Editor’s note: This month’s column featured the collaboration of Radko Tichavsky’s students of holohomeopathy, Denise Campoy Mireles (BMC Biol., Mexico) and Tatyana Nikolaeva-Drossos (MPh, Chicago US). Send your garden and crop questions to [email protected]
Radko Tichavsky is a Czech born Mexican Agrohomeopath. He is a co-founder and director of Instituto Comenius in Mexico and author of Handbook of Agrohomeopathy, 2007 (Spanish) and Homeopathy for Plants, 2009 (Spanish), Organon de la Holohomeopatía and creator and teacher of Holohomeopathy.
He is now offering a one-semester virtual course in Holohomeopathy (in English). You can learn how to define and analyze holons and how to repertorize the specific homeopathic treatment beyond just disease or pest names. You can find out more here: www.icomenius.edu.mx
NEW BOOK: Organon de la Holohomeopatía
Six years in the making, it is the latest book by Radko Tichavsky, researcher on the application of homeopathy in agriculture. This Spanish language book covers homeopathic interventions in agriculture from the holistic view, allowing greater certainty in repertorizations. It addresses a novel concept of metabolic similarity, not only among plants, but also among different species of the animal and plant kingdom. It studies the formation and dynamics of attractors, areas of greater vitality within the holons and coexistence units of different living organisms Holohomeopathy is a fascinating contribution to the application of homeopathy to plants. It allows one to discover a universe of surprising relations in vital dynamism. It puts into the hands of the agricultural producer, a valuable tool for the successful handling of pests and diseases in crops of any size. For ordering or information: [email protected]
Hello Mr. Tichavsky,
I am researching homeopathic remedies to have on hand to prevent foubrood in honeybees. What remedies would you suggest in agrohomeopathy for paenibacillus or Melissococcus plutonius?
Thanks & regards,
LeAnne Davis, DC
The foundation of homeopathic prescribing is thorough repertorisation. The question of how to treat some disease condition (as it is defined conventionally) is too broad for the choice of specific remedy.
In holohomeopathy the patient is not a specific organism, but the holon as a whole. There are 26 subspecies of Apis mellifera different in morphology and metabolic profiles; their behavior, vigor and state of health/disease change depending on various factors.
These include particular biotic and abiotic conditions: climate, weather, surrounding flora and fauna, anthropogenic factors, and the purpose and scale of your operation: commercial apiary, or smaller beekeeping. You did not indicate your location, or the size of your apiary, but we can proceed with a more general discussion, and point out potential remedies.
It is important to recognize the reasons for a pathogenic condition to arise (foulbrood in your case), and the ecological role that both the host and the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius play in the holon.
- Factors you have only some possibility to change or avoid:
Location of your apiary. The species richness of all pollinators has declined during past decades, with a few species going extinct. Massive conversion of natural areas to farmlands causes habitat loss: reduced abundance and diversity of floral resources and nesting sites.
Urbanization, building of roads and other infrastructure contribute to fragmentation of habitat, diminish biodiversity, and decrease resilience of plants and animals as a consequence. Climate change also plays a role, both directly and indirectly (driving ranges of species shift, sometimes overlaps producing new diseases).
Use of agrochemicals. All pollinators are chronically exposed to cocktails of agrochemicals. Over 160 pesticides are routinely detected in A. mellifera. Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiome of pollinators making them susceptible to pathogens. Also, exposure to neonicotionoids (including “organic” azadirachtin/neem oil) leads to immunosuppression.
Pyrethroids are toxic to all insects. Fungicides drive microbiomes of pollinators out of balance, with some species like stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis unable to pupate without its fungal symbiont. If a single stressor may not produce harm on its own, several stressors in combination can result in lethal effect.
For instance, ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicides have very low toxicity in themselves but can increase the toxicity of some neonicotinoids and pyrethroids by as much as a factor of 1000!
Effect of agrochemicals on the bee gut microbiome (BGM) is an active area of research: it is recognized that diverse community of microorganisms make A. mellifera tolerant to pathogens; many biological control strategies use probiotics. More than 8,000 microorganisms are connected to bees, with only a handful being pathogenic.
