Homeopathy Papers

Invertebrates in Homeopathy

Dr. Ghanshyam Kalathia discusses the characteristics of invertebrates. This category includes Protozoa, Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, Cnidarians, Platyhelminthes, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Nematoda and Arthropoda. A case example is included to illustrate.

Here with this article I wish to share my evolutionary journey of invertebrate remedies. The majority of this article is taken from my book “Invertebrates in Homeopathy”.

Taxonomically invertebrates do not exist in any kind of classification, but I need a general name for underdeveloped animals, so I take the invertebrate name. Thus, whenever I use the word “invertebrate” that means “underdeveloped” animals.


The most familiar invertebrates include the Protozoa, Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, Cnidarians, Platyhelminthes, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Chaetognatha, Hemichordata, Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates.

Invertebrates don’t have a skeleton of bone, either internal or external. They include hugely varied body plans. Many have fluid-filled, hydrostatic skeletons, like jellyfish or worms. Others have hard exoskeletons, outer shells like those of insects and crustaceans.

The body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical. A minority, however, exhibit no symmetry. Protozoa and Porifera have total absence of symmetry.

The first invertebrate in which I found evidence of a nervous system is Cnidarians and Ctenophores. Mollusk neurons are able to detect increasing pressures and tissue trauma. Comparatively well developed neurons have been identified in a wide range of invertebrate species, including annelids, mollusks, nematodes and arthropods.

Most invertebrates use diffused oxygen from water via either skin or from the digestion cavity. Only Arthropods have a so called advanced reparatory system. Protozoa and Porifera have extracellular digestion; it happens outside of the cell on the cell wall.

Cnidarians have a very simple digestive system where just one simple cavity works as digestive aid and the same opening works as mouth as well as anus. Platyhelminthes also have similar digestive systems to Cnidarians. From Echinoderms the digestion happens more systematically.

Like vertebrates, most invertebrates reproduce at least partly through sexual reproduction. They produce specialized reproductive cells that undergo meiosis to produce smaller, motile spermatozoa or larger, non-motile ova. These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals. Others are capable of asexual reproduction, or sometimes, both methods of reproduction.

Porifera (Sponges) lack the complex organization found in most other phyla. Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues. Sponges typically feed by drawing in water through pores.

Ctenophora or comb jellies are more complex than sponges, about as complex as cnidarians and less complex than bilaterians. Their most distinctive feature is the ‘combs’ – groups of cilia which they use for swimming – they are the largest animals that swim by means of cilia.

Like cnidarians, the body of ctenophore consists of a relatively thick, jelly-like mesoglea sandwiched between two epithelium layers. Ctenophores are distinguished from all other animals by having colloblasts, which are sticky and adhere to prey.

Cnidarians (Anemones, Corals, Jellies and Box Jellies) have simple radial symmetry and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus. They have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs yet. There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, they are sometimes called diploblastic.

The Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) phylum is acoelomates or lacking a body cavity. Most of them are parasites and they attach in the inside wall of the digestive tube, or in other body organs.

Bryozoa also known as moss animals are typically about 0.5 millimeters long, they are filter feeders and they live in colonies. Colonies have varied varieties of genetically identical group of animals called zoids, which do the same work as unite.

Brachiopods are very similar to mollusks but more primitive than them. As like bivalve mollusks they have hard “valves” (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces. Brachiopod valves are hinged at the rear end, while the front can be opened for feeding or closed for protection. They are filter feeders.

Mollusk (Clams, Snails and Squids) is a successful phyla and it is the second largest phyla. They are coelomates and have well defined body cavity. They have more advanced body plan and relatively well-structured body systems.

Annelida (Earthworms and Leeches) is also very advanced phyla compared to other invertebrates. They are coelomates and they have first time close vascular system. They first time left the protective covering unlike mollusk and their skin become flexible collagen cover. Mollusks and Annelids have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the Annelids were considered closer to the Arthropods also because they are both segmented. So, in short, annelids are in-between mollusks and Arthropods.

The Nematodes (Roundworms) are perhaps the second largest animal phylum of invertebrates. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water. Many of them also are parasites and they are also attached to the host from their inside of body tubes or organs. Smaller phyla related to them are the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.

The Arthropoda (Crabs, Insects and Spiders) is the largest animal phyla. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. In addition, they possess a hardened exoskeleton that is periodically shed during growth. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits.

The Echinoderms (Starfishes, Sea urchins, Feather stars, Brital stars and Sea cucumbers) have perfect radial symmetry and they have a system and organ level of body plan. They have very simple but un-fused endoskeleton. Still we cannot clearly say it is an endoskeleton or exoskeleton but it covers the body from inside because this skeleton has skin outside.

