Scientific Research

Homeopathic Individualization-In the Light of Electrode Potential

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Water and the human body behave almost alike whenever any external substance is introduced in contact with them, in respect to generation of potential /emf. Here we demonstrate that every potency of any metal /non-metal in pure water is different and it is also so in the human body. It also however differs from body to body. However the generation of potential for any three electrodes strictly follows the Law of Triangle. The results of this experimental work undoubtedly confirm Hahnemann’s individualization of medicine and individualization of a patient, as stated by him long ago.

Overview: This is the 8th paper of the series to resolve the mystery of homeopathy scientifically. In our previous papers we clearly described that each homeopathic remedy is different from every other and every potency of a particular medicine is unique also in respect to its electrical energy content. The electrical energy of a remedy is controlled by the rearrangement of dipoles of water molecules. We also proved experimentally that chemical energy is substituted for electrical energy in water as well as in the human body1.

It is still not possible to find the potential of a single electrode and it is measured with reference to an electrode called the “Reference Electrode”. In modern science the said reference electrode is the “Hydrogen electrode”. But as we have shown earlier that emf can be generated by pairs of electrodes (metal/ non-metal) even in pure water, here we have found out the potential of an electrode (when dipped in pure water) with reference to Graphite as the Reference electrode. The reasons for taking Graphite as the Reference electrode are as follows:

  1. Graphite is non-metal and inert.

  2. It has no reaction with water.

  3. The emf generated by a pair of graphite electrodes is about 10 mV2 which is quite less than the emf generated by Graphite with any metal.

Experiment 1

In our earlier paper2 we have shown that Gr generated sufficient emf with Cu, Zn, Au, Ag and Pb. Herein we have again performed an experiment by measuring emf of the stated pairs in pure water and in two different human bodies and emf’s are recorded in the table below

Table:1

Sl No.

Pairs of electrodes

Emf generated in pure water

(in mV)

When Touched on human body (emf in mV)

Human Body “A”

Human Body “B”

1

Gr – Cu

300

300

270

2

Gr – Zn

1098

827

713

3

Gr – Au

160

223

233

4

Gr – Ag

220

277

256

5

Gr – Pb

742

621

557

As the emf generated by a pair of graphite electrodes is quite less than the emf generated with other metals, the potential of Gr may be taken arbitrarily as Zero to find out the relative electrode potential of Cu ,Zn, Au, Ag and Pb. Thus the relative electrode Potential of these electrodes are 300mV, 1098mV, 160mV, 220mV & 742mV for Cu, Zn, Au, Ag & Pb respectively (in pure water).

Discussion: From the above it is clear that each electrode when introduced in pure water generates some potential As it has already been shown that many electrodes, even being inert, generate some potential when dipped in water, it is obvious that such generation of potential is not due to any chemical reaction or presence of ions of water2,3,4.

Therefore we can say that each electrode generates a specific potential when dipped in pure water, and as stated in our earlier paper such generation is not due to the presence of ions of water, but is owing to specific orientation produced in water from the strain produced by the introduced electrode. Thus not only any substance (Polar or non-polar)5 , but even a metal or non-metal can generate some potential when dipped in pure water by producing strain and in turn changing orientations of dipoles of water molecules.

Experiment 2

When two electrodes are dipped in pure water contained in a beaker, it generates an emf. But what happens when three electrodes are dipped in the same beaker?

Case A: An experiment is performed wherein Cu, Zn & Gr are introduced in pure water in a beaker and the emf of all the three pairs are measured simultaneously at any particular moment, and thereafter another set of Cu, Zn & Gr are touched on a human body and emf of all the three pairs are again measured simultaneously at any particular moment for two human bodies, within 5 to 10seconds (i.e: the reading related to human body “B” is taken within 5 to 10 seconds with respect to “A”)

Table:2

Electrode pairs

When Dipped in Pure water (emf in mV)

When Touched on human body (emf in mV)

+ve -ve

Human Body “A”

Human Body “B”

1.

Cu – Zn

642

596

240

2.

Gr – Cu

287

202

112

3.

Gr – Zn

929

798

352

Algebraic Σ  =

0

0

0

It is found that the sum of two pairs of electrodes is equal to the third pair i.e: algebraic sum is zero (Σ= 0), as shown in Fig 1A & Fig 1B.

Table 3

Electrode pairs

When Dipped in Pure water (emf in mV)

When Touched on human body (emf in mV)

+ve -ve

Human Body “A”

Human Body “B”

1.

Cu – Zn

678

501

270

2.

Au – Cu

165

132

78

3.

Au – Zn

843

633

348

Algebraic Σ =

0

0

0

For this case it is also found that the sum of emf of 1st & 2nd pair is equal to the third pair.

Case C : When Gr is replaced by Ag

Table 4

Electrode pairs

When Dipped in Pure water (emf in mV)

When Touched on human body (emf in mV)

+ve -ve

Human Body “A”

Human Body “B”

1.

Cu – Zn

640

470

299

2.

Ag – Cu

132

45

72

3.

Ag – Zn

772

515

371

Algebraic Σ =

0

0

0

For this case it is again found that the sum of emf of 1st & 2nd pair is equal to the third pair.

Case D : When Gr is replaced by Pb

Table 5

Electrode pairs

When Dipped in Pure water (emf in mV)

When Touched on human body (emf in mV)

+ve -ve

Human Body “A”

Human Body “B”

1.

Cu – Zn

488

514

318

2.

Pb – Cu

-240

-200

-184

3.

Pb – Zn

248

314

140

Algebraic Σ =

0

0

0

For this case also it is found that the sum of emf of 1st & 2nd pair is equal to the third pair.

