Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells displays uncontrolled growth, and which is characterized by invasion due to intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues, and sometimes metastasis, i.e., cells spreading to other locations in the body via the lymph channels or blood-stream. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize. Most cancers form a tumor but some, like leukemia, do not.
One of the important tasks of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumor cells. Tumor antigens are produced in tumor cells and trigger an immune response in the host. If functioning properly then these antigens appear foreign and cause immune cells to attack and destroy them by using killer T cells and T helper cells. If, however, the immune system no longer attacks them, tumor cells go on to become cancer.
Based on Virchow’s model of cellular pathology, orthodox medicine considers cancer to be first a local process, which then generalizes and invades the body. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention is directed at the removal and destruction of the lesion by means of aggressive treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.
The homeopathic perception of cancer is based on a vitalistic approach. Hahnemann clearly stated that life is impossible without the vital force, and referred all the phenomena of health, disease and cure under the names of ‘the dynamis’ and ‘the vital force’.
The vital force is universally present, spiritual and instinctual in nature. It is present everywhere in the organism, embracing the whole person in mind, body and spirit. The vital force is the source of human life and the level at which the causation of diseases originates. Its derangement is the very beginning of the disorder and causes changes in sensations and functions long before there is any visible change in the material substance of the body.
“When man falls ill it is at first only this self-sustaining spirit-like vital force (vital principle) everywhere present in the organism which is mistuned by the dynamic influence of the hostile disease agent. It is only this vital force thus mistuned which brings about in the organism the disagreeable sensations and abnormal functions that we call disease.” §11 Organon
The vital force is invisible. Its derangement can only be seen by signs and symptoms, whose totality represents the entire extent of the sickness and constitutes their true and only conceivable form. The inability of the vital force to maintain its equilibrium as a consequence of a particular stimulus leads to the alteration in the normal functions of body and mind, and creates mental, emotional and physical symptoms. When the totality of symptoms is removed the disease ceases to exist.
Thus health and disease are only different states of the vital force, and disease is not an entity separated from the living organism. Disease always progresses from functional disturbances to structural changes, and from slight to deep pathological manifestations in the most predisposed regions of the body. Thus, clinical pathological manifestations are only the last stage of the developing disease process, and cancer is not a local disease but a localized expression of the dynamic disease that encompasses the whole subject. A general chronic state always precedes the appearance of cancer.
“The man who believes that he is directing his remedies against germs, or against worms, or against a tumor the patient may have, is in extreme darkness, if he cannot perceive that a healthy man will have healthy tissue, healthy blood, and therefore there can be no soil for germs and worms or morbid growth.” J. T. Kent
As the vital force is the level at which disease originates, and the healing power of nature, it is obvious, that only therapies which are able to rebalance the disturbed vital force, can go back to the very origin of the disease and provide a real cure. Balancing the vital force means regaining and maintaining harmony within the body. Back to its equilibrium, the vital force can rule again with unbounded sway and assert its influence on the organism, allowing the process of physis to move in its natural direction towards normal homeostasis.
The mere removal or destruction of the cancer neither affects the vital process which lead to its manifestation, nor does it touch the patient’s predisposition towards cancerous diseases, which is why the tumor can recur elsewhere and even be more malignant than before.
“The surgical removal of tumors seems to me to be unsatisfactory in every important particular. It only professes to deal with the produce and can never be, even theoretically, a Hunterian cure: the disposition is not even aimed at ! The treatment by the actual cautery gets rid of the superficial effect – the product – the cause is not even considered at all.” J. C. Burnett
The weakening and suppression of the vital force plays an important part in the etiology of cancer growth, just as much as in any other chronic condition. Hahnemann made it very clear: When a chronic disease is deprived of local manifestations, it must take another and more serious form.
“The more profound the suppression, the larger and deeper the new manifestation or disease process. Each subsequent suppression includes more vital centers or organs … In this way abnormal growth appears or a new disease process develops, which is being classified as a new disease by pathologists.” J. H. Allen
“These chronic miasmatic diseases, if deprived of their local symptom, are inevitably destined by mighty Nature sooner or later to become developed and to burst forth, and thereby propagate all the nameless misery, the incredible number of chronic diseases which have plagued mankind for hundreds and thousands of years, none of which would so frequently have come into existence had physicians striven in a rational manner to cure radically and to extinguish in the organism these three miasms by the internal homeopathic medicines suited for each of them, without employing topical remedies for their external symptoms.” §204 Organon
In this way pathological manifestations changed over the years and became much more severe. As the chronic miasms become activated at a much earlier age and increasingly concentrated in each generation, the incidence of cancer is becoming more widespread and develops now even at a very young age.
