*An excerpt from The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy, Berkeley:: North Atlantic Books/Random House, 2008.
“Too many wives of conventional physicians are going to homeopathic physicians,” complained one doctor at the 1883 meeting of the American Medical Association. “And to make it worse,” he added, “they are taking their children to homeopaths too” (Coulter, 1973, III, 116)
Ever since the beginning of homeopathy in the early 1800s, women have been attracted to this system of medicine as patients, as home care prescribers for their family, and as professional homeopaths. It is estimated that two-thirds of homeopathic patients in the nineteenth century were women (Kirschmann, 2004).
Historians and physicians today assert that nineteenth-century conventional medicine was barbaric. The use of mercury, arsenic, bloodletting, and leeches was common medical practice, and such treatment usually caused considerably more harm than good. The women of that day, therefore, sought safer medical treatment, and they turned to homeopathy in significant numbers.
Women were also attracted to homeopathy because it not only treated their physical complaints but also inquired into and treated various emotional and mental concerns. While the act of listening to patients provided its own therapeutic benefit, the fact is homeopathy became very popular in the U.S. and Europe in the mid- and late 1800s due to its particularly beneficial results in treating the infectious disease epidemics of that day (cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, scarlet fever, and more). These impressive results helped make it clear to women that this new form of medicine was more effective than orthodox medicine—and it was safer (Bradford, 1900; Coulter, 1973).
The 1840s and 1850s witnessed the establishment and growth of “Ladies Physiological Societies,” early women’s consciousness-raising meetings at which women taught themselves about their own bodies and how to use various natural healing methods to safely and effectively heal themselves and their families.
Women also became known for spreading homeopathy’s popularity in communities. One homeopathic doctor asserted at a meeting of the American Institute of Homeopathy: “Many a woman armed with her little stack of remedies, had converted an entire community to homeopathy” (Winston, 1999, 141)
The positive benefits that these women experienced with homeopathic medicines were not simply in their own health care but in that of their children (Coulter, 1975, 114–118). Determining which homeopathic medicine to use for a sick person was not based on the diagnosis of his or her disease but more on the specific syndrome of symptoms that the person had, thus enabling women and other nonmedically trained people to learn how to treat themselves and others for common acute complaints.
More serious and chronic ailments required professional homeopathic care, but the homeopathic system allowed women to provide helpful therapeutic care for their families; it was simply more user-friendly than conventional medicine of the day.
These actions became philosophically and economically threatening to orthodox physicians. Not only was homeopathy identified in the public mind with medical reform, it was also closely associated with women’s rights, emancipation of slaves, and Republican politics (at a time when Republicans were “liberal” and when Lincoln and other social reformers and abolitionists were Republicans).
Homeopathy’s connection with social liberalism was important to women because nineteenth-century social norms were so restrictive to women. Women who even considered working in a professional field were scorned.
Famous Women Advocates of Homeopathy
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902), one of the leaders of the nineteenth-century women’s rights movement, was a particularly strong advocate of homeopathy, asserting “I have seen wonders in Homeopathy” and “I intend to commence life on Homeopathic principles” (Wellman, 2004, 158).
Ms. Stanton had such good experiences with homeopathy that she even became a lay practitioner (although unlicensed, she prescribed homeopathic medicines for others; Winston, 2004).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was married to Henry Stanton (1805–1887), who was a successful patent attorney, a state senator, and co-founder of the Free Soil Party, which was later absorbed by the Republican Party. While he was often away doing political work, Elizabeth cared for and raised their seven children.
Even though three of their boys contracted malaria, she treated them with homeopathic medicines successfully for this serious illness and for all other health concerns that occurred (Goldsmith, 1998, 39). In her autobiography, which she dedicated to her close friend and colleague, Susan B. Anthony, Stanton wrote that she commonly prescribed homeopathic medicines to various members in her community: “I was their physician, also—with my box of homeopathic medicines I took charge of the men, women, and children in sickness. Thus the most amicable relations were established” (Stanton, 1897). She further asserted that she primarily prescribed homeopathic medicine in high potencies.
