Learning disability arises from neurological differences in brain structure and function and affects a person’s ability to receive, restore, process, retrieve or communicate information.
Learning disability can be an after effect of the insults developing before and during birth or after post-natal events, or in the gestational history of the mother, or due to nutritional deficiency or various toxins.
Morgan, a general practitioner in Sussex England, published the first case of what is known as dyslexia, a word derived from the Latin word ‘dys’ means difficult and the Greek word ‘lexia’ means words, literally “difficulty with words.”
He wrote the first case of learning disability on 7th November,1896. In the years following, different types of learning disability were defined as, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dysnomia and dysphasia.
“Specific Learning Disabilities means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, spell or to do mathematical calculations.
The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor handicaps, or mental retardation, emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages.”
This definition by the U.S. Government in Public Law 94-142 of Learning Disabilities has been adopted in India.
The recent prevalence data suggest that approximately 4% of the child population was diagnosed with moderate or severe learning disorder. Some studies in India calculated the prevalence of specific learning disability to be 3 – 10%.
Common types of learning disabilities
- Dyslexia – Difficulty with reading
Signs of reading difficulty include problems with:
- letter and word recognition
- understanding words and ideas
- reading speed and fluency
- general vocabulary skills
- Dyscalculia – Difficulty with math
- Problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money.
- Dysgraphia – Difficulty with writing.
Symptoms of a written language learning disability revolve around the act of
writing. They include problems with:
- neatness and consistency of writing
- accurately copying letters and words
- spelling consistency
- writing organization and coherence
- Problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas
- Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) – Difficulty with fine motor skills
- Problems with hand-eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity
- Dysphasia – Difficulty with language.
- Problems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehension
- Auditory Processing Disorder – Difficulty hearing differences between sounds
- Problems with reading, comprehension, language
- Visual Processing Disorder – Difficulty interpreting visual information.
- Diagnosis is based on ICD 10
HOMOEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT –
The main rubrics related to learning disability (from homoeopathic medical repertory – Robin Murphy ND)
- MIND- MISTAKES ,general , calculating , in
- MIND- MISTAKES, general, differentiating of objects ,in
- MIND – MISTAKES, general, reading, in
- MIND -MISTAKES ,general, speaking ,in
- MIND -MISTAKES ,general, writing, in
- MIND -MATHEMATICS , general,
- DISEASES- LEARNING, disabilities,
1) CALCAREA CARBONICA – Persons of scrophulous constitution who take cold easily. A jaded state, mental or physical, due to overwork. Abscesses in deep muscles ; polypi and exostosis. Children crave eggs, eat dirt and other indigestible things ; are prone to diarrhoea. Children of fat, flabby type who grow rapidly, profuse sweat on head, large headed, forgetful, learns poorly , sluggish and slow in it’s movements, confused , obstinate ,aversion to work , slight mental exertion produce headache. Confused ; misplaces words . Depressed melancholic or doubting mood. Aggravation from mental exertion, eyestrain and anxiety.
2) BARYTA CARBONICA – Specifically indicated in infancy and old ag . The children who have a swollen abdomen , takes cold easily and always have swollen tonsils. People subjected to quinsy which is prone to suppuration ; gums bleed easily . Marasmic . Slow , inept and backward . Childish , thoughtless behavior . Timid . Cowardly. Weak beclouded mind . Increasing mental weakness . Forgets her errand or the word in her mouth. Shy of strangers . For scrofulous children who are mentally and physically dwarfish , doesn’t grow and develop, loss of memory, mental weakness, loss of confidence in himself , confusion, memory deficient, forgetful, inattentive, child cannot be taught for it cannot remember; threatened idiocy.
3) AGARICUS MUSCARIUS – They are related to tubercular diathesis , anaemia , chorea. Jerking , twitching , trembling and itching are strong indications. Various forms of neuralgias and spasmodic affections. Reading difficult, as type seems move , swim. Aversion to conversation. Indisposed to perform any kind of labour especially mental. Sings, talks ,but doesn’t answer, loquacity, aversion to work , indifference, fearlessness, restless. Aggravation from mental exertion. Nervous and restless.
4) LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM – Precocious , weakly children of Grauvogl’s carbo- nitrogenoid constitution . It is especially adapted to ailments developing gradually , functional power weakens , failure of the digestive powers , when the liver function is seriously disturbed . Sees only half of an object. Depression of mind and sensorium, stupid ,memory fails , use wrong words to express himself, mixes up things , falling brain power. The subject is sallow , sunken , with premature lines in the face; looks older than he is. Children are weak with well developed head, but puny sickly bodies. Confused over daily matters . Can’t think. Miscalls or omits words. Averse to undertake new things, loss of self confidence, spells or write wrong words and syllables. Cannot read what he writes.