Cancer, however, is not the same as the cancer miasm. Cancer can occur from any miasmatic constellation. With the cancer miasm, however, all four basic miasms are active. Depending on the patient’s miasmatic constellation the cancer will display different characteristics and have a different prognosis.
Psora dominant active miasm:
Psora is the fundamental, underlying cause for all diseases and miasms
It is responsible for deficiency which leads to hypo-immunity
The lowered immunity makes the person susceptible to continuous physical and/or emotional irritation which may finally lead to the development of cancer
It provides the irritation as a factor for the development of cancer
Continued local irritation slackens the cell-controlling power to its utmost capacity until it ultimately snaps and breaks
Especially general irritations of various kinds, such as mental strain, anxieties, worries, excess of work etc.
The greater the general irritation or strain, the less local irritation is necessary to break the cell control
Slowly growing tumors are characteristic
They are often benign
Patients with a predominantly psoric cancer can live a long time
Burnett points out the detrimental effect of suppressing skin diseases and silencing cutaneous discharges for the development of tumors and cancer 
Sycosis dominant active miasm:
Sycosis stimulates proliferation, hypertrophy and overgrowth
These tumors may be benign and encapsulated in the beginning, but become malignant as the cells proliferate out of proportion
Rapidly growing tumors are characteristic
J.H. Clarke opines that sycosis seems to favor surface tumors, and that the gouty diathesis in particular seems to favor tumor formation of the epithelial type 
J.H. Allen warns that the suppression of sycotic skin diseases favors the development of cancer, especially when psora was strong or the tubercular miasm present 
Syphilis dominant active miasm:
Syphilis is responsible for destruction, cell breakdown, disintegration and degeneration
Syphilis contributes the destructive component with the necrotic, degenerative growth and ulceration of the cancer
It has far-reaching effects, perhaps especially selecting the harder tissues and the nervous system
The malignant property of the cells leads to necrosis followed by pus formation and fistulous openings in the tumor
Cancers based on genetic mutation are syphilitic
Cancer spreads quickly after the onset of some little pain, demonstrating the destruction and hiding of the syphilitic miasm, and rapid growth of sycosis
Tubercular dominant active miasm:
Adds an aggressive component, and the nodular and degenerative tubercles that may lead to cancer of the lung or at other sites
It is responsible for migration and hemorrhage; the disintegrated and degenerated cells hemorrhage and then migrate resulting in metastasis
Seems to lead chiefly to the connective tissue type of tumor according to J.H. Clarke 
Examples for different miasmatic constellations in cancer:
Scirrhus: psora-sycosis-syphilis (lethal activity, but less cruel than others)
Adenoma: sycosis-psora-syphilis (more malignant)
Sarcomatous cancer: syphilitic-sycotic-psoric (more profound, destructive, violent and terrible)
A patient will have a certain tendency to cancer when he displays the following general characteristics:
when there are any cancer cases in the parents or family
especially predisposing to malignancy is when there was syphilis or gonorrhea
repeated vaccinations and suppressions
when the patient had a period of marked weakness, general or localized atony in the susceptible area
a general state of intoxication
Eli G. Jones points out the correlation between the increase in cancer and the excessive consumption of meat (animal proteins), tea, coffee, and alcohol (stimulants that weaken the nervous system)
Cancer has a strong mental-emotional component due to the strong connection between the mental and emotional life and the immune system
when a person suffered a difficult traumatic or unhappy childhood and/or physical, mental and sexual abuse
when there had been problems in the parent-child relationship that led to a feeling of loneliness, neglect, rejection, resentment
when the subject has a sense of low self-image, lack of confidence, a feeling of unworthiness and never been loved, deep despondency and despair
- cancer may develop after a long destructive attitude towards life, inner hurts, long lasting grief, unhappy love, and a feeling of being misunderstood
a predisposition to cancer is set by unhappiness
a disturbed mental state through the morbid fear of cancer
anxieties and worries
when he reacts adversely or is unable to cope adequately with stress
a severe fateful or negative event or trauma often preceeds the onset of developing cancer, and comes as a “last straw” on top of years of unhappiness or suppressed reactions to stress
Cancer themes and personality
the overwhelming high degree of cell division, with need for control in order to survive
feeling of chaos, disorder, and of losing control
need for self control and to restore order
little chance of success but some hope 
expected to fulfill a great demand which he is incapable of doing
making superhuman efforts and stretching oneself beyond the limits of his capacity in order to survive
failure is death and destruction
continuous and prolonged struggle which seems to have no end
cancer people are a model of perfection, one with whom it is easy to get along and difficult to find faults
no rest or freedom from tension
try hard to please others
high level of performance
often had demanding parents, who set up high expectations, demanded quality and achievements, and were moralizing and ethical
or have a history of lack of closeness with one or both parents, or a lack of closeness with spouse or others who would normally be close
in today’s competitive world cancer is showing up in greater frequency as a sign of the desperate struggle to survive
The size or stage of cancer does not necessarily indicate its curability. Curability is the capability of being healed. It has a different scope depending on the system of medicine being used.