Discussion:

From the above experiment it is found that the sum of emf of two pairs of electrodes is always equal to the third pair. In other words the algebraic sum of emf for any three pairs is always Zero (i.e Σ emf =0).

For any three electrodes, say A,B & C (example; Gr,Cu &Zn respectively) dipped in pure water, there are three possible combinations A&B, B&C and A&C that generates emf. If we consider the stated pairs to generate +ve emf , then there must be an electrode that acts as +ve electrode with reference to one electrode but –ve with reference to other. Here “B” is such electrode which acts as +ve with “C” whereas it acts as –ve with “A”. Now if we consider A&B and B&C to be individual cells connected in series, its combined emf should be the emf of the third pair A&C for a particular experimental condition. Experimentally it is found to be true for all the four cases above (as shown in Table 2,3,4 &5). In other words we can say that the algebraic sum of emf generated by possible pairs of three electrodes is always Zero.

The question may arise of what happens on introduction of a fourth electrode. Actually on introduction of a 4th electrode a situation is arrived at wherein again one electrode is most +ve while one is most –ve , the other two being intermediate i.e +ve & -ve at the same time. The above Law of Triangle of emf can be extended for this case and thus the algebraic sum of emf of any three pairs will be Zero. This Law can even be extended to any number of electrodes dipped in pure water, whatever it may be 5th,6th etc.

Whenever any metal is dipped in water it has a specific repulsion due to the strain produced in water, and its electron has specific repulsive energy. The question may arise how Zn produces different emf with Gr and Cu simultaneously when dipped in pure water? It has already been stated that the potential of Graphite is taken arbitrarily as Zero. Now, since the emf generated by Zn w.r.t Gr is 1.2 volts and potential of Gr is taken as Zero , the relative potential of Zn is 1.2 volts, i.e electron at the upper end (i.e the end that is outside water) of the Zn has energy equivalent to 1.2eV 2.Similarly for Cu w.r.t Gr, producing emf of about 200mV,the energy of electron is 0.2 eV. When three electrodes are dipped in pure water and emf are measured simultaneously, electrons from each of the three electrodes try to go to the opposite end, thereby generating resultant emf for each pairs. Thus emf generated by Gr & Zn is (1.2-0) = 1.2 volts, as energy of the electron that moves from Zn to Gr has energy of (1.2eV-0eV)=1.2eV. Similarly the emf generated by Gr &Cu is(0.2-0) =0.2 volts,as energy of electron that moves from Zn to Gr has energy of (0.2eV-0eV)=0.2eV and for Cu &Zn is(1.2-0.2) =1.0volts,as energy of electron that moves from Zn to Cu has energy of (1.2eV-0.2eV)=1.0eV.

Moreover the question may arise why emf generated by human bodies differ for all the pairs when readings are taken within interval of about 5 seconds i.e; say for Cu – Zn pair the emf of human body “A” is 596 mV & for body “B” it is 240 mV (Table-2), for body “A” is 501mV & body “B” is 270mV(Table-3), for body 1 is 470mV & body “B” is 299mV(Table-4) and for body 1 is 514mV & body “B” is 318mV(Table-5). Here it is found that emf generated by Cu – Zn pair in case of body 1 is nearly 500mV whereas the same pair generated emf of about 300mV in case of body “B”. This is owing to the fact that dissimilar pairs of electrode generates more emf in water containing dissolved salts than in pure water1.

Inference:1) The potential generated by different metals/non-metals in pure water is different i.e; individualization of remedy.

2) The potential generated by metals /non-metals when touched with a living body is also different. The potential is also different for different bodies i.e . a particular metal generates different potential when touched with different living bodies. This is individualization of the human body.

3)The algebraic sum of generation of emf for any three electrodes dipped in pure water as well as contacting the human body is always Zero i.e; pure water and the human body behaves alike.

[Thus individualization of remedies as well as of the human body is confirmed scientifically as declared by C.F.S Hahneman long ago.]

Reference:

[1] The electrical energy of substances –the secret of homeopathy, Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty (Simillimum,vol.XXII, Summer Fall/ 2009. www.hanp.net)

[2] Untold facts of Science-the science behind homeopathy, Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty (Published in Homeopathy For Everyone May 2012 hpathy.com)

[3]. Water the Magic Liquid: Retaining Electrical Energy, Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty (Published in Homeopathy For Everyone April 2012 hpathy.com)

[4].Generation of electrode Potential of an electrode – an explanation, Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty (Simillimum,vol.XXIII.2010, www.hanp.net)

[5].The Homeopathic Dilution – A New Explanation, Ruhul Amin, Biplab Chakraborty & Farook Rahaman (Simillimum,vol.XXI,Summer Fall/2008. www.hanp.net)

About the author

Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty

Ruhul Amin & Biplab Chakraborty

Dr. Ruhul Amin MD is a Homeopathic physician & mental health professional, performing research work on homeopathy since 1998. The first work being on Diabetes Mellitus Type II and its homeopathic treatment, followed by Parkinsonism, Respiridone & Homeopathy and for the last eleven years concentrating strictly on the Homeopathic Dilution and its Scientific basis, along with chemist Biplab Chakraborty M Sc. Visit their http://aminchakraborty.blogspot.com/

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Biplab Chakraborty,M.Sc is a chemist from Calcutta University, previously a serious Critic of Homeopathic Dilution. . With this view he started research work along with Dr. Ruhul Amin for the last eleven years, finally being converted into a serious supporter of homeopathy. He along with Dr. Md.Ruhul Amin published papers on Homeopathic Dilution & its scientific Basis. These papers clearly reflect the contradiction within the modern science itself.

1 Comment

  • Dr. Ruhul Amin & Sri Biplab Chakraborty revolutionize the definition of medical science !!!!!!!!!. Hats off to them.

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