Homeopathy Papers

Amazing Consequence of Succussed Dilution: Explained by Physical Science and Verified Experimentally.

Prof. Chitta Ranjan Mahata discusses his research on how diluted homeopathic preparations, with or without the physical presence of the starting substance, can carry the medicinal information to influence living bodies.

This short article firstly presents the status of homeopathy from the prevalent scientific view that each medicine must have its distinct chemical identity. Then, it addresses the problem from a few hitherto ignored experimental observations aided by an advanced science called Quantum Electrodynamics with experiments conducted by us and other researchers. In the final analysis it leads to an amazing conclusion – That which was being feared to be nowhere, turns out to be pervading the solution by its characteristic energy in dissipative structures.

Keywords: Prevalent view, Quantum Electrodynamics. dissipative structures

 1. Introduction
We know homeopathy to be a contentious healthcare system right from its invention by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in 1796 in spite of many impressive cures to its credit. This is primarily because of failure of prevalent science to explain how diluted homeopathic preparations, with or without the physical presence of the starting substance, can carry the medicinal information to influence living bodies.

It is a puzzling phenomenon – a frustrating situation for researchers providing an opportunity to the skeptics to brand homeopathic cures as placebo effect or mental cures. This article does not enter into logical rebuttal of this invalid hypothesis (already done elsewhere by me and other people) but offering an explanation based on advanced physical science.

The aim of this short article is to report in a popular way (suitable for the non-experts) the amazing outcome of our research on the scientific basis of homeopathy.

Problem: How can an ingredient, after being diluted away from a solution, manifest its properties in that dilution – this is the core issue. Chemically a high dilution preparation is just the diluent (water) and hence, the answer was expected to be in water only. However, there was no immediate indication of how this might be possible.

The Hint: After a long and tireless literature search for about 18 years I came across some hitherto ignored specialties of water such as the existence of innumerable tiny ice-like structures floating in bulk water at room temperature but having no particular form and susceptible to influence of other substances [1,2]. Their message to me was that water molecules might be influenced by the starting solute to form solute-specific structures through dilutions.+

2. Method of validation
Validity of this model was suggested by experimental data for proton resonance frequency variation (which implies variation of diluent molecular structure) with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer [3] and acoustic resonance frequency variation (implying variation of dimension of diluent molecular structure) using Anomalous Dielectric Dispersion Detector (ADDD) fabricated by us [4,5]. But, convincing proofs come from theoretical predictions of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and images of water structures (in the form of solid residues) from the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) as described below.

QED Theory and AFM Study: As per QED ordinary water is now regarded as a mixture of coherent domains (CD), an ensemble of a group of water molecules, and incoherent water (isolated molecules), their proportion varying with temperature [6-8].

Furthermore, the CDs are influenced by a small amount of `guest molecules’ (one percent or less) and combine together to form larger domains, scientifically called as dissipative structures (DS), which can energy-wise carry the information about the guest molecule [9]. This provides the theoretical basis of homeopathy.

It was experimentally checked by Atomic Force Microscope. The images obtained by us [9-11] were different for different medicines suggesting that they are specific to the medicines and their potencies. So, our model may now be stated as: Succussed serial dilutions in water may carry information about the solute via solute-specific water structures ruling out any other weird hypothesis (without theoretical and experimental support), as its contender.

3. Discussion
Water is chemically a simple substance – just H2O. But, it is a mysterious substance with the specialties mentioned in The Hint section, where we saw the possibility of resolving the puzzling high dilution phenomenon through a structural model. The concept gathered supports from our studies using NMR, ADDD and AFM. Supports to our structural concept are implied in the works of other researchers also [12-17].

4. Conclusion
Succussed serial dilution gradually reduces the proportion of solute in the solution, which becomes devoid of the starting material beyond 12c dilution. Side by side, there is generation of DSs carrying information about the solute. We arrive at ensembles of diluent molecules pervaded by solute-specific energy, imparting solute-specific structures to the ensembles. That which was being feared to be nowhere, turns out to be pervading the solution by its characteristic energy in dissipative structures – an amazing outcome!.