It has been suggested that Paenibacillus larvae may be a pathobiont in the native microbiota of adult worker bees (i.e., organism that can cause harm under certain circumstances). The use of oxytetracycline for P. larvae treatment has led to its widespread resistance to antibiotic.
Tylosin tartrate, a bacteriostatic antibiotic was approved to use on bees in 2005 in US. A recent study of Tylosine exposure however demonstrates that it completely represses all Gr+ strains in A. mellifera (Lactobacillus sp., Bombilactobacillus sp., and Bifidobacterium sp.); and lowered abundance of Gr- core species (Snodgrassella alvi).
- Factors you have good possibility to control:
Diversity of your holon. A. mellifera is just one of many pollinators that need to coexist in order for the holon to be resilient. All insects have important ecological roles, recycling and dispersing microorganisms within the holon through their digestive systems, exchanging chemical signals with plants, microorganisms, other insects and animals.
A. mellifera is responsible for driving out native pollinators in Australia, South America and some other parts of the world. You need to monitor wild pollinator populations in your area and try to avoid placing hives in areas with important populations of wild bees and bumblebees, because their collective foraging behavior, shared chemical signals and microbiota -including A. mellifera-is what makes them all tolerant to pathogens.
It is also very important to maintain plant diversity around your bees – increase floral availability in farmland (good for crops, too), encourage pollinator gardens and improved management of grasslands, more on plant diversity in the section on treatment options.
Diverse nectar and pollen diet has an effect on healthy bee physiology, but under pathogen challenge it becomes the matter of survival.
Avoid moving your hives around. Long distance transport of bees, as routinely occurs in North America for pollination services, places stress on the colonies. For several days, they may be confined and subjected to vibration, high temperatures, high levels of carbon dioxide. Commercial pollination restricts the bees to one or two plants they can gather nectar, pollen and resin from, which negatively affects their microbiome, their brood rearing, and the content of propolis.
Consider natural beekeeping strategies. The spread of many parasites and pathogens of A.mellifera occur inadvertently as a result of transporting pollinators long distances or using commercial apiary supplies.
Depending on the scale of your operation, you might want to consider top bar hives and “foundationless” beekeeping. The top bar hives, while less profitable as far as the amount of honey produced, confer many advantages for the bees.
They allow them to build a natural comb structure, varying the size of cells according to their need (the natural size being 4.6-5.1mm, compared to the standard worker foundation of 5.4-5.5mm, or drone foundation of 6.4-6.6mm).
They can change orientation of cells and the queen can dictate how she wants to build her nest. Top bar hives also allow for better overwintering, natural defence against Varroa destructor, easier inspection, less damage to propolis insulation, no expensive equipment, less heavy frames, and for overall natural environment for your bees.
- Specific prophylactic and treatment of Paenibacillus larvae:
Probiotic strategies. There are numerous probiotic bacteria effective in suppressing P. larvae and M. plutonius, most derived from healthy A.mellifera digestive tract or from the “bee bread” (75% pollen mixed with nectar, honey and bee saliva, which results in lactic acid fermentation that converts pollen to make it easily digestible).
A simple preparation can be made using a small amount of bee bread taken from a healthy and robust colony, blended with some boiled rice and water, allowed to ferment for 24 hours, and strained.
Take 1 part of resulting solution, 99 parts of clean chlorine-free water, make 300 vigorous succussions, repeat to take it to 3JT, and add to water station for your colonies. A weaker option (but easier to produce because you can buy the culture) is to use Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the same way making probiotic bionosode.
Lactic acid has some inhibitory effect on both pathogens, so having plants that contain it around might offer help to your bees in case of need. Borago officinalis, Datura stramonium, Digitalis purpurea, Ginkgo biloba, Helianthus annuus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Malus domestica, Nicotiana tabacum, Rubus idaeus, Rubus fructosus.
Lypophosphatidylcholine acts as a constitutive immune defense against P. larvae. It can be found in the following plants that can be planted or encouraged to grow depending on your location: Coix lacryla-job, Fagopyrum esculentum (excellent honey producing plant), Ficus carica, Theobroma cacao, Urtica dioica.
Secondary-metabolite classes of acylphloroglucinol and filicinic-acid derivatives: Hyperforin, 7-epiclusianone, Uliginosin B – each of three has stronger inhibitory action than oxytetracycline; when used together they are far superior.
