DELUSIONS, poor, he is (complete Repertory)
  • DELUSIONS, thinks he is poor (Kent’s Repertory)
  • FEAR , poverty (Kent’s Repertory)
  • FEAR, failure, of, in business (Kent’s Repertory)
  1. Erotomania:

A delusion in which one believes that another person, usually someone of higher status, is in love with him or her. It is common for individuals with this type of delusion to attempt to contact the desired person (through phone calls, letters, gifts, and sometimes stalking).

  1. Mixed:

People with this type of delusional disorder have two or more of the types of delusions listed above.

REPERTORY IN DELUSION:

Delusion and Illusion in Kent are given under one rubric and all sub rubrics are mixed alphabetically. Illusion under vision and hearing is given as one small section and under nose, imaginary and real are mixed under one rubric.  Kent devotes nearly 15 pages to the rubric “Delusion” under mind. In BBCR, we find hardly two pages devoted to delusion, but illusions are given much more details in subsections like –

Eye – vision – illusion

Ear – hearing – illusion

Nose – smell – illusion of.

Phatak’s Repertory contains only one rubric for delusion (delusions, see imaginations, perception changed)

Knerr’s repertory, Synthesis repertory & Complete repertory contain many rubrics regarding delusion.

Repertory of Homeopathic Materia Medica by Dr. James Tyler Kent:

Delusion in MIND Chapter (pg. no. 20-35)

  • Alone, that she is always (20)
    • she is, in the world (20)
  • Arrested, is about to be (21)
  • Beautiful (21)
  • Bed, as if some one was in, with him (21)
  • Business, fancies is doing (22)
  • Crime, as if he had committed 923)
  • Criminal, that he is a (23)
  • Criminals, about (23)
  • Deserted, forsaken (23)
  • Die, thought he was about to (23)
  • Disease, that he has every (24)
  • Divided into two parts (24)
  • Double, of being (24)
  • Engaged in some occupation, is (24)
  • Floating in air (26)
  • Great person, is (26)
  • Home, think is away from (27)
  • House is full of people (27)
  • Identity, errors of personal (27)
  • Injury, is about to receive (28)
    • is being injured (28)
  • Insane that she will become (28)
  • Murdered, that he would be (29)
  • Neglected his duty, that he has (30)
  • Persecuted, that he is (30)
  • Poisoned, thought he had been (31)
    • that he was about to be (31)
  • Poor, think he is (31)
  • Pursued, thought he was (31)
    • enemies, by (31)
    • police, by (31)
  • Sick, imagines himself (32)
  • Strange, everything is (33)
    • familiar things seem (33)
  • Talking, as with dead people (33)
  • Unfortunate, that he is (34)
  • Wife is faithless (35)
  • Wrong, fancies he has done (35)

Synthetic Repertory (H. Barthel):

Delusion (pg. no. 229-387) in Volume I

  • Bed, hard too (241)
    • over it someone is (242)
    • someone is in bed with him (242)
    • strange objects, rats, sheep in (242)
  • Blood, does not circulate well (245)
  • Brain, has softening (250)
    • fear of cracking is (250)
    • hard is (250)
  • Confusion, others will observe her (257)
  • Crime, about to commit a (259)
    • committed a, he had (260)
  • Criminal, he is a (260)
    • and other know it (260)
    • executed, to be (260)
  • Criminals, about (260)
  • Deserted, forsaken, is (264)
  • Die, he was about to (267)
    • time has come to (267)
  • Disease, he has every (269)
    • incurable, has (269)
  • Fall, everything will (282)
  • Floating, in air (289)
  • Heart disease, having an (300)
    • is going to have and die (300)
    • stop beating when sitting (301)
  • Home, thinks is at, when not (303)
    • away from is (303)
    • away from, must get there (303)
  • House, is full of people (304)
  • Injury, is about to receive (311)
    • injured, is being (311)
    • surroundings, by his (311)
  • Murdered, he will be (324)
  • People, behind him, someone is (333)
    • converses with absent (333)
  • Poisoned, he has been (337)
    • he is about to be (337)
  • Poor, he is (338)
  • Pregnant, she is (339)
  • Religious (343)
  • Sick, being (348)
  • Space, between brain and skull, there is empty (353)
  • Superiority, of (362)
  • Swollen, he is (362)
  • Time, exaggeration of, passes too slowly (368)
    • Seems earlier, passes too quickly (368)
  • Wealth, of (382)
  • Wrong, he has done (386)

Repertory of Hering’s Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica (Dr. Calvin B. Knerr):

Delusion in MIND AND DISPOSITION (pg. no. 33-38)

