Clinical Cases Homeopathy Papers

A Review of the Kingdoms, with a Brief Lac Leo case

northwest college of homoeopathy
Written by Nazia Ahmed

The author describes some characteristic of the kingdoms and of various remedies.

Remedy relationships can be used in different ways and can be very helpful when we are unsure of which remedy to prescribe, but know which family the remedy belongs to. Sankaran looks at plants using their family groupings and classifies them according to their common sensation, whilst Scholten classifies minerals by referring to their position in the periodic table and relates them via series and stages.

Here is a list of the things you can look out for when considering what type of kingdom the patient belongs to.

Plant Kingdom

People who need plant remedies are soft, sensitive, emotional, adjusting, influenced easily, adaptable and irritable. The type of words that a person would use will be for example, ‘I am affected by, I am sensitive to, this hurts me, this touches me, I can’t bear, I am immediately affected by’ and they will have mood swings.  When speaking they will say that all sorts of things affect them and their handwriting will be rounded and their signature disorganised.  In terms of fears they will be of hurt and pain and their dreams and interests will be of nature, greenery, plants, things artistic and music. They will have varied cravings and the miasm affected will be the sycotic. Their manner of dressing will be that they will be sensitive and flowery and a keyword for them is sensitivity. Professionally they will be artists and nurses and their complaint will be haywire, rounded, wandering, and descriptive. But also the symptoms will be randomly described and not complete. The nature of the complaint will be sensitivity and they will have many modalities and be easily influenced with frequently a quick reaction.  The cause of their problems can be of a rapid onset and be emotional or physical with hurt, shock and strain[1].

Animal Kingdom

With animals, the keyword is competition; this is the key to survival and is hence reflected in the behaviour of such people. The behaviour of people can be evidenced from being attention seeking, attractive to aggressive, malicious and deceitful. The main words that are used are like ’I feel attacked by them, human beings are so cruel, I attack them, I jump at them, I am not good enough’. The main cause has to do with conflict, rejection and being looked down or have a feeling of being attacked. The type of speech is often of excitement, animated and vivid and the handwriting is attractive with the signature often aggressive and attention seeking. The nature and disposition of the person is affectionate, caring, playful, aggressive, alert, quick to react, animated, restless, deceitful, curious, malicious, jealous, expressive and communicative. The type of fears are loss of attractiveness, competition, attack, rejection and isolation. The dreams and interests are those of animals, snakes, pursuit and being attacked.  They will often crave meat and fish and will be changeable and unsteady people. The miasm will be syco-syphilitic and the manner of dressing will be attractive or dull and they may dress as an animal. The profession will be usually to do with competition and advertising fits in well. These people will also relate to other people as “humans,” somehow different from themselves as an animal. “I just don’t understand how humans think.” “Why are humans so inhumane[2].”

Mineral Kingdom  

The common theme running through this kingdom has to do with structure and organisation.  The problems will arise from a break or loss of this for example, a break in relationship, failure in performance and loss of position. The patients requiring such remedies are very systematic and organised. The main type of words used are those like “my relationship, my home/family, my bank balance, my performance, my work, my joints, my skin, my nerves.” When they speak it will be to the point and finish and the handwriting will be structured and the signature will be angled and straight. The disposition of the person will be very systematic, strong and calculative and the main fears will be of a break in structure, failure in performance or of losing something. The dreams will be those of structure, things, financial, relations, house and performance. They will often crave salt and earth and the miasm will be syphilitic. The main keyword for this kingdom is structure and they will often dress in clothes with patterns, checks, plain, symmetry. In occupation they will be those who are in accounts, computers, management, engineers and performers[3].