Among lesser phyla of invertebrates are the Hemichordata, or acorn worms, and the Chaetognatha, or arrow worms. Other phyla include Acoelomorpha,   Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Entoprocta, Phoronida, and Xenoturbellida.


Every Invertebrate phyla share these general themes, but there is a chance to little modification in them according to their developmental stage. Suppose porifera’s vulnerability is fetus-like while Nematode’s vulnerability is adolescent-like. The second thing is each phylum presents one or two themes very prominently, for example Porifera and Cnidarians are extremely vulnerable while Mollusk’s main focus is support and protection. It is certainly not necessary to have all the themes in all the Invertebrates.


They are non-evolved animals, so mostly they are lacking sophisticated body, well developed body plan and well-developed systems and organs. They have no firm structure so they are soft bodied. Most have fewer defenses and have under-developed senses.

They do not possess sophisticated senses and they have to rely on chemical signaling or electromagnetic signaling. Because of their soft body, fewer defenses and non-developed senses, they are very much vulnerable. Their vulnerability expresses homeopathically the following ways.

They have a variety of fears, a lot of anxiety and tremendous fright. They feel incapable to defend and so feel panicky. They lack self confidence and easily get frightened by smallest adversities.

The smallest thing is too much for them. They feel the world is too much harsh and dangerous. They feel small and weak and not capable to defend themselves alone. They feel they cannot survive; especially something bigger and stronger is smashing, cutting, crushing, killing or destroying you.

They have tremendous anxiety for something bad going to happen and it makes them very nervous and panicky. Vulnerability is in varying degree in different phyla. More underdeveloped phyla are more vulnerable.

Expression words: Soft, Soft-bodied, Small, Weak, Formless, Thin-skinned, Panic attacks, Scared, Frighten, Startling, Danger, Smashing, Cutting, Crushing, Killing, Destroying, Making pulp, Squeezing, Constricting, Incapable, Helpless, Fear of something going to happen, Undefined fear, Over powering fright or fear, Issues of life and death, Sudden death, Fear of darkness, Fear of disaster (Huge natural forces – Storm, Earthquake, Tsunami etc), Fear of unfamiliarity, Feeling of insignificance.

Need Support – Dependent

Because of soft body and fewer defenses they seek support from others. They are dependent on somebody. They lack self confidence, so others decide for them or support them or they seek security and safety from others. Requirement of support is varying in degree, for example… it might be starting from total care like fetus in the womb, nurturing like infant, supporting like small child and back-up support like teenager. They need total care, nurturing, feeding, guidance and assurance and appreciation from others according to their phyla (Development). Without support they feel weak, helpless, defenseless, incapable and doubtful. Personality wise they look very weak-willed soft hearted, low self-assured, doubtful and dependant.

Expression words: Support, Dependant, Insecure, Weak-willed, Incapable to defend, Low self confidence, Low self assurance, Doubting own-self, Need somebody to guide you, Need somebody to assure you, Need somebody to appreciate you, Need someone in back ground, Need someone who protect you, Need total care, Need of care and nurturing, Need of Armor, Shield, Shell, Covering, Home and Cocoon, Need of family, friends, parents or partner

Primitive – Underdeveloped/ Immature

Because of their low self assurance and low self confidence they look immature. They are just grown up age wise but actually they get stuck at fetus, infant, child or toddler and teenage level. During their narration they do not have enough confidence in their talk, so either they repeat the words or take unusual pauses and makes many mistakes in their speech. Sometime they have trembling or stammer (Hesitating) speech. Personality wise they are timid, bashful or cowardly according to their phyla. They are simple and naïve and we cannot observe any complexity in them. Their talking style is also straight forward.

Expression words: Immature, Underdeveloped, Arrested development, Growing up, Low self confidence, Inferiority, Making lot of mistakes in work and in speech, Awkward, Indecisive, Non-assertive, Irresolute, Hesitating, Timid, Bashful, Cowardice, Simplicity, Naivety, Childish, Foolish

Withdrawing, Escaping, Hiding

They are weak and because of their fewer defenses their first reaction to danger is escaping or withdrawing. Usually they are talking of two worlds, the inner world and outer world.

The inner world is their own world (home, family, friends, parents and their near and dear ones) which is their familiar world and it is comfortable, warm, cozy, protective and safe while the outer world is dangerous and harsh. Whenever they need to face the outer world they have extreme desire to retreat back or withdraw into their familiar world. Superficially it looks like homesickness, but when we probe deeply we can find their reality.