  • Delusion, that he has lost affection of friends (33)
  • Delusion, of possession of beautiful things(33)
  • Delusion, behind, imagines someone (33)
  • Delusion catches at imaginary appearance (34)
  • Delusion, thinks himself a young child (34)
  • Delusion, damned (34)
  • Delusion, dead, thinks she is nearly dead and wishes somebody would help her off (34)
  • Delusion, demon, thinks himself a (34)
    • thinks all person are (34)
  • Delusion, disease, imagines he has every (34)
    • he will give his imaginary disease (syphilis) (34)
    • that he will have yellow fever (34)
  • Delusion, he will have a fit, when walking, makes him walks faster (35)
  • Delusion, surrounded by friends (35)
  • Delusion, when holding head down, as if she had a large goiter which she could not see over (35)
  • Delusion, caused by grief and anger (35)
  • Delusion, he is driving a horse (35)
  • Delusion, her husband is not her husband, and her child not her child (35)
  • Delusion, he is neglected (36)
  • Delusion, she swallowed pins (36)
  • Delusion, pregnant, after menses (36)
    • when she is only swollen with flatus (36)
  • Delusion, religious (36)
  • Delusion, rich, makes useless purchases (36)
  • Delusion, as if soul and body were separated (37)
  • Delusion, starvation, he and his family will die of (37)
    • must starve (37)
  • Delusion thinks she is under superhuman control (37)
  • Delusion, of being under influence of a superior power (37)
  • Delusion, is tall: and surrounding object small (37)
  • Delusion, of tetanus: must die, with pain in right leg (37)
  • Delusion, she cannot think (37)
  • Delusion, he has an ulcer in stomach (37)
  • Delusion, of various things (37)
  • Delusion, witches (37)
  • Delusion, his wife will run away from him (37)
  • Delusion, he does everything wrong (38)

Boenninghausen characteristics & repertory (Dr. C. M. Boger):

  • Thieves delusion of: (4)

Concise repertory of homoeopathic medicines (Dr. S. R. Phatak)

  • Imaginations, (illusions, fancies, delusions) (30)

Cara pro.v1.4 (Complete Repertory):

  • Delusions, (444)
  • Delusions, afternoon, that it is always (2)
  • Delusions, animals, of (84)
  • Delusions, anxious (11)
  • Delusions, arrested about to be (10)
  • Delusions, assembled things, swarms, crowds etc. (21)
  • Delusions, beautiful, wonderful (17)
  • Delusions, bed someone in, with him (14)
  • Delusions, blood ceased to flow, in vertigo (1)
  • Delusions, body, body parts absent (1)
  • Delusions, body, body parts enlarged (12)
  • Delusions, body, body parts head enlarged, is (18)
  • Delusions, calls someone (18)
  • Delusions, criminal, that he is a (31)
  • Delusions, criticized, that she is (15)
  • Delusions, dark of (7)
  • Delusions, dead  he is (14)
  • Delusions, dead  persons, sees (62)
  • Delusions, devils he is a, that (6)
  • Delusions, die  about to he is (68)
  • Delusions, doomed, being (23)
  • Delusions, double he is (32)
  • Delusions, falling he is (33)
  • Delusions, floating in air (63)
  • Delusions, god  communication with, that he is in (3)

References:

1 https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/psychology/psychology-and-psychiatry/delusions

Bibiliography

  1. Devidson’s Principles And Practice Of Medicine 21th Edition.
  2. Harrison’s Principles Of Internal Medicine, 20th Edition.
  3. Golwala’s Medicine For Students 17th
  4. Api Textbook Of Medicine 9th
  5. Boenninghausen Characteristics & Repertory By Dr. C.M. Boger.
  6. The Repertory Of Homoeopathic Materia Medica By Dr. J.T. Kent.
  7. Repertory Of Hering’s Guiding Symptoms Of Our Materia Medica By Dr. Calvin B. Knerr.
  8. Concise Repertory Of Homoeopathic Medicines By Dr. S.R.Phatak.
  9. Synthesis Repertory Volume 1.
  10. Complete Repertory Cara Pro.V1.4.
  11. The Spirit Of Homoeopathy By Rajan Sankaran.

About the author

Rajeev Saxena

Rajeev Saxena

Prof. Dr. Rajeev Saxena is a senior homoeopathic physician practicing homoeopathy for 25 years. He completed his Bachelor and Masters in Homoeopathic Science from the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and did his masters in Repertory. For the last 17 years he has worked as Professor, HoD, PG and PhD guide in the Department of Repertory at S. K. Homoeopathic Medical College and Research Centre, Jaipur. He has tremendous enthusiasm and passion for homoeopathy, more especially studying the repertory keenly and in great detail. He participated in various seminars, workshops and conferences related to homoeopathy and repertory. He has been awarded and honored in the field of health, homoeopathy and social services by various foundations and institutions.

1 Comment

  • Many Thanks! Dr. Saxena for the article.
    Article is very informative and educative.

    From:-
    Dr. P. S. Sinha
    Author: (1) Psychic Disorders and Homoeopathy
    (2) Manovaigyanik Vikritian aur Homoeopathy (Hindi)
    etc. etc

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