Relationships within kingdoms illustrated: Animals

I would like to discuss Lac Leoninum which is the Lion and Panthera Tigris which is the Tiger, both from the animal kingdom. Lac Leo is lion’s milk and the main themes that relate to this remedy will be discussed. The main themes that Sankaran identified as related to this remedy are that the person will have a feeling that others are putting them down and trying to show that they are inferior and foolish. Other themes include being angry with violent impulses and having a desire to smash and to hit.  There is also egotism and there will be sympathy and caring but there will also be a feeling of being neglected. There will also be deceit, cheating, bribing and singing and dancing. Other themes that have been identified from Nancy Herrick’s proving include anger and rage, theft, playfulness and being cat-like. There will also be a concern about people and the desire to help them, especially children. Divya Chhabra also identified themes: the person will think they are the king of the jungle and hence have a feeling of power and control. They will be seen as strong, the leader, responsible people who are committed to justice. They can also be dictators and like to battle against the possibility of losing their position of authority or control. In contrast the person will also battle for respect and be quite sensitive to any perceived insult[4]. Some of the themes that were identified by Farokh Master, especially in children, were that they are often the only child or first born and they want to be the best in everything. They will also love animals and love to play with them and are often quite sensitive about nature[5].

Panthera Tigris, the Tiger. The main themes that evolve around this remedy are those having to do with ego and proving themselves. For example, being born leaders, wanting to have the final say, being arrogant, abrupt and rude. Other people may also accuse them of being proud and egoistic and hence they will have dreams of being inferior and mocked at. Other themes are of meeting big and influential people;  of injustice – they believe everyone is unfair to them. They also have many dreams around this, for example, being falsely accused, murder, injustice, and fighting against people. They want to be the father figure.  A further theme is around abandonment and betrayal; they feel left behind by their friends, as though it was on purpose. They have dreams of abandonment in the family, or by friends; they can also be of fighting with their friends or have a feeling of being persecuted by them. They enjoy doing great things, for example performing beyond expectations, helping others, performing miracles. They will have a caring side to them where they will save and protect others. Their dreams will often show this for example, rescuing others, helping a girl in danger. They are also very strong people and have a lot of physical power and strength. They can also be very fierce and independent and very courageous. They also find it difficult to trust others and want to be respected[6].

Below is a discussion of the themes that are both similar and different:

They both have a feeling of being independent and being on their own. The lion will be angry at interference and will dream of being on his own and that he is forsaken by his father. The tiger will dream that his father has gone away for a long time and will also dream of being forsaken.

There is a feeling of being superior, powerful and capable and this is very strong.  The person can be intimidating, overpowering and overbearing; they will often want to have authority. They will also have a desire to dominate others and have an aversion for being told what to do. Within this theme the lion will have a delusion that his is king of the jungle and dream of being bigger and superior. They will have love for power and have a delusion that they are a great person. The tiger will have anger from contradiction, be assertive and advise others when it is not required and dream of correcting others.

The experience of being deserted by one’s friends, betrayed and pushed out of the group is very strong. The lion will have a forsaken feeling and feel the responsibility is too strong and will dream about their friends, and being left. The tiger will have dreams about being abandoned by friends or family, betrayed by friends and persecuted by friends.

Both the lion and the tiger will have strength, hence they are very strong characters and have a good opinion about themselves. They have high esteem and are direct and hardworking and successful people. They are very ambitious and independent and are very influential people. There is also a great sense of honour and integrity but with this they will also be sensitive to injustice and deceit. The lion will dream of being wrongly accused and of money and being overcharged. The tiger will also dream of being wrongly accused but also of being attacked by animals without any reason. They will have dreams of fighting against injustice, and injustice to them.

They also have a feeling of strength and confidence and sensitivity to wrong doing where they want to speak out and directly. The lion will speak abruptly and answer snappishly; similarly, the tiger will also speak abruptly, but with rudeness.  They are also courageous individuals and are protective of others with a desire to be good parents. They have a desire to support, guide and nurture their children and are very loyal and want to avoid bullying and abuse of power. On the other side to this both the lion and tiger will be arrogant, loud, opinionated and can betray their desire by being bullies.    They are intolerant of deceit. The lion will dream of stealing and cheating and of being suspicious of being cheated. The tiger will say “I can’t trust him, he is speaking in a manipulative way, they are lying.”

There is a feeling of a sense of responsibility especially in respect of caring for and protecting others. The lion will have strong responsibility, and the tiger will have responsibility with respect to caring and protecting those weaker and more dependent than themselves and particularly family members. Both are warm and passionate and are affectionate, playful, extroverts and energetic.  Both have fears of the family, of being weak and ill, and of themselves being too loud and domineering.

There is also a feeling of being proud and arrogant and the lion will dream of being arrogant and is haughty. While the tiger will become angry from criticism and will also be arrogant but dream of being appreciated.