1Independent Researcher, 50/1 College Road, Howrah-711103, INDIA
*Corresponding author email: [email protected], Phone +91 9433739180

[1]  Sergeev B. Physiology for Everyone. Moscow: Mir Publishers; 1971:11–16
[2]  Finkelnburg W. Structure of Matter. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1964:412–414
[3]  Mahata CR. Some studies on physical basis of homoeopathic medicines. J Tech 1983;29:27–34
[4] Mahata CR (2013). Dielectric dispersion studies indicate change in structure of water by potentised homeopathic medicines. Journal of the Inst of Engineers (India), Series B 2012;93:231–235.
[5] Mahata CR (2013). Dielectric dispersion studies of some potentised homeopathic medicines reveal structured vehicle. Homeopathy;102:262–267.
[6] Arani R, Bono I, Giudice ED, Preparata G (1995). QED coherence and the thermodynamics of water. Int J Mod Phys B; 9:1813–1841
[7] Marchettini N, Del Giudice E, Voeikov V, Tiezzi E (2010). Water: a medium where dissipative structures are produced by a coherent dynamics. J Theor Biol;265:511–516
[8] Giudice ED, Pulselli RM. Formation of dissipative structures in liquid water. Int J Des Nat Ecodyn 2010;5:21–26.
[9] Papiya Nandy, Tanmoy Maity and C. R. Mahata (2022).Water in Health, Disease and Power Generation: From Literature to Hypotheses.Water Special Edition, Apr 2022 online link:
[10] Maity T, Chakraborty A, Mahata CR (2019). Dissipative structures in water, validated by quantum electrodynamics, are information carriers of solute through dilutions. Int J Complement Alt Med.12:221–223
[11] Maity T, Mahata CR (2021). Succussed Serial Dilutions in Water Carry Solute Information via Solute-Specific Water Structures – A Theory Based on Quantum Electrodynamics. Online publication of Homeopathy. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726007 .
[12] Konovalov AI (2012). Formation of the Nano-sized Molecular Ensembles in High Diluted Aqueous Solutions: Effect of Ultra-low Concentrations and Electromagnetic Fields. VII Annual Conference on The Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Water, West Dover, Vermont, USA. October 18- 21, 2012.
[13] Konovalov AI (2013). Nanoassciates are the material carries of the bio-effects manifested by high diluted water solutions of bac. Water conference, Bulgaria 2013.
[14] Konovalov AI, Ryzhkina IS (2014). Reviews: Formation of nanoassociates as a key to understanding of physicochemical and biological properties of highly dilute aqueous solutions. Russ Chem Bull Int Ed 63:1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11172-014-0388-y
[15] Kar S, Bandyopadhyay P, Chakraborty S, Chakrabarty M, Paul B K, Ghosh S, Basu R, Das S, Bhar DS, Manchanda RK, Khurana A, Nayak D, Nandy P (2015). Derivation of an empirical relation between the size of the nanoparticle and the potency of homeopathic medicines. International Journal of High Dilution Research 14(4):2-7. https://doi.org/10.51910/ijhdr.v14i4.804
[16] Rey L (2003). Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A 323: 67-74.
[17] Sarkar T, Konar A, Sukul N C, Majumdar D, Singha A, Sukul A (2016). Raman spectroscopy shows difference in drugs at ultrahigh dilution prepared with stepwise mechanical agitation. International Journal of High Dilution Research 15(1): 2-9. https://doi.org/10.51910/ijhdr.v15i1.811

About the author

Chitta Ranjan Mahata

Prof. Chitta Ranjan Mahata, born in 1939, obtained his B.E., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees in EE in 1961, 1964 and 1974 respectively from B.E. College, Howrah (now, IIEST Shibpur) under the academic control of Calcutta University at that time. After serving his alma mater in various capacities from 1962 he retired as Prof. of EE in 1999. In between from 1969 to 1971 he was in Moscow Power Institute for higher specialization in Control Systems through an Indo-Soviet Cultural Exchange Program. Additionally, finding the science behind homoeopathy (an over two-century old challenge) has been his mission since 1965. He completed two research projects in IIEST Shibpur funded by UGC and AYUSH, Govt of India. He is also attached to NIH Kolkata, M.B.H.M.C.H Howrah, IIT Khargpur and CEM Kolaghat in an honorary way. He has more than 50 research publications including 2 books, guided 2 PhD scholars and delivered more than 30 invited lectures/seminar talks on this subject. According to Dr. Mahata Solute-specific energy level of dissipative structures formed in water carries solute-information in homeopathic potencies. Gross presence of solute material is not mandatory.


  • Those “structures” were called clathrates years ago… HRI now has renamed them “nanoglobules” or “nanoparticles” because in conventional physics it is said that water clathrates are totally unstable…
    I discusses clathrates in the chapter “Homeophysiology” in the book “Third Millennium Homeopathy”…

    • Hi.
      Clathrates are a type of water clusters wich chemical formula is (H2O)n. Clathrates are entities that were demonstrated long time ago, but their structure is very short in the time and unstable. The clathrate model is not adequate to explain the stability in homeopathic potencies because these medicines are not chemical “pure”. On the other hand, Coherent Domains (CDs) model is a best model because is a dynamical model and their predictions were already prooved in many experiments. In fact, Coherent Domains are nanoparticles, but not all nanoparticles are CDs.

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