Scientific Research

Aqueous Dilutions in Centesimal Scale Form Solute-Specific Structures

To explain how homeopathic remedies potentized beyond Avogadro’s number convey healing information, Prof C.R. Mahata posits that aqueous dilutions in the centesimal scale form solute-specific structures. The explanation relies on the concepts of Coherent Domains (CD) and Dissipative Structures (DS) predicted by Quantum Electrodynamics (QED )5 Verification by three research methods is referenced.


Succussed serial dilutions (SSD) of solutes in water surpassing the Avogadro limit are unlikely to have even traces of starting materials and hence, medicinal value. Even so, the literature carries credible reports of their curative powers contrary to tenets of conventional science.

The present paper aims at reconciliation of these two conflicting issues by a theory based on Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) followed by experimental reports. The conclusion is: The solute-specific energy level of dissipative structures formed in water seem to carry solute-information in homeopathic potencies. Gross presence of solute material is not mandatory.

1. Introduction

‘Water is potentially medicine; water cures diseases; water is medicine for all diseases; Let water serve as medicines for you’ – this is the translation of a Rigvedic verse1.

We do not know how our ancient sages arrived at this conclusion, but we observe with wonder that modern science is now approaching this concept2-4. In this background, this article tries to give a comprehensive picture in simple language.

We feel that proof of homeopathy is necessary not only for addressing the sceptics’ doubts but also for greater benefit for all living beings, keeping in mind that now homeopathic treatment covers lower animals and plants also.

Extremely diluted homeopathic medicines are chemically nothing but water. Even so, they cure diseases, implying that they have medicinal value. It resonates with the utterance of Rigveda stated above.

But, how can we explain the potential medicinal value of water?  People of this century are not ready to accept Vedic statements unquestioningly. They want scientific proof. As such, the problem for us is, whether water can carry any information pertaining to the solute dissolved in it but subsequently diluted away. What is the theory behind it? Can it be validated experimentally?

2. Theoretical aspect furnished in two steps.

These steps originate from Coherent Domains (CD) and Dissipative Structures (DS) predicted by Quantum Electrodynamics (QED )5.  We all know that at room temperature water exists in liquid and vapour forms simultaneously.

What is generally not known is that water can also exist at room temperature in three forms: solid, liquid and vapour. These solid structures are scientifically termed Coherent Domains (CD).

As per QED some photons from ambient electromagnetic radiation get absorbed by an ensemble of water molecules (not individual molecules) and remain trapped in it since water satisfies the density requirement for this purpose.

Photon after photon gets trapped in the volume occupied by the ensemble of molecules. This leads to build up of a large e.m. field within the volume in a short time. The oscillation of molecules between the two energy states and e,m. oscillation are phase locked.

As such, this region is called a coherent domain (CD). The prior motion of molecules, which was chaotic, now becomes coherent. The CDs have a density closely approximating the density of ordinary ice because of their orderliness.

They float in bulk water as tiny ice-like structures but really not ice, as they exist at room temperature, much above the melting point of ice. Further, the energy being trapped, the CDs have a long life time and very high persistence – being able to survive drying or lyophilisation.

It is validated experimentally. Thus, in the first step we get stable solid structures in water, which, as we shall see below, is capable of carrying solute-reminiscent information even when the initially dissolved solute is subsequently diluted away.

We note that the CDs cannot dissipate the acquired energy in a thermal way, but they can do so through ‘guest molecules’ which may be either impurities or deliberately added substance (approx one percent or less). This one percent figure is very significant for homeopathic potentisation in the centesimal scale.

Now, let us come to information transfer from the ‘guest molecules’ to the surrounding water CDs. Let, E1 be the present energy level of a guest molecule and E2, its other higher allowed energy level. When a water CD reaches the energy level E2 by absorbing energy from the environment, it resonantly transfers an energy E = (E2-E1) to the guest molecule.

In this process the water CD loses the same amount of energy and settles at energy level E1 – a level characterising the guest molecules. That is, we get an information transfer from the ‘guest molecules’ to the water CDs. Subsequently, the guest molecule can lose this energy thermally or otherwise and again participate in the information transfer process. Participation of other guest molecules is also possible. The de-excited water CDs combine together to form a super domain and these are called Dissipative Structures.

In the next stage of succussed serial dilution these dissipative structures can act as ‘new guest molecules’ and participate in energy transfer with the water CDs. The allowed energy level of the new guest molecules may not be the same as E2. Let it be E3.

Let a water CD reach this energy level by absorbing energy from the environment as before. This water CD will then resonantly transfer energy (E3-E1) to the new guest molecule. In the process, the CD will again settle at energy level E1 and form another group of dissipative structures having another allowed energy level, say E4.

The process will continue uninterruptedly. So, the guest molecules of every stage will bear the stamp of the original guest molecule through E1 with a variation of allowed energy level as E3, E4 etc. It is information transfer with variations. The dissipative structures at different stages will, therefore, get somewhat altered structures.

We may also note that up to 12c potency we will have two types of guest molecules – the solute molecules and the dissipative structures. But, beyond 12c there will be only dissipative structures.  Original solute molecules will not be necessary. As such, Avogadro’s limit will lose its relevance. This is our theory for science of homeopathy – a structural model.