One of the most prominent American feminists of the nineteenth century (but whose name is not well-known today) was Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838–1927). Though born quite poor, Woodhull became wealthy as the first woman to own a Wall Street investment firm, the first woman to own a newspaper, and the first woman to run for the U.S. presidency. In 1872, she ran for president in the newly formed Equal Rights Party; her vice presidential candidate was Frederick Douglass, the black statesman, editor, and orator. She lost to a popular incumbent, Ulysses S. Grant. Woodhull was also known to advocate for and practice homeopathy, though she was never formally trained in it.
Florence Nightingale (1820–1910), pioneer of the nursing profession, was known to have sought care from Dr. James Gully, a homeopathic physician who owned a highly respected hydrotherapy spa in Malvern, England. Dr. Gully helped save Florence Nightingale from a nervous breakdown after she returned home from traumatic experiences during the Crimean War (Ruddick, 2001, 19).
She referred to him as a “genius” (Jenkins, 1972, vii). Although Florence Nightingale became an advocate of water cures, she was never known to advocate or write about homeopathy in her public writings; in her private letters, though, she once wrote to her mother that she hoped her father would try homeopathic treatment for an eye problem he was experiencing (Nightingale, 1852).
Many of the leaders of the women’s rights movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were also advocates of homeopathy. Mary Coffin Ware Dennett (1872–1947) was the founder of the National Birth Control League, the first organization in the United States to advocate for population control.
Distinct from the work by Margaret Sanger, who sought to circumvent obscenity laws by giving information and devices to physicians so they could distribute them to their patients, Dennett fought for the full repeal of the anti-obscenity laws by arguing that women had a legal right to birth control services and devices (Kirschmann, 2004, 140).
In 1921 Dennett met with Dr. Hubert Work, former AMA president and then assistant postmaster general. Dr. Work asserted that he was “opposed to the entire subject [birth control],” and said that Dennett seemed to advocate instruction on “how to have illicit intercourse without the danger of pregnancy.”
The next year, when Dr. Work became postmaster general, he instructed post offices throughout the country to post announcements asserting that the simple sending or receiving of information on birth control was a “criminal act” (Kirschmann, 2004, 141).
Ms. Dennett was arrested and convicted in 1929 for writing and distributing the YWCA-endorsed pamphlet, “The Sex Side of Life: An Explanation for Young People,” which was judged “obscene” under the Comstock Act. This decision was reversed on appeal (Chen, 1997).
Dennett was just as passionate about homeopathy as she was about birth control rights. Born into a family of ardent supporters of homeopathy, her mother and sister were advocates, and her uncle, Carleton Spencer, MD, was a leading homeopathic physician and educator in New York City. Dennett even became an employee of the American Foundation for Homeopathy and worked diligently but unsuccessfully to raise money from wealthy homeopathic patients.
The American Institute of Homeopathy voted to admit women into its organization in1869, seven years before the AMA did likewise. Although women were admitted into the AMA in 1876, the bylaws were not changed to formally accept women as members until 1915 (Kirschmann, 2004, 83). By 1915, ten women had already been elected to serve as vice presidents of the American Institute of Homeopathy.
Women who went to homeopathic medical schools did so despite great challenges. Most of these women were considerably older than the male medical students. One survey found that the average age of women attending homeopathic schools was 34 years, and it was not uncommon for them to begin studying medicine in their forties or fifties. Many of these women were mothers, and some faced considerable resistance from within their families.
The First Women Physicians
Although some historians incorrectly credit Elizabeth Blackwell, MD (1821–1910) as being the first woman in America to be awarded a medical degree, she wasn’t, and not just because she was British. The first American woman to graduate with a degree from an American medical school was Lydia Folger Fowler, MD (1822–1879), who graduated from the Rochester Eclectic Medical College in 1850. Adding a little more Americana history to this story, it is intriguing to note that Dr. Fowler was a relative of Benjamin Franklin.
The first woman ever granted a medical degree was Melanie d’Hervilly (1800–1878), the second wife of Samuel Hahnemann, MD, founder of homeopathy. At the age of 34, Melanie married Samuel, who was 79 at the time.