5) MERCURIUS – A human “thermometer”. It is indicated in the secondary stage of syphilis where there is febrile chloro- anaemia , rheumatoid pains behind sternum , around joints , ulceration of mouth , throat , falling of hair . All mercurius symptoms are worse at night and during perspiration. Breath , excretions and body smell foul. Adapted to light haired person’s ; skin and muscles lax. Slow in answering questions. Memory weakened and loss of will-power. Thinks he is losing his reason. Weak exhausted , hurried and rapid talking. Marasmus .Bad effects of fright, leaving one in a state of great anxiety < night . Apprehensive. Moral dejection , with great listlessness , discourage . Entire unfitness for meditation , tendency to make mistakes while speaking .
6) CALCAREA PHOSPHORICA –. It is especially indicated in tardy dentition and in problems incident to that period , bone diseases , non – union of fractured bones and anaemias after acute diseases and chronic wasting diseases. Numbness and crawling are charecteristic sensations in calcarea phosphorica . Anaemic children who are dark complexioned ,dark hair and eyes , thin spare subjects , peevish , have cold extremities . Forgetful. Emaciated , unable to stand ; slow in learning to walk. Idiotismus versatalis . Tall or scrawny children with dirty brownish skin and soft thin bones. Aggravation from mental exertion .
7) NUX MOSCHATA – There will be a marked tendency to fainting fits with heart failure . Cold extremities, extreme dryness of mucous membranes and skin. Strange feeling with irresistible drowsiness. Adapted to children of a nervous hysterical temperament, absence of mind ; cannot think ; indifference to everything , weakness or loss of memory , vanishing of thoughts while reading , talking or writing; uses wrong words. Changeable ; laughing and crying , confused , impaired memory . Aggravation from mental exertion or shock, from emotions.
8) CANNABIS INDICA – It produces the most remarkable hallucinations and imaginations , exaggeration in the duration of time and extent of space , being most characteristic. Conception of time, space and place is gone. Extremely happy and contended , nothing troubles. Very forgetful: Forgets his last words and ideas ; begins a sentence ; forgets what he intends to speak ; inability to recall any thought or event on account of other thoughts crowding his brain. Cannot finish a sentence. Exalted ideation and perception, with mental excitement . Feels weak and all gone to nothing . Weak vision.
9) FERULA SUMBUL – It has many hysterical and nervous symptoms and is of use in neuralgic affections and anomalous , functional, cardiac disorders .Numbness on becoming cold . Emotional and fidgety .Nervous and irritable. Makes mistakes in writing and adding , nervous , hysterical and nervous.
10) HELLEBORUS NIGER – A condition of sensorial depression , sees , hears imperfectly , and a general muscular weakness. Slow in answering . Thoughtless ; staring. Involuntary sighing . Blunted senses and sluggish responses ; drops things . Inattention . Stupid , obtuse or apathetic . Things look new . Stupid , staring or tired look. Blank , somber despair .
11) ANACARDIUM ORIENTALE – They are neurasthenics ; such have a type of nervous dyspepsia , relieved by food; impaired memory, depression, irritability and diminution of senses . Sensation of a plug in a plug in various parts – eyes, rectum ,bladder. Fear of examination in student. Sudden loss of memory ; everything seems to be in a dream; patient is greatly troubled about his forgetfulness; confused, unfit for business. Fixed ideas. Weakening of all senses , sight , hearing . Aversion to work ; lack of self -confidence. Brain-fag. Absent mindedness . Very easily offended.Mental and physical lack of power. Bad memory; suddenly forgets names . Brain-fag. Mental and physical lack of power . Aggravation from mental exertion , emotions , anger , fright , and care.
12) ARSENICUM ALBUM – It acts profoundly in every organ and tissue. Debility, exhaustion, restlessness, with nightly aggravation, irritable weakness, burning pains and great exhaustion after the slightest exertion are the characteristic symptoms. Fear fright and worry. Great anguish and restlessness. Lacks courage. Sensitive to disorder and confusion. The disposition is of depressing, melancholic , despairing , indifferent . Restless head . Anguish.
13) CAPSICUM ANNUUM – Seems to suit especially person’s of lax fiber , weak ; diminished vital heat . A relaxed plethoric sluggish, cold remedy . Great uncleanliness of body. It affects the mucous membranes, producing a sensation of constriction. Children of clumsy , fat , dirty , and disinclined to work or think. Excessive peevishness. Dullness of all the senses. Children become awkward ; especially with headache. Taciturn and obstinate.