Expression words: Withdrawing, Escaping, Hiding, Running away, Retreating, Pulling in, Curling up, Become smaller, Contracting, Become a ball, Go back to your home, Defenseless, Inner world and outer world, Need to be safe and Secure, Fear of being exposed, Fear of being pulled out, Fear of being caught, Fear to  open up and vulnerability to be seen

Highly Sensitive

Here the sensitivity is not something like perceiving the environment through senses and giving appropriate reaction as plants do. These are soft bodied, under-developed animals so they have very much sensitivity of all senses. This additional sensitivity expresses in the following ways…

(1) Altered and exaggerated senses and perceptions

They do not have sophisticated senses because of their primitive and underdeveloped nervous system and they have to sense chemicals from water and electromagnetic changes from environment so they have additional sensitivity. In short, they have very primary and non-developed methods of perception for their surroundings.

In patients we can see they are very much sensitive to noise, touch, smell, hearing etc. They have exaggerated sensual perceptions as well as various images for their own body. For example, they might say I can sense the person, I can sense the environment, I can sense the bad intention, I can sense the aura etc.

They have exaggerated body perceptions as if they say I can sense the changes in my body, I can sense my internal organ, I can sense each cell of my skin, I can sense each fiber of my muscles. They also have various altered images of body parts for example legs are very big or very short, hands are large and swelled up, my body is flexible and it has no bones etc.

(2) Altered reactions

Because of their sensitivity they are very much reactive. The reactivity is in various degrees according their phyla. Mostly the reactivity expresses in emotional reactions or behavioral expressions. I mean either they are emotionally very much touchy and get affected or disappointed very easily or they get aggressive, angry, rude, abusive and abrupt.

Their altered reaction pattern is attributed to their primitive and non-sophisticated nervous system and under-developed brain. Because of lesser developed sensory system their life is governed either by instincts or impulses. Hence personality is very much impulsive or instinctive. They give reactions generally without pre-thoughts; hence they are prone to be hyper in their responses to each and every stimulus. They are not able to keep balance between action and reactions and that’s why many times it turns out in the form of panic attacks or psychological break down. Their reactions are many a time in extremes in adverse situations, so are they prone to have extreme mood swings.

Expression words: Highly sensitive, Highly reactive, There is no balance, Highly changeable, Variable, Sudden change, Sudden burst out, Unpredictable, Impulsive, Instinctive, Sensitive to noise, Sensitive to touch, Sensitive to smell, Sensitive to hearing, Exaggerated perceptions, Touchy, Aggressive, Angry, Rude, Abusive, Abrupt, No sense of right and wrong

Invertebrates Expressions
Support system and Dependency –       Support, Dependant, Insecurity, Protection

–       Need somebody to guide you/ assure you/ appreciate you

–       Need of care and nurturing

–       Need someone in back ground

–       Need of family, friends, parents or partner

–       Need of Armor, Shield, Shell, Covering, Home and Cocoon

Sensations –       Soft, Soft-bodied, Thin-skinned

–       Small, Weak, Vulnerable (Awkward, Indecisive, Non-assertive, Irresolute, Hesitating)

–       Incapable, Helpless, Weak-willed, Incapable to defend, Low self confidence, Low self assurance, Doubting own-self

–       Immature, Underdeveloped, Arrested development, Growing up (Timid, Bashful, Cowardice, Naive, Childish, Foolish)

Physical Sensations Smashing, Cutting, Crushing, Killing, Destroying, Making pulp, Squeezing, Constricting, Drilling, Burning, Smarting, Tingling, Numbness
Reactions and defenses –       Panic attacks, Scared, Frightened, Startling, Sense of Danger

–       Sensitive, Impulsive, Irritability, Angry

–       Mood swings

–       Withdrawing, Retreating, Pulling in, Curling up

–       Escaping, Hiding, Running away

–       Become smaller, Contracting, Become a ball


This is a case of 38 year old lady with complaints of stomachache and headache.

First consultation on 6th August 2013

D: Tell me everything about you and your problems?

P: I have many complaints which are superficially negligible but I get disturbed from them time to time. I have taken 2-3 homeopathic medicines to manage them but I’m unable to resolve them completely so decide to have an interview with you. (She is also homeopath)

My problem is in my stomach. Traditional doctors say it is hepatitis, but blood reports are normal so I do not believe them. I have a typical feeling in my stomach. I believe it is not just a physical feeling, it is something beyond that. I feel tight and air is moving in my stomach. When air is moving inside my stomach I feel some kind of vibrations. It’s really a very weird feeling. It starts to move slowly and then goes very fast and creates vibrations. It moves all around and then become stronger and stronger. It goes up to throat, heart and head sometime. I hear noises in my head when it reaches to the top of my head. The sound is tra… tra… tra… Sometime this starts in the morning and I wake up startled. During the day whenever I’m emotionally disturbed it starts. Sometime the vibration is at a very high level.