Although he lived in Germany, she brought him to Paris, where she apprenticed with him, and he once asserted that she was “better acquainted with homeopathy, both theoretically and practically, than any of my followers” (Haehl, 1922, 446–447).
Dr. Hahnemann wrote to the Allentown Homeopathic Academy (America’s first homeopathic medical school) to ask if they would grant Melanie a degree, and in 1840, she was awarded a diploma, nine years before Elizabeth Blackwell’s graduation.
Other historians assert that Dr. Blackwell created the first women’s medical college. This also is not true. The first women’s medical college was the Boston Female Medical College, founded in 1848. Four years later, it changed its name to the New England Female Medical College, and then, in 1873, it merged with a larger homeopathic medical school at Boston University to become a coeducational college of medicine.
Mercy B. Jackson, MD (1802–1877) was one of the early graduates (1850) from the New England Female Medical College. Her story is typical of many women of that time. She was married in 1823 to Rev. John Bisbee, pastor of the First Universalist Society in Hartford, Connecticut, but he died in 1829.
She had three children with her first husband and eight more with her second, though five of her children did not survive childhood. Mercy became all too familiar with the limitations and the dangers of conventional medicine as she experienced excessive bleedings, leeches, and purgative and cathartic medications.
Mercy Jackson, her second husband, and her family moved to Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1833. When her husband’s cousin and Jackson’s good friend, Lydia Jackson, married Ralph Waldo Emerson, Jackson was introduced to a vibrant intellectual circle.
In 1839, she began studying homeopathy, and in 1841, she began a limited homeopathic practice among her friends. She expressed an interest in studying medicine to her family physician, Dr. Robert Capen, a Harvard-trained doctor. They traveled together to Boston to purchase some books and medicines. Capen also became convinced of homeopathy’s value, and in 1842, he became a homeopath and continued to practice until he passed away in 1853.
However, Mercy Jackson wanted to obtain a more formal medical education. When feminist Harriet K. Hunt (1805–1875) was refused admission to Harvard, Mercy Jackson wrote to her in support of her efforts. They developed a lifelong friendship as both women became increasingly involved in the women’s rights movement. As early as 1854 Mercy wrote a letter to the assessors of the Town of Plymouth protesting “taxation without representation.”
Ultimately, Mercy Jackson graduated from the New England Female College in 1850, at the age of 48. In April 1868, Dr. Mercy B. Jackson was nominated to be the first woman member of the Massachusetts Homeopathic Medical Society, but she was refused membership by a 33-to-31 vote, even though the executive committee had recommended her.
In 1867 the question of “female medical education” attracted the attention of the American Medical Association and the American Institute of Homeopathy (AIH). A resolution to grant women admittance to the AIH was proposed but lost by a vote of 68 to 56. However, in 1869, a similar resolution was proposed and passed, 80 to 45.
In 1871, Dr. Mercy B. Jackson became the first woman admitted to AIH. In 1874, the Massachusetts Homeopathic Medical Society passed a resolution allowing women admittance to their state society, and Dr. Mercy B. Jackson was the first woman to be admitted. She later served on the faculty of Boston University School of Medicine, where she was professor of diseases of children.
The homeopathic profession owes Dr. Jackson gratitude for demonstrating the power of Pulsatilla to turn breech babies in the womb to allow a safer and more rapid labor (Cleaves, 1873; King, 1905; Pilgram Hall, online).
Radicalized by her belief in the importance of women’s equality, Dr. Jackson argued her medical beliefs in articles on women’s diseases for homeopathic journals, and she battled for women’s rights in articles written for Lucy Stone’s feminist publication, The Women’s Journal.
She chastised a prominent advocate of coeducation for “wishing to make women as nearly as possible like men. … women are now struggling … to have the same opportunities to use in a woman’s way” (Jackson, 1874).
Clemence Sophia Lozier, MD (1813–1888) opened a homeopathic medical school for women because she insisted “that woman was, by every instinct and aptitude of her nature, better fitted for the medical profession than man” (Lozier, 1888). Distinct from the men’s medical schools, where there was great antagonism between conventional and homeopathic faculty and students, the students and faculty at women’s medical schools tended to cooperate with each other, at least initially.