Plants containing all three compounds: Hypericum sp. (H. tomentosum, H. heterophyllum, H. dolabriforme, H. canarience, H. multilum, H. scabrum, H. perforatum, H. acmosepalum, H. drummondii) in order from the strongest to the weakest inhibition; also, Humulus lupulus and Murthys communis.
In all cases it is preferable to have plants growing within the foraging range of bees, because the secondary metabolites compositions differ by location and in time. Also, besides the above mentioned compounds, there are many more with various functions within the same plants, so the bees would know better which one to choose and at what time.
Alternately, inflorescences can be used for MT, and taken to 6CH it can be sprayed over the brood area of the combs. Other plants that have only one of the three compounds, but can still be useful if planted around: Garcinia brasilensis, Rheedia gardneriana, Macropidia fuliginosa, Acacia nilotica, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia dracunculus, Fucus vesiculosus, Vaccinium corymbosum.
Propolis. It is known that A. mellifera immune pathways have a decreased number of members or paralogs as compared to other non-social insects. Among the behavioral mechanisms that probably compensate for this loss is so-called social immunity. One example is harvesting phytochemical-rich plant resins and mixing them with wax to be used to prevent unwanted pathogens inside colonies.
Propolis is a complex mixture of biologically active terpenes, terpenoids, and phenols, up to 300 different compounds within a resin sample. Recent research has shown propolis extracts to have biological activity against P. larvae and M. plutonius.
Foragers select specific sources, relying on volatile compounds released from the resin, so it will be different depending on location. In Brazil, propolis is mainly derived from Baccharis drancuncilifolia; in tropical climates-from Clusia minor and Clusia rosea flowers and Dalbergia sp.; in temperate climates Populus sp. is the main sourse, with Pinus sp., Betula sp., Ulmus sp., Alnus sp., Fagus sp., Aesculus being abequate sources when Populus is not available.
Propolis can be used either as MT (made from propolis of a local robust and healthy colony; you have to freeze propolis before you grate it for tincture) – then taken to 3-4CH and sprayed over the hive. The MT can also be diluted in syrup or honey that is fed to the colony – to the concentration of 6%.
Not all pests are just pests. Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth) is considered to be a pest because its larvae feed on beeswax or combs with pollen. However, it plays an important role in the biological degradation of beeswax into simple components that can be returned to the natural cycle. It was also demonstrated in laboratory experiments that G. mellonella is able to degrade the otherwise very resistant spores of P. larvae when feeding on contaminated wax.
Dear Dr. Tichavsky,
I live in Slovakia (Bratislava). The last two years our tree has been damaged by Rhagoletis completa. Also, for many years our cherry is attacked by Rhagoletis cerasi. Last year Drosophila attacked our blueberries. Are there any homeopathic remedies against Rhagoletis and Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)? If yes, how should they be remedies used?
In Bratislava, the capital, the daily average temperatures in winter are aroundfreezing (0 °C or 32 °F), while in summer, they are around 13/15 °C (55/59 °F) atnight and 25/27 °C (77/81 °F) during the day. During winter, the area of Bratislavacan experience dull and wet days, but also intense frosts during outbreaks of cold air from the east, when the temperature can drop to -20 °C (-4 °F), while insummer, it can sometimes experience hot and muggy days, when southern airmasses prevail, with peaks of 30/35 °C (86/95 °F).
Precipitation amounts to 550 mm (22 in) per year, so it is notabundant, but it is well distributed over the seasons.
One more brief question: I looked for some plastic sprinkler about 5 or more liters, but all have some metal parts. Is it possible to use these vessels for homeopathic remedies?
Rhagoletis completa, a pest of walnut trees, is an exotic pest recently arrived in Europe, so it has few natural enemies at present. It is very important to maintain high levels of shikimic acid and adequate levels of zinc in the trees.
Shikimic acid can be obtained from the fruits of Illicium verum (Chinese star anise). Prepare the mother tincture and dynamize the preparation to 3 JT. It is applied foliar, and on the soil once a month. Shikimic acid is an important metabolic precursor and allows the walnut tree to develop defenses against pests and diseases.