They are also cruel and fierce and both have a lack of sympathy and have a lot of vengefulness with malice. The lion will be very uncompromising, hard hearted, angry and violent. The tiger will have desire to curse and morbid to kill.  Both will use violent imagery in their language be argumentative and confrontational.

In their movements they are agile, smooth, slow, but can also be fast.

Case example: Lac Leo

I would like to include a case example where I have prescribed the remedy Lac Leoninum.

Presenting complaint: Overeating and sibling rivalry.

MZ is a 5 year old boy who lives together with his parents and 3 year old sister. It has been known that since the age of two years he has been overeating and his mother is concerned about his weight. MZ is very sexist as he hates all girls including his younger sister. His character is such that he is described as being loving, affectionate and very caring. On the other hand, his mother also describes him also as a bully to his sister and a direct and strong minded individual. He likes to be the centre of attention and always gets his own way. He does not like it if his sister plays with his toys and will push her away. His mother also confirms that he growls like a lion when he is angry and when he is being told off; In fact I was once in the consultation room when he growled at me and I actually thought he sounded like a Lion.

He tends to eat even when he is not hungry, and he often sees red and orange eyes in the bathroom or around the house. He only responds to love and is warm blooded, preferring to walk around the house in bare feet. His mother says his favourite animal is the lion and he likes going to the zoo and drawing pictures of animals. His favourite bed time story is also based around the zoo.


I realised from the onset that I needed to look at a remedy from the animal kingdom.  The main themes that led me to this kingdom were: competition; draws attention to himself; needs to be seen and noticed; lively and animated; affectionate and playful: restless; expressive; jealousy; aggressiveness; and, fears.

I straightaway identified Lac Leoninum and realised that there were themes within the remedy that matched those of the patient. These were:

  • being independent and wanting things to go his way
  • feeling of being superior (most definitely as he believed he was better than his sister)
  • having great strength (very true as the patient is a very strong lad)
  • sense of injustice (he will always bring the family together)
  • being outspoken and direct
  • being courageous
  • warm and passionate
  • protective of his family
  • has fears – is scared of the dark and sees red and orange eyes in the bathroom
  • can be fierce and violent especially towards his sister
  • moves like a lion (is slow one moment and jumps on you the next), and
  • growls when things don’t go his way.

Prescription: Lac Leoninum 1m

Follow up: Amazing result – After three days the mother confirmed that the patient became more independent, likes to play with his sister and likes girls in general.  He no longer bullies his sister and his behaviour has improved dramatically.  His eating has also improved and he does not see those red and orange eyes anymore.  His mother repeated the dose 4 weeks later and the patient’s behaviour is stable, six months after the original prescription.


Finally, as part of my kingdom review, I considered relationships within the mineral kingdom, comparing two Natrum salts. This brings us, via Natrum Muriaticum, back to the sea (see Sea Mammals article).

Relationships within Minerals; the Natrum salts

The main themes that run through Natrum are described below:

Grief and depression, pessimism – One of the marked features is grief for example about what they have they lost. These people are very pessimistic, glum and melancholic.  They think that nothing will become right again and dwell on the past when everything was going well for them. They dwell so much that their thoughts go back to that time. They will often cry, but do not do this in front of others.

Closed, alone – They often keep their problems inside and are very closed and do not like discussing their issues. They have a feeling of being alone and that they have to carry this burden of sadness alone and cannot share their feelings. Due to being closed and having the feeling of being alone, they cannot expect any help from people in any form. They think they have to accept that this is their fate and consequently they withdraw and concentrate on their loss and sadness. They refuse to show their grief and sadness to anyone and hide this from everyone around them including those outside.

Restriction, denial and prohibition – This simply means that they believe  everything is lost and nothing can be right again. They feel they have expereinced a loss and believe that it cannot be rectified and they will not make any effort to regain their loss. They make a block in themselves and actually deny themselves of  from regaining their happiness and believe that to be happy is wrong. They are very pessimistic people.

Sensitive – They are very sensitive and very defenseless people. They feel that everything has been taken away from them and that everything else they have will also be taken away from them. They become easily frightened and are sensitive to music.