Lozier’s school, the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, opened in 1863, and the therapeutics that were primarily taught were the use of homeopathic medicines. Its board of trustees included several illustrious homeopaths of that day (Timothy Field Allen, MD, William Guernsey, MD, Edmund Carleton, MD, and Carroll Dunham, MD—who also happened to be Lozier’s cousin), two leaders in the women’s rights movement (Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Julia Ward Howe), and Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross.
With this board of trustees guiding the college, it is perhaps no surprise that this school was the first medical school in the country to offer a course in hygiene and preventive medicine (Kirschmann, 2004, 59). The school was also one of the earliest to extend its training to three years, doing so before 1874, while the conventional medical college, New York University Medical College, didn’t require three years of medical school until 1892.
The faculty of the women’s college seemed to be so convinced of the importance of an extended educational program that they declared in their college’s announcement that “the medical education of women must be more thorough and carried to a higher degree than the education of men” (Sullivan, 1927, Book 12, Chapter 13, Part 6).
In 1897, with significant support from New York’s elite, Lozier’s school erected a new building that was designed by William B. Tuthill, the architect of Carnegie Hall. Much later, in 1918, it merged with a larger homeopathic medical school called the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Flower Hospital. Still later, in 1936, the institution changed its name to New York Medical College, and shortly afterwards, it stopped the teaching of homeopathy.
The establishment of Lozier’s school was followed by the creation of another women’s medical school, founded by Elizabeth Blackwell, MD, called The Women’s Medical College. In contrast to Lozier’s school, Blackwell’s college did not admit women who had suffragist views, and Blackwell even criticized Lozier for her involvement in various social reform movements (Kirschman, 2004, 61).
Despite the differences in medical and social viewpoints, the two schools cooperated. For a period of time, Lozier was the dean of the faculty at Blackwell’s school, and several homeopaths taught at both schools. However, as both schools began to prosper and gain more women students, each school began to focus on different modalities (Lozier’s was homeopathic and Blackwell’s was orthodox medicine), and still later, the two women developed a strong antagonism for each other.
Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906), who co-founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and who is recognized today as one of America’s leaders for women’s rights, desperately sought to bring these two powerful women together, but their medical, political, and sociological differences kept an “icy gulf” between them.
The early days of women’s medical schools were not easy. In the late 1860s, a group of thirty women homeopathic medical students went to Bellevue Hospital for their clinical training. The women faced such hostility from male professors and students that they carried switchblade knives to fend off their persecutors (Harth, 1999).
One day, they were greeted by hundreds of male students who blocked their entrance, pelted them with chewed balls of paper, and laughed and shouted at them. Dr. Lozier, as president of the college, organized a large public meeting with Henry Ward Beecher and Horace Greeley (editor of the New York Tribune), who denounced the boorish behavior of the male medical students.
After considerable media attention supporting the women, the mayor of New York agreed to send a police force to “protect the ladies in their rights,” thereby enabling them to obtain a full medical education (Kirshmann, 2004, 59).
Clemence Sophia Lozier was the most influential homeopathic woman doctor in the United States in the nineteenth century. For twenty-five years she served as president and dean of her college, during which time 219 women graduated.
Lozier was to homeopathic women’s education what Elizabeth Blackwell was to the conventional medical education of women, though history has a strong tendency to be partial to the dominant medical paradigm. Blackwell’s name is known to many people today, while Lozier is known to only a few.
In the late nineteenth century homeopathic doctors usually commanded a better income from their medical practice than conventional doctors. In part because homeopaths attracted more rich and educated patients, homeopaths usually charged more for their services and tended to have fuller practices.
In 1870, Lozier reported her yearly income from her medical practice to be more than $25,000—a very considerable income at that time. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who with Lucretia Mott, led the first women’s rights convention in 1848, asserted that Lozier was one of the largest financial supporters of the suffrage movement and of Susan B. Anthony’s publication.
Lozier served as president of the New York Woman Suffrage Society for thirteen years (1873–1886) and was president of the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1877–1878.