As for zinc, get a transformer in disuse to charge a computer or a cell phone, cut the end of the cable and each end join it with a zinc plate, place the plates in water for half an hour plugging the power. Bubbles will be produced and the liquid will become misty forming the zinc colloid.
From this, make a dynamization at 3 JT power and apply as a spray on the walnut trees. Zinc improves the rooting of walnut trees, collaboration with mycorrhizal fungi and VAM Vascular arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (you can extract it from the mulch, i.e. from the surface layer of old Quercus, for example).
Mix in a liter of water with two tablespoons of sugar, filter and apply around the trunks of the trees. Zinc is also an important enzyme precursor, i.e. it accelerates cell division processes and allows a faster defense response against diseases and pests.
As for specific remedy to repel the presence of Rhagoletis completa and R. cerasi we use Ruta graveolens 6 JT prepared from the TM of the plant (leaves and trunks) one application per week during the peak period (oviposition and presence of larvae). Chrysoperla carnea and other predators are used to reduce their population.
As far as Drosophyla suzukii is concerned, this insect is attracted by ethyl alcohol and by the acetic acid produced when overripe or fallen fruit ferments on the ground. Removing the fermenting fruit and keeping them out of the orchard or in the compost helps to control Rhagoletis cerasi populations.
It is very important to maintain a good population of spiders of the family Thomisidae, Salticidae and Theridiidae, which are their natural predators.
The application of Forficula auricularia 6 JT (earwings) usually solves the problem. We have also applied Argiope bruennichi 6 JT, for adult control. In your country you can collect some spider species and use them for the elaboration of homeopathic remedies like Theridion hannoniae 6 JT.
Also, some Lycosidae spiders like Pardosa spp. Pirata spp., Trochosa spp. Hogna spp. and a lot of species of the family Thomisidae (crab spiders), Salticidae (jumping spiders). Select females to make a mother tincture (with one specimen is enough) and apply the remedy at 6 JT potency as a spray.
As an effect you will observe an important increase in the population of different spiders and the signaling of the homeopathic remedy will keep the population of Drosophila suzukii out of your orchard.
On the other hand, the microbiota in the soil, directly influences the health of plants, and these microorganisms communicate through micro volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) and contribute to the formation of secondary metabolites in plants with bactericidal, fungicidal, nematicidal, insecticidal, etc. activities.
That is, each plant forms its compounds by different metabolic pathways, together with other plants and cooperating microorganisms, forming mutualistic and/or symbiotic relationships that directly affect plant health and growth.
Although we are talking about insects of the same genus as Rhagoletis completa and Rhagoletis cerasi, the metabolism is different and therefore a homeopathic remedy based on plants of metabolic similarity with cherry and for Drosophila suzukii in blueberries is required.
Re: Cherry attacked by Rhagoletis cerasi. Plants with insecticidal activity and that also have metabolic similarity to Prunus cerasus are: Apium graveolens with 161 common metabolites, of which 19 metabolites are Antifeedant, 28 insectifugue and 19 insecticidal.
The ALPHA-PINENE compounds present, in turn attract the microorganisms Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. artrophaeus, Paenibaccillus sp. and Streptomyces griseus, microorganisms that are growth promoters, biofertilizers and act as biocontrol agents; CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE, attracts Pseudomonas putida with the capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA); LIMONENE attracts the fungus Mortierella isabellina that acts as a growth promoter; ALPHA-TERPINENE attracts Trichoderma atroviride known for its biological control mechanism, plant growth and soil bioremediation and ALPHA-TERPINEOL attracts Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces lateritius.
The parts to use for the homeopathic remedy are, the essential oil of root, fruits, leaves, seeds or place the parts of the plant in grape seed oil, let stand in the absence of light for a week.
Foeniculum vulgare with 129 common metabolites, of which 25 metabolites are insectifugue, 21 metabolites insecticide, 1 metabolite Insect-Repellent and 15 metabolites antifeedant, of which, BERGAPTEN attracts in turn Tricoderma viride which acts as biopesticide, ALPHA-PINENE and ALPHA-TERPINENE. The parts to use for the remedy are fruit, essential oil of the root, essential oil of the seed or you can elaborate an oleate of seed, fruit, plant and/or root in grape seed oil, leaving it to stand for a week in the absence of light.