Whenever I have this vibration I’m in my peak of energy. Basically, I’m hurried and like to work fast. So, whenever I’m at a high level of energy I feel these vibrations stronger. I tend to work and speak so fast, but my mind works even faster than me and it is always ahead of me. My mind is one step ahead of me always. So, I make a lot of mistakes. Sometime I forget to lock the house or shop. I’m unable to coordinate my body and mind. Both work in different planes and directions. I can’t be in the here and now. Sometimes I’m in the future and sometime I’m in the past. So, mostly my body works on automatic mode without any presence of mind.

D: Yes, you are talking very well, just say a little more.

P: I have one weird fear also. I have had this fear since childhood. I always have this feeling that something is behind me. Something is following me. I’m always conscious of my back side. I wish I’m able to see 360 degree. (She laughs)

Sometime I’m conscious about the future. It’s a kind of sixth sense. And many times I have dreamt of something that is going to happen in future.

Sometime I feel I don’t have any feelings. It’s weird but true. Sometime I have many emotions and I can’t to handle them all together and sometime I do not have any single emotion. So, it’s weird. There is no coordination and balance in me. Sometimes I’m talking with someone but I talk on automatic mode because my mind is somewhere else. I’m totally absent though I’m doing conversations correctly. Sometime I have thousands of thoughts and all are rushing in all directions and I’m unable to control and handle them all together and sometime I feel my mind is totally empty. There is not a single thought in my mind. This is really very weird?

D: Yes, let’s talk about something else. Now, tell me about your dreams.

P: Sometime I have many dreams and sometime I have nothing. Sometime I have good dreams and sometime I have very bad dreams. But, most of the time I have scary dreams. I’m going down a street and somebody is following me he comes so close to me that I get scared and automatically I turn round so fast and then I kick him. I never see his face, but I feel he might be going to kick me so I react faster than him.

D: Ok, I understand but what do you feel in the dream?

P: I have no time to feel and think I just react. Actually I’m a reactive person. When things go smoothly I’m in normal mode but when things are not normal then I’m very fast and furious. I react more than required. I get irritated very fast. I get angry over trivial things. Many times I suddenly lose my mind. Something unexpected happens and suddenly I lose my mind. When I get angry I react so fast. Sometime I throw things and might do anything. I do not have control over my reactions. At that time I do not like to talk with anybody and I like to be left alone. If I’m alone my anger goes quickly. I do not like to be with anybody and I do not wish anyone to disturb me so I get more and more furious.

D: So, when you are in normal mode, how are you at that time?

P: When I’m normal I react normally. Basically I’m happy and cheerful person. When I’m happy I like to be with others. I like music. When I’m cheerful I like to talk and I tend to laugh. When I’m in a good mood I sing.

D: Ok, I almost understand your case. Anything else remain to say?

P: Yes, doctor. Sometime I have a headache. I have a severe pain here (occiput). I have a weird feeling in my head also. I feel something passed suddenly from my head. I feel some kind of waves passing through the head. It’s kind of electric current. It’s kind of vibrations. I feel them suddenly and even without headache sometime.

D: What do you feel in your head at that time?

P: I feel waves. But during headache I have very weird feeling. I feel my head becomes empty and there is no brain or anything in the head.

D: Empty?

P: Yes, doctor. Actually my head becomes so lightweight that I don’t feel anything in my head. I feel nothing inside my head. Initially during the start of the pain I feel heavy in the occiput but as the pain gets worse and worse suddenly I start to feel lightness in the head. I feel as if my head is weightless and floating in the air. When I feel this floating sensation I have slight dizziness also. If I am not doing anything to reduce the pain then slowly I feel lightness in my whole body. I feel I’m literally floating in the air and I’m totally unable to balance when I walk. I might either walk into something or fall down. I look as if I have taken drugs at that time. (She laughs)

That’s it doctor.