Lozier’s home in New York became a virtual headquarters for various social reform movements. Meetings and fundraising events were typical there, whether it was to protest a death sentence for a woman accused of infanticide, to support affordable housing for working women, to prevent the distribution of pornography to children, or to protest against the sentence imposed upon Susan B. Anthony for voting. Lozier and other homeopaths were also advocates of temperance (the movement to reduce the consumption of alcohol).
It is also not surprising that Susan B. Anthony was a homeopathic patient. Her homeopathic physician was Julia Holmes Smith, MD, another activist in the social reform movement. Further, Dr. Smith established the first kindergarten, in New Haven, Connecticut, was the first woman elected to a deanship of a coeducational medical school (the National Medical College of Chicago in 1898), the first woman to be appointed trustee at the University of Illinois, and the first woman to be placed on a political ticket in Illinois.
One other woman who was intimately connected to the women’s rights movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s was Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910), who was also known for her writing of the famous song, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.” Like so many other leaders of the women’s rights movement of the time, she was a strong advocate of homeopathy.
Another homeopathic physician who also was extremely active in women’s rights issues was Harriet Clisby, MD (1830–1931), who founded the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union (WEIU) of Boston in 1877 (Harth, 1999). The exploitation of women and children during the mid-nineteenth century, the crowded housing and poor sanitation, and the miserable labor conditions led Dr. Clisby to create the WEIU, an organization that is still active today.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the WEIU established itself as one of Boston’s primary service providers and advocacy organizations. Many of the city’s most prominent women, including Abby Morton Diaz, Louisa May Alcott, and Julia Ward Howe were an integral part of the Union’s early history. Dr. Mercy B. Jackson was on the Union’s first board of directors.
Initially, Elizabeth Blackwell had encouraged Clisby to receive medical training in England, but instead, Clisby enrolled in the first graduating class of Dr. Clemence Lozier’s Medical College and Hospital for Women. Dr. Clisby’s interest in homeopathy was predictable because she followed the religious and spiritual teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. When Dr. Clisby turned 90, she became the oldest woman physician in the U.S., and she extended this record by living to be 101 years old.
Rebecca Lee Crumpler, MD (1833–1895) was the first African American woman to earn a medical degree, and she graduated from the (homeopathic) New England Female Medical College, in March 1864.
The first black woman physician in New York (and third in the nation) was Susan Smith McKinney, MD (1847–1918). She attended Dr. Lozier’s homeopathic medical school and became an ardent homeopath. She overcame both race and gender biases to develop a successful practice.
When she passed away, the black leader, W. E. B. Du Bois, gave her eulogy (Kirschmann, 2004, 48). Today, a nursing and rehabilitation center in New York City and a junior high school in Brooklyn are named after her. Dr. McKinney would be sadly disappointed that the nursing center provides no homeopathic care.
Mary Harris Thompson, MD (1829–1895) was a graduate of the New England Female Medical College (1863). She founded Chicago Hospital for Women and Children in 1865 and later became the first female surgeon in the U.S.
Initially, the hospital was sustained through private benefactions, and through Dr. Thompson’s efforts, a college was organized in 1870 for the medical education of women exclusively. The hospital building was totally destroyed in the great fire of 1871, but temporary accommodations were obtained. The following year, with the aid of $25,000 appropriated by the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, a permanent building was purchased. In 1885, a new commodious and well-planned building was erected on the same site, at a cost of about $75,000.
After Thompson’s death in 1895, the hospital was renamed the Mary Thompson Hospital for Women and Children. It continued to provide otherwise unavailable clinical opportunities for medical women until 1972, when men were integrated into the medical staff. Financial problems contributed to the closing of the hospital in 1988.
Emily Jennings Stowe, MD (1831–1903) was a pioneer in the struggle for women’s equality in Canada, where she became the first woman school principal in 1852 and the first woman to practice medicine in Canada.
Before going to medical school, she apprenticed with Dr. John Lancaster, who was a family friend and a homeopathic doctor. After applying to medical schools in Canada on numerous occasions and being turned down every time, she applied to and was accepted by the New York Medical College for Women. She graduated from this school in 1867 and immediately returned to Canada.