Zingiber officinale has 125 common metabolites, of which 30 metabolites are insectifuge, 9 insecticidal metabolites and 2 Insect-Repellent metabolites. The compounds BORNEOL attracts Streptomyces sp., a growth-promoting species and Burkholderia ambifaria which acts as a biopesticide and soil borremediator, FURFURAL attracts Streptomyces sp. and ZINGIBERENE attracts the fungi Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma viride. The part used for remedy is the root.
Anethum graveolens with 121 common metabolites, of which 27 insecticidal metabolites, 19 insecticidal metabolites, 15 antifeedant and one insect-repellent; the compounds ALPA-PINENE works as antifeedant, attracting Bacillus sp. and TERPINOLENE attracts Trichoderma sp. The parts used for remedy are, seed (essential oil), fruit, plant (essential oil) and leaves.
Rosmarinus officinalis with 85 common metabolites of which 35 are insecticidal, 12 insecticidal and 2 insect-repellent. The compound ALPHA-THUJONE attracts the bacterium Streptomyces caviscables (growth promoter and pesticide). The parts used for remedy are the plant, leaves, resin exudate and essential oil from the leaves.
RE: Drosophila suzukii in blueberries: Plants that contribute to the formation of insecticidal secondary metabolites due to metabolic similarity with blueberriess are:
Ocimum basilicum which has 69 common metabolites of which, 19 are insecticidal, 27 insectifuge, 5 insectiphile and 2 insect-repellent, which is composed of the mVOC FURFURAL which attracts the bacteria Streptomyces sp. (growth promoter), Pseudomonas fluorescens which acts as a biocontrol agent for phytopathogens and Klebsiella sp. bioremediator of pesticide contaminated soils and OCIMENE, attracts the ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Tuber borchii acts as an iron bioavailer. The parts of the plant that you can use as a remedy are the essential oil of the plant, leaves, or place the plant in olive oil and let it stand for a week in the absence of light.
Pinus sylvestris has 35 metabolites in common, of which 10 are insecticidal, 26 insectifugue, 3 insectiphile and 2 insect-repellent, the compound TERPINEOL attracts the bacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca which biosynthesizes alkaloids that serve as natural defenses against animals, insects and fungi.
For the remedy it uses the young shoots of the needles (pine leaves), the resin, or essential oil of Pinus.
Coriandrum sativum with 49 metabolites in common, 15 insecticide, 24 insectifugue, 6 insectiphile and 3 insect-repellent. The compounds ALPHA-PINENE, ALPHA-TERPINENE, ALPHA-TERPINEOL and BERGAPTEN have an insecticidal function and in turn attract microorganisms mentioned above that act as growth promoters in plants and pesticides. The parts of the plants to be used are the fruit, essential oil of the plant, essential oil of the seed, or you can make an oleate from the ground seed and the plant in olive oil and let it stand for a week in the absence of light.
Petroselinum crispum with 41 common metabolites, 17 insecticide, 20 insectifugue and 4 insectiphile, the parts to be used for the remedy are the root, fruit (essential oil), seed essential oil, seed (tincture) and leaves (tincture or oleate).
From any of the above-mentioned plants you can make a live bionosode. Cook a medium potato, let it cool down, remove the peel. Then disinfect the surface of the leaf or roots of the selected plant with 70% alcohol (e.g. clean the root with a brush and disinfect the Zingiber officinale root with alcohol) with a little tap water.
Liquefy the potato in a blender with roots of any of the plants mentioned above and leave it at room temperature for a day. Then dilute this liquid in a ratio of 1:100 and make 500 vigorous succussions (if the volume is large then 500 turns with a wooden stick to the right and 500 to the left) to get 4 JT potency and spray on the crops.
You can also elaborate a mother tincture of these plant species to extract the metabolites. Place 1/3 of the plant (specifically the parts mentioned above) in 30% alcohol in a glass jar with a lid in the absence of light, let it stand for a week.
Take a portion of this tincture or oil, dilute it 1:100 in non-chlorinated water and make 500 succussions. Repeating this operation two more times you will obtain the 3JT potency and apply it as a spray on the plants.