14) CHAMOMILLA- Chamomilla is sensitive, irritable, thristy , hot , and numb. Oversensitiveness from abuse of coffee and narcotics. Pains unendurable, associated with numbness. Night sweats. Whining restlessness. Mental calmness contraindicate Chamomilla. Complaints from anger and vexation. Impatient, intolerant of being spoken to or interrupted ; extremely sensitive to every pain ; always complaining. Peevish , irritable , snappish cannot return a civil answer. Aversion to talking , answers peevishly. Speech, affections of. Stupidity. Mental obtuseness. Omits words. Bad temper . Frantic irritability . Unappeasable crossness . Oversensitive . Ugly , cross , quarrelsome and uncivil.
15) MEDORRHINUM – A powerful and deep – acting medicine , often indicated for chronic ailments due to suppressed gonorrhoea . Great disturbance and irritability of nervous system . Children dwarfed and stunted . Chronic cattarhal conditions in children . State of collapse and trembling all over. Intensity of all sensations. Sycotic taint , poor reaction.Forgetfulness: of names; later of words and initial letters. Loses constantly the thread of her talk. Seems to herself to make wrong statements, because she does not know what to say next, begins all right but does not know how to finish. Difficulty in concentrating his thoughts on abstract subjects. Memory weak, cannot concentrate; forgets words, names; cannot finish sentences. Mental confusion. Things seem strange. Fearsome. Apprehensive.
16) NUX VOMICA – The nux vomica person’s will be thin, spare , quick , active , nervous and irritable. Zealous fiery temperament . Very irritable , sensitive to all impressions. Cannot bear noises , odours , light . Sullen , fault-finding. Violent reaction ; often irregularly fitful or inefficient . Irritable and hypersensitive , mentally and physically. Angry and impatient. Dizziness of the mind, an unsteady, wavering condition. Awkwardness and drowsiness. Great laziness, with dislike to and unfitness for bodily and mental labour .Incapacity for meditation; tendency to misapply words when speaking; difficulty in finding suitable expressions; mistaking weights and measures; frequent confusion when writing, with omission of syllables, or entire words. Aggravation from mental exertion, anger.
17) PLANTAGO – The remedy is having considerable clinical reputation in the treatment of ears , toothache , and enuresis. Periodical prosopalgia , worse 7am to 2pm. Pain in ears , pain goes from one ear to the other through head. Hearing acute; noises painful. Nocturnal enuresis. Profuse flow of saliva . Mind inactive, with dull, muddled feeling in head. Despondency, confusion of thought. Irritable, morose; impatient, restless mood, with dull, stupid feeling in brain. Great mental prostration, aggravated by mental exertion. Great prostration of mind , worse by mental exertion ,causes rapid breathing and anxiety.
18) TARENTULA HISPANICA – Extremely restless , hysterical with chlorosis , chorea. Constriction and formication sensation . Sensitive to music. Aversion to company , but wants someone present. Twitching and jerking of muscles of extremities are characteristics . Exatra ordinary contractions and movements. Violence ;sudden. Cunning and destructive. Little intelligence and poor memory. Sudden alternation of mood. Sensitive and nervous . When questioned she does not answer .The mental symptoms are better in evening and after eating.
19)TUBERCULINUM – Tuberculinum is indicated mostly in renal affections, but caution is necessary , for where skin and intestines donot perform normally even high petencies are dangerous. It is especially adapted to lax fiber ,low recuperative powers , light – complexioned , narrow chested subjects who are very susceptible to changes in the weather. When symptoms are constantly changing and well- selected remedy fail to improve , and cold is taken from slight exposure . Mentally defecient children. Very sensitive mentally and physically. Patient always tired ; motion causes intense fatigue ; aversion to work ; wants constant changes. Remedy for nervous children .Tubercular taint. Dissatisfied. Confusion. Sensitive; every trifle irritates. Indifferent. Forgetful. Aversion to all labour , especially mental work. Aggravation mental excitement, thinking of it.
20) THUJA OCCIDENTALIS – The main action of thuja is on skin and genito- urinary system . Rapid exhaustion and emaciation . For ill- effects of vaccination . Complaints from moonlight. Sycotic , hydrogenoid or lymphatic – constitution. Hasty and anxious . Cannot concentrate. Emotional sensitiveness ; music causes weeping and trembling . Vacancy in head, with inability to think. Slow speech, with frequent interruption, because he is obliged to hunt for his words. Restlessness. Great depression. He meditates over every tiff, with anxious concern for the future.
21) KALI PHOSPHORICUM – One of the great nerve remedies . Prostration , weak and tired especially adapted to young . Marked disturbance in sympathetic nervous system . Conditions arising from want of nerve power, neurasthenia , mental and physical depression , are wonderfully improved by this remedy . The causes are excitement , overwork and worry . Nervous , sensitive and weak . Shyness; disinclined to converse .Mental and physical depression. Very nervous. Brain-fag. Loss of memory . Slightest labour seems a heavy task. Shyness. Difficulty in concentration, recollecting and thinking. Brain are fatigued after overwork or exhaustive study. Nervous .Loss of memory. Cannot recollect word. Omits letters in writings or use wrong words. Weakness in sight ; loss of perceptive power . Headache of students , those worn out by fatigue. Cerebral anaemia. Offensive breath from mouth with excessive dryness in morning.