Like so many other women homeopaths, Emily Stowe was a leading female suffragist and is considered by many to be the mother of the movement in Canada. In 1877, she founded the Toronto Women’s Literary Club, which changed its name to the Toronto Women’s Suffrage Club in 1882.
She organized the country’s first suffrage organization, the Dominion Women’s Enfranchisement Association, in 1893 and became its first president. In 1896 she was instrumental in creating a mock parliament where a congress of women, using all of the arguments men had used against them, refused to give men the vote.
She helped found the Women’s Medical College in Toronto in 1883 and the Women’s College Hospital in 1888. She died in 1903, fourteen years before women got the vote in Canada.
Florence Nightingale Ward, MD (1860–1919) was not just a homeopath; she was also a surgeon. Ultimately, she was the second woman elected to membership in the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Ward was married to a fellow homeopathic physician, James Ward, MD, who was a founder of Hahnemann College of the Pacific and head of the San Francisco Health Department during the famous 1906 earthquake in that city. Dr. Florence Ward ran a three-story hospital and clinic in San Francisco.
By 1884, women represented 31 percent of students at homeopathic medical schools and 19 percent of graduates. And by the turn of the twentieth century, 17 percent of homeopaths were women, compared with only 6 percent of conventional doctors (Haller, 2005, 139).
It is interesting to note that women who were conventional physicians tended to establish and become members of separate women’s medical societies more than women who were homeopaths did. These differences primarily occurred because women homeopaths tended to be more widely accepted into homeopathic organizations than women who were AMA members.
Despite this general trend, homeopaths (men or women) tended to be pioneers of varying sorts. Thus, it is predictable that at a 1904 meeting of the American Institute of Homeopathy, the Women’s Homeopathic Fraternity was organized as the first national organization of women in the profession of medicine (Breckinridge, 1933, 62).
Homeopathic medical schools also became pioneers in reaching out to various minority communities. In 1928, the New York Homeopathic Medical College became the first medical school in the nation to establish a scholarship program specifically for minority students, through the efforts of Walter Gray Crump, Sr., MD.
Dr. Crump was an alumnus and voluntary faculty member who participated vigorously in the academic life of the college. He also taught surgery, served as staff surgeon at other hospitals, was a founder of the New York Medical College for Women, was a trustee of Tuskegee Institute and Howard University, and assumed a leading role in the advancement of minority education and minority affairs (www.nymc.edu).
Although there were significant tensions and even downright antagonism between conventional medical doctors and homeopathic doctors, there tended to be considerably more cooperative relations between women doctors of the different schools of medical thought and practice. For instance, in Chicago there were numerous hospitals where women physicians practiced together despite their conventional or homeopathic education and practice (Fine, 2005).
Research on women physicians has also shown that they preferred studying and practicing homeopathic medicine than conventional medicine. According to data from the Illinois Board of Health in 1878 and 1883, 70 percent of men became conventional doctors, while 60 percent of women became homeopathic doctors (Fine, 2005)
There are few statistics today on the percentage of practicing homeopaths who are women, but when going to virtually any homeopathic conference, one finds that the majority of participants are women. One study of professional homeopaths (those not trained in medical schools) in England found that in 1988 women comprised 48 percent of the registered members of the Society of Homeopaths, while from 1996 to 1999 they comprised 77 percent of the membership.
Likewise, the vast majority of homeopathic patients are women, and it isn’t hard to understand why this is so. The same reasons that attracted women to homeopathy in the nineteenth century continue to play a role today.
It is therefore no surprise that modern women such as Coretta Scott King (1927–2006), wife of the late Martin Luther King, Jr., had a special interest in homeopathic medicine. When Ms. King died in January 2006, in an alternative medicine hospital in Mexico, her family let it be known that her special interest in homeopathic medicine led her to this hospital, even though she arrived there in end-stage disease. Although homeopathy cannot save everyone from disease or death, its history of safety and efficacy will no longer be forgotten as a part of history.
DANA ULLMAN, MPH, CCH, is one of America’s leading advocates for homeopathy. He has authored 10 books, including The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy, Homeopathy A-Z, Homeopathic Medicines for Children and Infants, Discovering Homeopathy, and (the best-selling) Everybody’s Guide to Homeopathic Medicines (with Stephen Cummings, MD).