Dear Dr. Tichavsky,
Is this a canker on our maple tree? What can be suggested? We are in Southeastern Ohio at zip code 45784. It may be an 8-year-old tree. We planted it 2 years ago. During some work in the front lawn someone backed into the tree and damaged the bark higher up the tree. The bark scrape is healing fine. But this was not found until October of 2020.
Maple tree trunk diseases are a serious problem worldwide. The microbiota of the maple endosphere consists of prokaryotic and eukaryotic endophytes, which can establish varied relationships with the host plant, ranging from symbiotic to pathogenic.
Eutypella parasitica is the causal agent of maple canker, a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The fungus E. parasitica infects the trunk through a branch or bark wound. There are different microorganisms that are antagonists of E. parasitica. Bacillus species are capable of producing enzymes with very strong lytic activity, degrading fungal cell walls, as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. thuringiensis, which are endophytes of Aloe vera (pulp), Panax ginseng (root), Carica papaya (fruit), Oryza sativa (plant), Arctium lappa (root), Citrus limon (leaf), Vitis vinifera (root, leaf, fruit), Zea mays (plant, leaf, seed, root).
Pseudomonas fluorescens P. putida, P. aeruginosa y P. syringae in its diverse modes of action including antibiotic production, cell wall-degrading enzymes (chitinases, cellulases), biosurfactants, and volatiles and also induces systematic resistance in plants, are found in Oryza sativa (plant, root), Solanum tuberosum (root) y Zea mays (plant, leaf, seed, root).
Burkholderia spp., acts as a biological control of phytopathogenic fungi, it is found in Oryza sativa and Zea mays.
Paenibacillus sp. which causes the disorganization of fungal cell walls and/or cell contents, is found in Oryza sativa, Citrus limon, Zea mays, Carica papaya, Panax ginseng, Pinus sylvestris (resins and leaves). And genus Collimonas is known for its ability to grow at the expense of living fungi (mycophagy), and antifungal volatiles may contribute to the attack of fungi by these bacteria, this species is isolated from grassland.
Make a live bionosode: cook a medium potato, let it cool down, remove the peel. Then disinfect the surface of the leaf or roots of the selected plant with 70% alcohol (e.g. clean the root with a brush and disinfect the Zea mays root with alcohol) with a little tap water
Liquefy in a blender the potato with roots of any of the plants mentioned above and leave it at room temperature for a day. Then dilute this liquid in a ratio of 1:100 and make 500 vigorous succussions (if the volume is large then 500 turns with a wooden stick to the right and 500 to the left) to get 4 JT potency and spray on the crops.
Hello Dr. Tichavsky,
I am writing to you in regard to green ants taking over a lot of my fruit and trees in my orchard. I have attached photos of the ants on some Soursop fruit. The ants bring in farming Aphids as well. Picking fruit and pruning trees is not much fun either as the ants seem to know our soft spots and where to bite. I am happy to tolerate the ants on some trees and have them there in smaller numbers. I dearly would like to enjoy my fruit and keep pruning my trees as well.
I live near Mossman which is on the east coast in the wetter parts of Tropical Far North Queensland, Australia. We have quite warm, humid and wet summers and slightly cooler and dryer winters.
Thank you in advance.
It is important to keep nitrogen levels in your plants under control (do not apply any manure or nitrogen fertilizer). Excess nitrogen in the Soursop plant and in many other plants produces abundant but soft tissues, susceptible to be approached by aphids, which these make a kind of honey to attract ants and be protected by them from their predators.
You can apply Thymus vulgaris 3 JT (prepared from essential oil of Thyme). Also Rosmarinus vulgaris 3 JT (prepared from the mother tincture of essential oil of Rosemary alternated with Borax 6 CH.
Also homeopathic preparation of Syzygium aromaticum oil works. You can prepare an oleate (add clove to olive oil and let it extract for a week) then dynamize the extract to 3 JT potency and apply on affected trees.
We have a 50- year-old sweet red cherry tree and a 50-year-old sweet white cherry tree whose leaves turn yellow and drop after the fruit has fallen from the tree. They have had borers for many years. We have never treated the tree with anything. Is there anything that agrohomeopathy can offer for the yellow leaf drop?