In homeopathy cure goes beyond the mere removal of clinical manifestations. It consists in reestablishing the energetic equilibrium to which the disease is due, and the removal of the disease in its entire extent. Whereas allopathy only focuses on the pathological lesions in which the morbid process ultimates, homeopathy embraces the primary dynamic process of the disease, and the entire morbid process and its clinical manifestations.
Diseases are curable when they make themselves known in signs and symptoms. As long as characteristic signs and symptoms are present, good vital reaction continues and the patient will have the reactive ability to bring about a secondary curative reaction.
“All curable diseases make themselves known to the intelligent physician in signs and symptoms…To be able to perceive the remedy from the signs and symptoms in the present or history is one item of cure, but another and quite different item is the vital reaction of the patient.” J.T.Kent – Lesser Writings
Homeopathic treatment ensures best results when the patient is already treated in their precancerous state, before the appearance of cancer. Advanced cancer is most difficult to treat as the vital force decreases with increasing pathology, and in proportion as the pathology increases, the characteristic signs and symptoms decrease, rendering us unable to obtain a therapeutic individualization of symptoms. However, severely suppressive treatments of modern medicine, including radiation, chemotherapy and vaccinations, largely contributed to the weakening of the vital force and make the successful homeopathic treatment of cancer much more difficult than at times when the old masters like Hahnemann, Boenninghausen, Grimmer, Schlegel or Burnett, etc. were treating cancer patients.
Cancer Miasm or Cancerism
The term “miasm” is derived from the Greek meaning “pollution” or “taint”. In homeopathic terms it is an invisible polluting substance, a noxious influence, or the infectious principle, which after entrance in the organism overpowers the vital force and sets up a specific disease. Miasms are dynamic, disease-producing factors and the source of suffering and death.
Hahnemann distinguished between acute, half-acute and chronic miasms. True chronic miasms modify the course of acute diseases and establish a permanent field for chronic diseases. They arise from contagion, which creates the miasmatic state, or diathesis, and forms a chronic predisposition to a characteristic form of disease both in respect to dysfunctions and to the lesions themselves. The vital force is unable to eradicate chronic miasms, even not with the most robust constitution, healthiest life-style or best diet.
“The absolute of the disease is the miasmatic impact.” J.H.Allen
Based on chronic miasms the patient passes through states of illnesses with a characteristic connecting link. However, despite the collective picture of the chronic miasms, each patient displays their own individual symptom pattern. Each patient has a combination of all miasms, but the proportion of the miasms differs in each individual in quantity and degree. One miasm may clearly predominate, but it may also be observed that the predominant symptoms correspond to more than one miasm. So even if the person’s attitude, appearance and symptoms corresponds more to one of the fundamental miasms, he will have certain traits and manifestations of the other.
Hahnemann defined three primary chronic miasms; Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis, after having found patterns of these diseases in the patients and their family histories after twelve years of research into unsolved chronic cases.
Although the tubercular miasm resembles symptoms of psora and syphilis, and was assigned to psora by homeopaths like Kent and Close, it is meanwhile widely recognized as a separate miasm, due to its distinct characteristic features. As with psora, sycosis and syphilis, the tubercular miasm also has a related micro-organism in the primary stage of the chronic disease. 
Although Hahnemann found three miasms to be prevalent in Europe he did not limit the number of miasms, and there are other conditions which meet the criteria of chronic miasms.
The cancer miasm is usually defined as a miasmatic constellation in which all four basic miasms are active.
Despite the connection of certain viral diseases such as mononucleosis, hepatitis, herpes zoster, clamydia, HPV, etc., and the development of cancer, the cancer miasm has not been proven so far to be based on contagion like Hahnemann’s original miasms.