Dana Ullman has also authored chapters on homeopathic medicine that were included in medical textbooks published by Oxford University Press, the American Academy of Pain Management, and Mosby.
Bradford, T. L. The Logic of Figures or Comparative Results of Homoeopathic and Other Treatments. Philadelphia: Boericke and Tafel, 1900.
Breckinridge, S. P. Women in the Twentieth Century: A Study of Their Political, Social and Economic Activities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933.
Chen, C. The Sex Side of Life: Mary Ware Dennett’s Pioneering Battle for Birth Control and Sex Education. New York: New Press, 1997.
Cleaves Biographical Cyclopedia of Homoeopathic Physicians and Surgeons. Philadelphia: Galaxy, 1873.
Coulter, H. L. Divided Legacy. Vol. III: The Conflict Between Homeopathy and the AMA. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1973.
Fine, E. Separatism in Medicine? Regular and Sectarian Women Physicians in Nineteenth-Century Chicago. Symposium for Women Physicians, Women’s Politics, Women’s Health: Emerging Narratives. March 10–11, 2005, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
Goldsmith, B. Other Powers: The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism, and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull. New York: Knopf, 1998.
Haehl, R. Samuel Hahnemann: His Life and Work (2 vols.). London: Homeopathic Publishing Co., 1922 (reprinted New Delhi: B. Jain, no date).
Haller, J. S. The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820–1935. New York: Pharmaceutical Products, 2005.
Harth, E. Founding Mothers of Social Justice: The Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston, 1877–1892, Historical Journal of Massachusetts, Summer 1999. Available at www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3837/is_199907/ai_n8860523
Jackson, M. B. The Women’s Journal, February 14, 1874. Available at
Jenkins, E. Dr. Gully’s Story. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1972.
King, W. H. History of Homoeopathy (4 volumes). New York: Lewis, 1905.
Kirschmann, A. T. A Vital Force: Women in American Homeopathy. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
Lozier, A. In Memoriam: Clemence Sophia Lozier, MD. New York: New York Historical Society, 1888, p. 17.
Mitchell, K. M. Her Preference Was to Heal: Women’s Choice of Homeopathic Medicine in Nineteenth-Century United States. Dissertation, History Dept., Yale University, April 17, 1989.
Nighingale, F. Letter to Mrs. Nightingale, April 1852, Wellcome Medical Library, London, MSS 8993:f82.
www.nymc.edu/today/today.asp (See the heading Nation’s First Minority Scholarship Program for information about Crump.)
Ruddick, J. Death at the Priory: Sex, Love, and Murder in Victorian England. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.
Stanton, E. C. Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences 1815–1897. Available at www.gutenberg.org/files/11982/11982-8.txt
Sullivan, J. The History of New York State. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1927. Available at www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/his/bk12/ch13/pt6.html
Wellman, J. The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman’s Rights Convention. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Winston, J. The Faces of Homeopathy. Tawa, New Zealand: Great Awk, 1999.
Winston, J. History of Women in Homeopathy, The American Homeopath, 2004, 10:33–36.
Yasgur, J. Lozier’s School, The American Homeopath, 1998, pp. 42–47.
 Woodhull, Claflin & Company opened in 1870 with the assistance of a wealthy benefactor, her admirer, Cornelius Vanderbilt.
 A truly fascinating book about Samuel and Melanie Hahnemann is A Homeopathic Love Story by Rima Handley (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1990).
 Clemence Lozier’s support for temperance arose out of her personal life. She divorced her first husband due to his drunkenness.
 See Chapter 13, Clergy and Spiritual Leaders, for a discussion of Swedenborg and his followers.
 To clarify some misconceptions, homeopaths do not oppose surgery; they oppose unnecessary surgery, especially since homeopathic medicines sometimes are effective enough to prevent the need for surgical procedures. And once surgery is found to be necessary, homeopaths prescribe certain remedies to help reduce surgical shock and promote healing.
 The New York Homeopathic Medical College is today known as New York Medical College, and sadly, it no longer teaches homeopathy.