22) PHOSPHORICUM ACIDUM – The common acid “ debility” is marked in this remedy , producing a nervous exhaustion . Mental debilty first ; later physical. The action mainly on young people who grow rapidly , and who are overtaxed mentally and physically. Optic nerve seems torpid . Roaring , with difficult hearing . Intolerant of noise. Weak and debilitated . Slowness. Grows too fast , quiet . Aversion to talking. Mental debility. Impaired memory . Indifferent. Cannot collect his thoughts or find the right word . Difficult comprehension. Confused.Slow grasp. Cannot collect his ideas ;hunt for words. Brain-fag . Poor memory. Aggravation from emotions ,grief, mental shock.
23) APIS MELLIFICA – APIS acts especially on outer parts , skin , coatings of inner organs , and serous membranes. Extreme sensitiveness to touch and general soreness is marked. Whole brain feels tired. Apathetic , jealous , fidgity , hard to please. Sudden shrill and piercing dreams . Drops things readily. Sensitive. Childish. Foolishly suspicious, jealous , fussy and fidgety. Indifferent . Awkward. Listless; cannot think clearly. Cannot concentrate mind when attempting to read or study. Whole brain feels very tired.
24) SULPHUR – This the great hahnemannian anti- psoric remedy . It’s action is centrifugal , from within outward. Ebullitions of heat , dislike of water , dry and hard hair and skin , red orifices , sinking feeling in stomach about 11am and cat – nap sleep are indicative of sulphur . Complaints that relapse . General offensive character of discharge and exhalations . Aversion to being washed. Atrophy of children. Slow, lazy, and always tired. Very forgetful. Difficult thinking. Irritable. Aversion to business; loafs- too lazy to arouse himself. Stupidity and imbecility , difficulty in understanding and answering correctly. Misplaces or cannot find a right word when he speaks . Errors respecting objects .
25) CALCAREA SILICATA – A deep , long acting medicine for complaints which come on slowly and reach their final development after long periods . Very sensitive to cold . Patient is weak emaciated , cold and chilly , but worse from being overheated ; sensitive generally . Hydrogenoid constitution . Atrophy of children . Absent -minded , irritable , irresolute , lacks self – confidence. Fearful.
26) CONIUM MACULATUM – Conium is an excellent remedy , such as difficult gait , trembling , sudden loss of strength. Great debility in morning in bed. Weakness of body and mind , trembling , and palpitation. Shy people ,fear of being alone. Weak memory. Cannot think after using eyes. Excitement cause mental depression. No inclination for business or study. Takes no interest in anything. Want of mental energy . Confusion of ideas as from drowsiness. Weakness of intellectual faculties and memory. Forgetfulness and extreme difficulty in recollecting things. Dim sighted ; worse , artificial light . Paralysis of ocular muscles . Defective hearing.
27) RHAMNUS CALIFORNIA – One of the positive remedies for rheumatism and muscular pains . Dizzy full feeling in head . Bursting feeling with every step . Dullness of hearing . Profuse sweat. Nervous , restless , irritable. Lassitude ; mentally dull and dazed ; unable to concentrate mind on studies . Dullness of hearing . Nervous, restless, irritable .Lassitude ; mentally dull and dazed; unable to concentrate mind on studies.
28) XEROPHYLUM – Dull, cannot concentrate mind for study ; forgets names ; writes last letters of words first ; misspells common words . Difficult to focus for close work .
29) GRAPHITES – Like all carbons, this remedy is an anti psoric of great power . Children impudent , teasing , laugh at reprimands . Has a particular tendency to develop the skin phase of internal disorders. Music makes her weep. Tendency to obesity. Hardness of hearing. Hears better in noise . Hot drinks disagrees .Fat, relaxed, chilly . Sad fearsome and irresolute. Great tendency to start . Unable to decide .Want of disposition to work . Fidgety while sitting at work . Apprehensive, despondency , indecision. Forgetfulness and misapplication of words in speaking and writing.
30) ZINCUM METALLICUM – The word “fag” covers a large part of zinc action. Defective vitality. Period of depression in disease . Convulsions with pale face and no heat . Very sensitive to noise. Paresis. Fears arrest on account of a supposed crime . Melancholic. Depressed . Forgetful; repeats the question , then answers. Brain- fag. Weak memory . Aversion to work , to talk . Child repeats everything said to it . Lethargic , stupid. Aggravation from mental exhaustion. In chronic diseases with brain and spinal symptoms , trembling , convulsive twitching and fidgety are guiding symptoms.
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