Notwithstanding its origin it causes life-long suffering, sets up a certain dyscrasia or diathesis, has a particular pattern with distinct pathological tendencies and is transmitted to subsequent generations. Many severe ailments met with in practice are often linked to the Cancer miasm. Cancer can arise from any miasmatic constellation, but the possibility of developing it increases when all four miasms are active.
The cancer miasm represents the greatest restriction in the free movement of the basic forces essential for health. It is placed towards the end of the disease process, reflecting the evolution of mankind through miasms that have become increasingly more degenerative, and resulting in most severe, complicated and dangerous disease states.
Chronic miasms are collective disorders with similar symptoms that affect a homogeneous group. Hence, the miasms the individual suffers from are not isolated from the human race but connected to their collective miasms, which represent the way individuals and humanity as a collective evolve and learn through disease and imbalance. The analysis of humanity in different ages reveals a clearly predominant miasm, which is “dominating any given human group or nation as well as its rules, philosophies, politics and collective happenings“. Whereas psora was the predominant miasm at Hahnemann’s time in Europe, sycosis prevailed during the last decades, with Cancerism now coming more and more to the fore.
Last but not least working through and beyond the miasms is part of our karma. The nature of the miasm characterizes not only symptoms and diseases, but they also offer different karmic choices and “represent key issues or learning experiences which impede humanity’s progress in its struggle toward spiritual evolution and enlightenment.” The cancer miasm offers us the ultimate choice of accepting change as a positive force or of living in a state of complete stasis induced by the fear of change as an inevitable negative influence.
The cancer miasm was not identified until after the Second World War. Dr. Foubister and Dr. Templeton, two homeopaths working in England at that time, observed the appearance of similar symptoms in children born to mothers suffering from breast cancer during pregnancy. Symptoms were insomnia, weakness, sensitivity, crying all night, moles, blue sclerae, cafe au lait spots on the skin, tics and blinking of the eyes. These children were supposed to carry the cancer miasm and were successfully treated with Carcinosin. Children born with similar symptoms also received Carcinosin either to treat or protect them from cancer in future, and hundreds of cases were collected. Therefrom a materia medica for Carcinosin was written containing mainly clinical symptoms. Provings were only made later, so that this remedy does not appear in older repertories.
Suppression on all levels is the central idea of the cancer miasm and the major etiological factor contributing to the lack of reactivity, weakening of the vital force, and an undeveloped, misfunctioning or destroyed immune system. An active cancer miasm does not necessarily mean that one will have or develop cancer. But often a traumatic event eventually triggers the formation of cancer, as often occurring 2-5 years after a mental or physical trauma.
Features according to Dr. Sankaran
Depth, pace and perception
task is beyond my limits
things are out of control; all get destroyed if I do not keep control
everything around him is chaotic and he is too small to gain control over the chaos as there is a fixed weakness within him
desperate, with very little hope of succeeding, but it is not altogether hopeless
in order to gain control over the chaos he must make a superhuman effort and stretch himself far beyond his limited capacity
total control of self and surroundings
everything is going out of control and I can do nothing
Pattern and Picture
trying to gain control over a situation that is beyond his capacity
demanding too much of himself
a child of alcoholic parents – her world is chaotic
– small person with huge task to keep things in total control
juggling on a tight-rope
Miasms become activated and increased by certain stressful events the subject is susceptible to. Factors that favor the development of the cancer miasm are:
emotional stress and trauma, especially grief, lack of love, anxieties, cares and worries
especially emotional disturbances experienced in childhood
the inability to resolve deep-seated emotional problems and conflicts, usually arising in childhood, often even being unaware of them
harboring or suppressing negative emotions, such as grief, anger, resentment; these emotions are internalized as the subject has great difficulty expressing them
physical trauma, blows and contusion
vaccinations and other suppressive treatments (drugs, hormones, surgery etc.)
carcinogenic substances and influences
improper diet, processed and demineralized food, preservatives, artificial colors and other chemicals in food
excessive food intake, especially animal proteins and fat
acquired miasms and infections
toxins, tobacco, excessive intake of coffee and tea, chemicals, radiation, abnormal electromagnetic fields, nuclear radiation
everything that weakens the vital force
The cancer miasm has psoric, tubercular, sycotic and syphilitic symptoms, as well as its own unique characteristic features.