We live in northern Delaware, USA. The climate of Delaware is humid and temperate. The average daily temperature at New Castle Airport in northern Delaware is 54 °F (12 °C), varying from an average high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July to an average low of 23 °F (−5 °C) in January.
Depending on what species of borers you have: Shot Hole Borer (Scolytus rugulosus), Ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus), or Cherry-Peachtree Borer (Synanthedon exitiosa), Lesser peach borer (Synanthedon pictipes), American plum borer (Euzophera semifuneralis) you would have to time the application of remedies based on emergence/activity time and metabolic similarity.
- Antifeedant properties: Daucus carota (73 common metabolites with Prunus avium, 22 antifeedants, 18 unique). Use the whole plant for TM: root, plant and seeds for the best effect, wild carrot or organically grown. Apium graveolens (71 common metabolites, 19 antifeedants, 14 unique) – seeds and leaves for the best effect. Solanum tuberosumis another choice (67 common metabolites, 17 antifeedants, 13 unique). You need the whole plant, tuber, leaves and flowers for the best result. Make from TM to 5-6CH potency and spray on the areas of damage on our trees.
- Larvicide: Daucus carota(6 larvicides) and Apium graveolens (6) will be the top choices as well. Myristica fragrans seed (36 common met., 7 larvicide) and Laurus nobilis leaves (23 common met, 6 larvicide) – next, or they can be combined. Same process, application for larvae.
- Insecticide: Apium graveolens (19), Foeniculum vulgare (53 com met,21 ins), Pimpinella anisum (35 com met, 20 ins) bothe MT from seeds and plants. Same process, application for adult insects.
Some insectivorous birds are of great help with borers: the most prominent – the downy woodpecker (Dendrocopos pubescens) and the yellow-shafted flicker (Colaptes auratus), can be seen probing the trunks of plums and cherries, in the spring and summer. You can attract them by providing suet, and shelter (check the internet for specifications of birdhouse preferred by both).
Prunus avium trees usually get attacked by borers when they are under stress. Your trees are fairly old, and there is probably some abiotic stress, but there a are few things you can try to revive them. It is hard to tell without a picture, but you should inspect the fallen leaves for signs of fungal disease – spots of fuzz.
Chances are that your trees are just under some stress. In the vicinity of New Castle Airport the moisture index of vegetation (satellite) is not satisfactory for plants half of the time, meaning water stress.
It could be also due to soil salinity, or runoff of agrochemicals, contamination with heavy metals, etc. The best holohomeopathic strategy would be to inoculate your trees with a consortium of beneficial microorganisms from your holon (adapted to the local abiotic conditions) that will help them regain vitality.
Vascular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi Glomus mossae, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, G. caledonium, Rhiophagus diaphanus all collaborate well with P. Avium trees, providing them with adequate moisture, bioavailable P and other nutrients, guarding from pathogens, alleviating heavy metal stress and connecting to other plants.
The first two also help to alleviate high salinity stress. You have to locate in your area a healthy and mature tree, take some rhizosphere soil (top 5 cm) from that tree, and make a live bionosode as described above and in previous issues: mix with about 5% molasses and 10% carbonated water (without flavoring), let it ferment for 2-3 days, strain, proceed to 3-4 JT and spray around your trees a little beyond the area shaded by their aerial parts.
The trees you should be looking for are: Juglans nigra (48 common metabolites), Quercus alba (28), Castanea dentata (24 com met), Robinia pseudoacacia (23 com met.; not native originally to the area, but very widely planted and in some places even becoming invasive, which points to its successful collaboration with soil microorganisms; it also has in its roots Rhizobium sp. which are N fixers, and can give you a better result – take a small piece of root together with soil).
In addition, you can make a bionosode of Bacillus Sp., the Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria that work synergistically with the VAM fungi, the preparation of bionosode from Hedera helix roots as described above in the previous issues (mix and let ferment with boiled, cooled and peeled potato and water, then strain, dynamize to 3-4 JT and spray on the soil around your trees.
There are also companion plants that enhance growth of cherry trees: Fraxinus sp. in proximity, Comfrey sp., Taraxacum sp., Tagetes sp., Clover sp., Matricaria chamomilla, Geranium sp. Pollinator and beneficial insect attractors such as Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Hyssopus officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lonicera sp. are always good to plant in your garden.