3. Experimental Reports By Three Methods

First method: Here, we correlate the structural model through bond strength that is reflected in the proton resonance frequency obtained from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Change of structure will be associated with change in bond strength, which, in its turn, will be associated with change of proton resonance frequency.

We carried out experiments with Sulphur and Aurum met, both with potencies 30c, 200c and 1000c prepared in ethanol having CH3, CH2 and OH bonds6. For each of the six medicines we obtained different resonance frequencies for CH2 and OH bonds having general agreement with our theoretical concept – solute-specific structures of clusters of vehicle molecules. We also observed that the CH3 bond was so strong that it remained unaltered for all the six samples.

Second method: Here, we adopted the technique of dielectric dispersion.  It detects the size of molecular clusters of water in potentised medicines through its resonance frequency, when subjected to an electric field. Then, the size is calculated from the equation,

Medicines studied with this technique were Arnica mont and Anacardium, each in potencies 30c and 200c in ref. 7 and Cuprum met and Graphites in potencies 6c and 30c in ref. 8. Resonance frequencies of all of them were different from each other and the control (distilled water). It suggests that they had different structures.  They point to specificity of the structures of the medicine and potency.

Third method:  This is concerned with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We turned to this method for getting photographs of the solid structures predicted by QED, left after evaporation of liquid samples.

High persistence of these structures made experimental verification quite simple. The pictures obtained from AFM are more convincing9. They provide a visual proof. It is akin to identifying a person by his/her photograph. All the pictures are different from each other and from the control.

4. Conclusion

Each of the three methods suggests, in its unique way, formation of water structures specific to the starting material and potency. These structures are like allotropes of water.

In explaining this, we shifted our focus from chemical formula to physical structures containing information about medicine in potentised forms. The solute-specific energy level of dissipative structures formed in water seem to carry solute-information in homeopathic potencies. Gross presence of solute material is not mandatory.


  1. Rig Veda 10.137.6 Link:
  2. Konovalov AI, Ryzhkina IS. Reviews: Formation of nanoassociates as a key to understanding of physicochemical and biological properties of highly dilute aqueous solutions. Russ Chem Bull Int Ed 2014; 63:1-14
  3. Elia V, Germano R, Napoli E. Permanent Dissipative Structures in Water: The Matrix of Life? Experimental Evidences and their Quantum Origin. Curr Top Med Chem 2015; 15: 559-571
  4. Yinnon, TA. Liquids Prepared by Serially Diluting and Vigorously Shaking of Aqueous Solutions: Unveiling Effects of the Solute on their Properties. Water 2020; 10, 115-134, January 14, 2020 115
  5. Giudice ED and Pulselli RM. Formation of dissipative structures in liquid water. J. of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 2010; 5(1): 21–26.
  6. Mahata CR. Some studies on physical basis of homoeopathic medicines. Journal of Tech. 1983; 29(1): 27- 34.
  7. Mahata CR. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines. IE(I) Ser B, 93(4) (Dec 2012- Feb2013);: 231-235.
  8. Mahata CR. Dielectric Dispersion Studies of Some Potentised Homoeopathic Medicines Reveal Structured Vehicle. Homeopathy 2013; 102(4): 262-267.
  9. Maity T, Chakraborty A, Mahata CR. Dissipative structures in water, validated by quantum electrodynamics, are information carriers of solute through dilutions. Int J Complement Alt Med. 2019; 12(6) : 221-23.

About the author

Chitta Ranjan Mahata

Prof. Chitta Ranjan Mahata, born in 1939, obtained his B.E., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees in EE in 1961, 1964 and 1974 respectively from B.E. College, Howrah (now, IIEST Shibpur) under the academic control of Calcutta University at that time. After serving his alma mater in various capacities from 1962 he retired as Prof. of EE in 1999. In between from 1969 to 1971 he was in Moscow Power Institute for higher specialization in Control Systems through Indo-Soviet Cultural Exchange Program. Additionally, finding the science behind homoeopathy (an over two-century old challenge) has been his mission since 1965. He completed two research projects in IIEST Shibpur funded by UGC and AYUSH, Govt of India. He is also attached to NIH Kolkata, M.B.H.M.C.H Howrah, IIT Khargpur and CEM Kolaghat in an honorary way. He has more than 50 research publications including 2 books, guided 2 PhD scholars and delivered more than 30 invited lectures/seminar talks on this subject. According to Dr. Mahata, Solute-specific energy level of dissipative structures formed in water carries solute-information in homeopathic potencies. Gross presence of solute material is not mandatory.


  • Thanks. I had an idea a few decades ago after reading Benveniste and Giudice that Homeopathy could be explained as follows: Water could be considered a super-saturated solution of itself. Introducing the “mother” remedy and succussing could help form those structures you cite in your paper. A continued series of dilutions and the kinetic energy of succussions could create more and more duplicates of these structures. This would be analogous to creating rock candy from a super-saturated solution of sugar and introducing a string as a seed around which the rock candy forms.

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