Mental and emotional symptoms
loves animals, people, dancing, travel, nature and sea air, classical and peaceful music, watching lightning and thunderstorms, chocolate
oversensitive to beauty and nature
sympathetic to others
lots of fears, of cancer, disease, death, crowds, heights, narrow places
anxiety about future, that something will happen
wants to experience the beauty of the world and connect with other people
perfectionism, they can be meticulous and fastidious, paying exaggerated attention to detail
very social and refined
sacrifices himself for other people to the extent of becoming overwhelmed and burned out – can’t say no to something
exhibit a strong tendency toward carrying other people’s burdens and toward taking on extra obligations, often worrying for others
great lack of self-confidence with a sense of powerlessness
suppression of feelings to avoid hurting others
sensitive to feelings of others
caring and unselfish people
people are easy to get along with
never tell others what to do or how to behave, generally keep silent
do not ask for help and don’t speak about their problems, keeping things inside
can be very introverted, living in their own world, and making no contact with others
they are highly conscientious, dutiful, very responsible, and hard-working
afraid of criticism, and sensitive to reprimands
have a deep-seated need to make others happy, tending to be “people pleasers”
sweet, sensitive, easily hurt and abused
have a great need for approval
always in a hurry to arrive on time
not bossy, but allows himself to be dominated
weeping from music and crying at beautiful things
dancing ameliorates, strong sense of rhythm
unhappiness without hope for improvement
despair of recovery
mental dullness with lack of interest, difficulty thinking or concentration, aversion to mental work and conversation
mental tiredness better for sleep
excessive control by dictatorial parents
“I”- loss due to adjustment at any price
General and physical symptoms
In the family history we can often find tuberculosis, diabetes, leukemia, cancer, pernicious anemia, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, pneumonia, whooping cough, mononucleosis infectiosa, stroke, recurrent influenza, bronchitis or otitis media, nephrotic syndrome, AIDS
The personal history may reveal the absence of childhood diseases. Children did not get them at an appropriate age but only after puberty, or even shortly after birth or as very young infants. They may have them in a very severe form, even twice or one after another in rapid succession, or with complications
unusual or abnormal disease patterns.
cafe au lait spots on the skin
tumors, moles, warts
energy a little up and down
insomnia, especially in children, with difficulty falling asleep
loves chocolate and soups
worse at night, from rest, and when alone
excessive tiredness and mental exhaustion
better in company
The mental and physical characteristics of the cancer miasm are very similar to the symptoms of Carcinosin. However, a visible cancer miasm does not necessarily call for Carcinosin. Only the patient’s individual characteristic symptoms can point to the indicated remedy in a given case. But Carcinosinum may be needed in all cases to remove a miasmatic block, or if well-selected remedies do not act or fail to relieve. With the cancer miasm the need for a related nosode is equally aroused.
 Best of Burnett, p.133
 J.H.Clarke, The therapeutics of cancer, p.90
 J.H.Allen, Die chronischen Miasmen, p.182
 Hering wrote in the introduction of the Organon that Hahnemann distinguished between Syphilis and Sycosis, and later also between Psora and Pseudo-Psora (see J.H.Allen, Die chronischen Miasmen, p.257)
 P.S.Ortega, Notes on miasms, p.204
 R.Gerber, Vibrational Medicine, p.458
 see C.Griffith, The Companion to Homoeopathy, p.769
 see Fourtier-Bernoville in Homoeopathic treatment of cancer
P.S.Ortega, Notes on miasms, National Homoeopathic Pharmacy, New Delhi, 1980
Luc de Schepper, Achieving and Maintaining the Simillimum, B Jain Publishers, New Delhi, 2006
Luc de Schepper Hahnemann Revisited
J.Saxton, Miasms as practical tools, Beaconsfield, 2006
H.Choudhury, Indications of miasm, New Delhi, 1998
J.H.Clarke, The therapeutics of cancer, New Delhi, 1998
S.K.Banerjea, Miasmatic Prescribing, Chelmseford, 2001
P.D.Drew, The miasms, New Delhi, 2004
H.Heudeny-Mast, The foundation of the chronic miasms in the practice of homeopathy, Massachusetts, 2005
J.H.Allen, Die chronischen Miasmen, New York, 1996
Fourtier-Bernoville & A.H.Grimmer, Homoeopathic treatment of cancer
H.Choudhuri, Indications of miasm, New Delhi, 1988
R.Gerber, Vibrational Medicine, The handbook of subtle-energy therapies, p.458