I am in Roorkee, India. Temperature: 38C-28C, Humidity: 63%
1. I have a stevia plant & a basil plant. I cut their leaves regularly for use. After cutting I apply Hypericum 6C & Arnica 6C foliarly, separately after a gap of a few minutes. Should I mix both of them in the same bottle before spraying? I have noticed some doctors have also prescribed Calendula 6C after pruning. Can you tell the difference in usage between Calendula and Hypericum?
2. I have a water garden with lily, lotus, mosaic plant, azolla, water lettuce, red root floaters etc. My water garden is situated in the open in the back of my house. What holo-homeopathic solutions do you suggest for good pest free growth? I am using the common agro homeopathic medicines according to the similarity of symptoms with terrestrial plants. For eg- Silicea 6C for growth, Phosphorus 6C for flowers.
3. Can I use inorganic fertilizers in the water garden, since it forms a fragmented, small artificial “holon”? Unlike the plants on land which receive nutrition from the vibrant holon due to use of live bio nosodes and soil microbes, the water plants don’t have a vibrant holon to help it.
4. I have read that a bottle used once for a homeopathic medicine can’t be used for any other homeopathic medicine again (for human consumption), since it contains the same medicine even after the bottle is washed. Is it the same for agro-homeopathy? If that’s true then there will be a lot of wastage due to buying new spray bottles etc.
Although the two remedies Hypericum perforatum and Calendula officinalis are often used interchangeably to treat physical damage to plants, there is an important difference in their use. Hypericin, an anthraquinone, has marked effects on some plants, increasing the apicality both in the roots and in the aerial part of the plants, and it is also an important bactericidal and antiviral fungicide.
Calendula officinalis has a much more limited fungicidal action, and it has in common with Hypericum a strong protection against ultraviolet rays. Most importantly, the usefulness of each of the remedies will depend on the metabolic similarity with each plant.
In human homeopathy it is easier to delimit the field of each remedy because they are used on a single species (Homo sapiens) while in holohomeopathy we attend hundreds or thousands of different species on which the reactions differ.
As for the mineral remedies (e.g. Kalium, Phosphorus or Nitrogen) we can observe a greater coincidence on the effects on the different species of plants, but there is no general rule for all plants, due to their specific metabolic characteristics.
For example, the application of Sulphur on a silica hyperaccumulator plant can have a devastating effect, or the application of Cuprum on a Zincum hyperaccumulator plant can have an equally negative effect.
Aquatic plants live and feed on nutrients bioavailable by fungi and bacteria, rather than adding fertilizers of mineral origin (I do not recommend it because they all contain heavy metals that accumulate in the plants). You can combine with fertilization by fish, snails and other inhabitants of the aquatic holon whose excrements contain all the nutrients in a balanced form.
Regarding the non-reuse of bottles used in homeopathy (this also applies to agrohomeopathy or holohomeopathy) it is important to consider the effect of lacunarity on the surface of the glass, i.e. the glass of the bottle is not completely smooth, and contains a large number of caves, tunnels and porosities where the used remedy accumulates.
Even if the bottle is washed or sterilized, residues of the used remedy remain in the bottle and these residues can interact with other remedies when the bottle is reused. In case of using the same bottle for the same remedy of the same potency there is no problem but for different remedies it is not advisable.
Dear Professor Tichavsky,
I ask for tips for acidophilic plants such as Azalea japonica: its constitutional remedies and the essential procedure for rooting a semi-woody cutting (For a Camellia cutting I added a Sulfur granule). In fact, very often the small azaleas dry up and die shortly after buying them from a nursery, despite the soil becoming acidic (Ammonium sulphuricum and Apis) and lowering the PH of the water, making it decant with a few drops of lemon.
Thank you very much!
You can use Arnica montana 6 CH, Acidum nitricum 30 CH and Phosphorus 6 CH and Phosphoricum acidum 6 CH instead of Ammonium sulphuricum, and also Zincum metallicum 6 CH.
For rooting it is important to keep nitrogen levels in the soil low, so add a little river sand to the substrate, and only when the plant produces abundant roots then gradually apply soil or compost. In Azalea japonica you can also use the inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum to have stimulatory effect on Azalea growth.