This is a case from 2013. At that time, I had no idea about invertebrates. I was totally blank when I finished the interview with her. I knew there were some peculiar expressions, but I didn’t know how to relate them to a homeopathic medicine. It took 2-3 days to find the medicine. I examined all the peculiar expressions in the repertory and materia medica but nothing special came up. I searched everything for stomach vibration, head vibration, electric shocks in the head but nothing special came up in my search. Finally I searched ‘kick’ in the repertory because she has constant fear that someone is behind her and he is going to kick her and she used to kick him faster as a reaction. I found the rubric Mind; kicks in the complete repertory 2013 with 59 remedies. In my second attempt when I searched for two words in the same repertory for ‘head’ and ‘lightness’ I found this rubric: Head; lightness; contents had diminished greatly in weight, as if with 3 remedies Bufo rana, Chironex fleckerii and Culex pervigilans. So, when I checked the list of 59 remedies from rubrics for kick I found two medicines are common to both the rubrics Bufo and Chironex. So I read both the medicines from all available materia medica and provings and I found some good references which matched Chironex. Then I double checked in repertory (reverse repertorisation) for Chironex and read all the rubrics. I found the following rubrics that matched the expressions of the case exactly.

  • Mind; absent-mindedness; talking, conversation, during
  • Mind; concentration; difficult; talking, while
  • Mind; emptiness of mind, sensation of
  • Mind; alone; amel.
  • Mind; company; aversion to; solitude, desire for
  • Mind; anger; trifles, about
  • Mind; anger; easily
  • Mind; anger; sudden
  • Mind; irritability; trifles, about
  • Mind; cheerfulness; dancing, laughing, singing, with
  • Mind; cheerfulness; music, from
  • Mind; clairvoyance
  • Mind; delusions, imaginations; floating; air, in
  • Mind; dreams; frightful, nightmare
  • Mind; kicks
  • Vertigo; floating, as if
  • Head; lightness; contents had diminished greatly in weight, as if
  • Head; waving sensation
  • Head; pain, headache; occiput

Prescription: Chironex 1M

Conclusion: She is doing very well after the medicine and in total she required 4 doses of the medicine whenever she had a headache or stomach problem. Now, 5 years later she has had no disturbance of the stomach and head. She has become calmer and relaxed.

When I started to work on invertebrate remedies I re-checked the case and I found that the expressions beautifully express the invertebrate themes and Cnidarian themes.

Invertebrate themes in the case:

This kind of incoordination of mind and body is common in invertebrate cases. This shows their nervous system is not fully developed.

  • I tend to work and speak so fast, but my mind works even faster than me and it’s always ahead of me.
  • I’m unable to coordinate my body and mind. Both are working on different planes and directions.

As their nervous system is not sophisticated and developed like vertebrates, they have issues of the senses. Either they have exaggerated senses or dullness of senses.

  • I have an additional sense to detect anything that is going to happen in the future.
  • It’s a kind of sixth sense

They have uncoordinated feelings and emotions because of their underdeveloped nervous system. Either they are extremely sensitive or they are not affected by anything.

  • Sometime I feel I don’t have any feelings.
  • Sometime I have many emotions and I can’t handle them all and sometimes I do not have a single emotion.

Cnidarian Themes in the case:

They have a newly developed nervous system with just a presence of a nerve net. So, they are extremely sensitive and reactive and they have issues of balance. They are not good at keeping coordination of mind and body. They are kind of impulsive and unable to handle various emotions hence they tend to react by impulse.

  • I have many emotions and I can’t handle them all together
  • There is no coordination and balance in me
  • I talk on automatic mode
  • I have thousands of thoughts they are rushing in all directions and I’m unable to control and handle them all together
  • Automatically I turn to back side so fast and then I kick him
  • I react faster than him
  • I have no time to feel and think I just react
  • I’m a reactive person
  • I react more than required
  • When I get angry I react so fast
  • I do not have control over my reactions

For the book you can contact Dr. Kalathia at [email protected] or visit here… https://www.emryss.com/invertebrates-in-homeopathy.html

About the author

Ghanshyam Kalathia

Dr. Ghanshyam Kalathia, is a practicing homeopath with a busy local as well as online clinic based in Ahmadabad/India. His articles and cases have appeared in world various journals including Homeopathic Links, Homeopathy International UK, Similia-Australia, Hpathy.com and Interhomeopathy.com. He passionately teaches students from all over the world with his current four international video master courses and his “Journey with Dr. Kalathia Series”. His systematic approach regarding the understanding of case studies merges the spiritual and practical aspects of homeopathy into a synergy of true and lasting healing. He is well known teacher and mentor for Indian as well as western homeopaths. He is the first person to explore kingdom sarcodes in-depth. His work includes the study of mammals and birds. He is author of the book “Invertebrates in Homeopathy”.
His published articles are available at www.drkalathia.com and http://www.interhomeopathy.org/august-2016 and homeopathic software like “Radar Opus” and “Synergy homeopathic software” (Formerly known as mac-repertory)

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