Introduction – There are three essential processes involved in preparation of remedies: (a) Serial dilution, (b) Succussion, (c) Trituration.
Dilution is the means by which we reduce the toxicity of the original crude drug. Serial dilution means that each dilution is prepared from the dilution that immediately preceded it.
Succussion and trituration are the methods by which mechanical energy is delivered to our preparations in order to imprint the pharmacological message of the original drug upon the molecules of the diluent.
From the pharmaceutical point of view there are two main classes of original substance: (a) Soluble, (b) Insoluble.
In the class of soluble substance, mother tinctures (alcohol water extraction) of the plant material are used. The symbol Ã¸ is used to denote the mother tincture of any soluble substance. For soluble substance alcohol and water are applied. At each stage Rythmitical violent agitations are carried out, either by hand or machine, and this is known as “Succussion“. Insoluble original (i.e. natural) substances are prepared in a different way. The diluent in one sense is Lactose. The physical process applied at each stage is known as ‘Trituration‘. It is a prolonged circular grinding with motar and pestle. Once this trituration has obtained 6x or 1/ 10 to the power of 6, it can be dispensed into alcohol or water diluent. Thereafter it is treated like a soluble substance. These two major scale of preparing medicine are denoted as ‘c‘ for centsimal scale and ‘x‘ for decimal scale.
Centesimal scale involves a serial dilution 1/100, whereas decimal involves a serial trituration 1/10 :
Potentisation of Drug – For the preparations of the homoeopathic potencies of liquid drug substances three scales are in use, i.e. (a) Decimal, (b) Centesimal and (c) Millesimal. For the preparations of potencies from solid drug substances: (a) Decimal and (b) Centesimal scales are in use. When trituration attains the 6x potency, then only it will be fit to be converted into liquid potency.
(a) The Centesimal Scale – Introduced by Hahnemann himself. In this scale the 1st potency should contain 1/IOOth part of the original drug; and the 2nd potency will contain 1/IOOth part of the 1st potency; and so on. The potency in this scale is denoted by I suffixing the letter ‘C’ to the number indicating the potency. In practice, it is generally denoted to simple numerical I C potency is equivalent to 2X potency; and 2C potency is equivalent to 4X ; and so on. Potencies above 30th are termed as high potencies.
Procedure – Potencies in the Centesimal scale is made by mixing I ml. of the required mother tincture or mother solution with 99 ml. of the dispensing alcohol, the potency marked as IC or I. The potency 2 will be made by taking I ml. of the first potency and adding 99 mI. of dispensing alcohol; and so on.
(b) The Fifty Millesimal Scale – Introduced as per Organon of Medicine, 6th edition, Aphorism 270 (published 78 years after Hahnemann.s death). In this scale the 1st potency should contain 1/50,OOOth part of the original drug, the 2nd potency will contain 1/50,OOOth part of the 1st potency and so on. Potency in this scale is denoted by I, II, V, X etc. or 0,/1, 0/2, 0/5,0/10 etc. In this scale potency 0/2 is equivalent to 4C=8X (approx.), O/4=8C=16X and so on. Recently, some physi- cians are using this scale. In this scale the proportion of medicine to alcohol will be I to 50,OOO (1/500x 100). So this scale of potency got’s by the name of Fifty Millesimal Potency.
Procedure- Triturate the crude drug substance in the usual manner with the ‘milk sugar’ in the proportion of 100 mg. of dry drug substance or 0.0 I mI. of liquid drug substance with 10 gm. of ‘milk sugar’, Triturate. the I st potency thus prepared again in the usual manner, taking 100 mg. of the 1st potency with 10 gm, of miik sugar. Next triturate the 2nd potency thus obtained with the same proportion and manner to prepare the subsequent 3rd potency. To prepare a ‘Solution’ of the 3rd potency by mixing 100 mg. of the 3rd potency with 50 mI. of a mixture of purified water and disPe:nsing alcohol. This mixture is prepared by adding one part of dispensing alcohol to 4 parts of purified water. To make the solution properly, firstly dissolving 100 mg. of the 3rd potency in 40 ml.. of purified water and then add 10 ml. of dispensing alcohol, Call it the ‘Mother Solution’. Pour one part of this mother solution to 100 parts of dispensing alcohol, and give 100 strong succussions. This makes the first Fifty Millesimal potency, denoted as ‘0/1’. For the preparations of each subsequent potency, take few globules of nearly uniform size, 100 globules of which will weigh 65 mg. Then pour a drop of the preceding potency , upon these globules and dry them. Take one globule and ; dissolve it in a drop of purified water in a new clean phial Add 100 drops of dispensing alcohol to it and give 100 strong succussions. The required potency is now ready. Thus any desired potency in the Fifty Millesimal Scale can be prepared. (As per H.P.L. vol. I).
Preparation of Liquid Potencies:
(c) The Decimal Scale – This scale was introduced by Dr. Constantine Hering. In this scale the first potency should contain l/lOth part of the original drug. The 2nd potency will! contain 1/10th part of the first potency; and so on. The potency in this scale is denoted by suffixing the letter ‘X’ to the number indicating the potency, i.e. the first potency is IX, the 2nd potency is 2X, and so on.
Procedure – Take a new and perfectly clean phial of capacity 15ml., fit a new best velvet cork into it; put the name with the potency 2x on the cork. Next check the name of the mother tincture or mother solution to be potentised; and removing the cork pour 1 ml. of the same into the phial, then add 9 ml of Rectified spirit 60 O.P. (Dispensing alcohol); and thus one-third of the phial will remain empty for succussion. ; Then cork the phial tightly and hold the phial in the right hand with the thumb firmly over the cork; then strike the phial with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm upon the open palm of the left hand or upon some hard but elastic body or by a suitable mechanical potentiser letting each downward stroke terminate in “jerk. The 2x potency is now ready. Paste a label on the wall of the phial marked with the name of the medicine with potency 2x. For each potency a separate new’ phial with a new cork must be used. In making all succeeding potencies mix one part of the preceding potency to 9 parts of dispensing alcohol and follow the same procedure, as is followed for 2x potency above.