Holding on – They are very inclined to withdraw and like to hold onto everything especially the past and memories they have relating to that.

Natrum Carbonicum

This is a salt which belongs to the psoric miasm it is also a silvery white metal and is in group I of the periodic table. The remedy’s main affinities are the digestive system, with nerves, skin, hands, heels, ankles and mucous membranes. With the modalities they are also worse in the heat, at 5am, from mental exertion, milk, drafts, thunderstorms and damp weather. They are better for pressure, eating, rubbing and motion.

The natrum element of the remedy shows signs of forming and maintaining relationships. Natrum carbonicum is a very sensitive person and if they are in a relationship will become very dependent on this. They also have a lot of fear and sadness and feel they are on their own.  They are unselfish and will give everything to others. They are very sympathetic, devoted, kind and cheerful people.

Natrum Muriaticum

This is a mineral salt and belongs to the sycotic miasm.  It also belongs to group IA and Chlorine of the periodic table. It is one of the most popularly prescribed remedies.  The remedy has an affinity for the glands, mucous, spleen and liver. Also for the skin, for the left side and for the right side; for nutrition, digestive tract, brain, blood, muscles, mind and heart. The modalities are:  worse 9-11 am and with the sun; worse for the heat, violent emotions, sympathy, crying, lying down near the seahore and with sea air. They are better for the seashore, going without regular meals, open air, before breakfast, pressure and tight clothing. They feel let down, hurt and even betrayed by the very person they trust or have a relationship with. There is great vulnerability and fear of being rejected, they also like being on their own.  There is a lot of grief in this remedy and it does not matter whether it is old or new or whether several years have passed. They have a feeling of guilt, crave for salt and have great thirst for cold drinks.

The similarities and differences between the two Natrum salts


Nat Carb

Nat Mur

Fears Starting at the slightest  noise. Fear of mankind, of thunderstorms, of everything. Emotionally hurt or disappointed, being alone, of robbers, rejection.
Cold/Warm Chilly. Warm can be chilly.
Thirst/craving During gastric upsets. Cold drinks, craving for salt.
Drink Worse for milk, desires beer and cold drinks. Desires bitter drinks, coffee, cold drinks.
Tongue characteristic Heavy difficulty in talking. Sensation of hair on tongue, mapped with patches.
Time Modality Worse at 5am, hungry feeling at 10-11am and 10-11pm. Worse between 9-11 am
Dreams Danger, robbers, murder, death, water and flood. Anxious, weeps during sleep, robbers.
Sadness depression and melancholia and anxiety Melancholy with anxiety (MWA), sadness with tears about future. MWA, sadness which induces recurrences of unpleasant recollections and much weeping aggravated by consolation, silent grief.

(Comparison taken from various resources within Reference Works)



  • Reference Works and the books in them
  • Answer to personal question to Sheilagh Creasey on Leading Voices in Homeopathy
  • Remedies Complementary, Inimical, and Antidotal  H.A. Roberts, M.D.  (Read before I.H.A., Bureau of Homoeopathic Philosophy, June 17, 1938)
  • Vermeulen’s Synoptic 1
  • Jonathan Hardy’s Lecture Notes on Lacs
  • Sensation in Homeopathy by Sankaran

[1] Taken from Sensation in Homeopathy by Sankaran

[2] Taken from The Soul of Remedies by Sankaran

[3] Taken from The Soul of Remedies by Sankaran

[4] Taken from Jonathan Hardy’s Lecture Notes on Lac Leoninum

[5] Taken from Jonathan Hardy’s Lecture Notes on Lac Leoninum

[6] Taken from Jonathan Hardy’s Lecture Notes on Lac Leoninum

About the author

Nazia Ahmed

At the time of writing Nazia Ahmed was a third year student and is currently in her fourth year studying at the NorthWest College of Homoeopathy. Upon completing her final year, Nazia would like to practice homeopathy full-time. Her ambition and passion for homeopathy means that she is dedicated to her work and would like to treat patients from all over the world. Email: [email protected]


  • Thanks to Nazier Ahmed for good Article on “A Review of the kingdoms with a brief Lac Leo Case”

    I wish you may success in your study. May Allah help you.

    Dr Shamsur Rahman
    Abu Dhabi,

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