Scientific Research

Homeopathy – How It Works and How It Is Done – 6

Homeopathy – How It Works and How It Is Done – 6

Chapter 6. Executive Summary

This Chapter is a short non-mathematical executive summary of the material presented in the previous five Chapters.

6.1 Electrical Hypersensitivity

In 1982, the problems experienced by chemically sensitive patients who had become hypersensitive to their electromagnetic environment came to find me. These proved to be the “Rosetta Stone” for the language of biocommunication. The symptoms provoked in them by the chemicals to which they had acquired a hypersensitivity were identical to those triggered by specific frequencies in their environment. It quickly became clear that it was frequency that mattered and that frequency was patient specific. This led me to the development of techniques for the measurement of frequencies, first in patients, then in water.

At this point the first link to homeopathy appeared. I had one patient for whom a homeopathic potency had already been prescribed by a homeopath. The frequency pattern of this potency was exactly that which I had determined would be therapeutic for the patient from my frequency measurements.

6.2 Homeopathy and Acupuncture

The pathway to the action of homeopathy now leads from electrically hypersensitive patients to acupuncture. According to “Classical” Chinese ideas first recorded about 200 BC, something called Qi links body organs to specific points on the skin, along what are termed meridians. The Qi reflects the status of a body system which may be under- or over-active. In turn a body organ can be affected by an action at the appropriate acupuncture point such as by needling or pressure. Twelve body organs are considered and these are allocated among two systems called Yin and Yang which complement each other.

I found that there are two endogenous frequencies on each acupuncture meridian and chakra point. These are normally confined to the meridians but if the target organ is stressed its frequency spreads throughout the body, this also happens with needling or acupressure. A therapeutic frequency can be applied to restore normality to the target organ through the meridian system and by implication, so can a homeopathic potency.

In addition to their normal endogenous frequencies, certain acupuncture points carry the frequencies of another meridian. These are called Luo or connecting points. On the heart meridian, the Luo points He5 and He7 also carry the frequency of the small intestine meridian which is not present on point He9.

Electromagnetic frequencies in the environment, the frequency signatures of chemicals and homeopathic potencies can synchronise and entrain acupuncture meridians which happen to have adjacent frequencies even in a healthy person. This supports the concept of proving symptoms.

The frequencies endogenous to an acupuncture meridian can be matched to homeopathic potencies which stimulate that particular meridian. In some cases, more than one remedy or more than one potency would stimulate a given meridian. There will of course be other frequencies in a potency which are not active in this respect. For 33 meridian and chakra points where a match to a potency was found, the paired-values correlation between the frequencies was 98%.

6.3 Homeopathy and the ANS

Having found that specific homeopathic potencies would stimulate specific acupuncture meridians, it was possible to progress to finding specific potencies to stimulate the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

To demonstrate the possibility of accessing the ANS through homeopathy, I used Dr. Voll’s list of the connections between acupuncture points and parts of the ANS. I selected a set of potencies which severally would stimulate all the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. In addition to the frequencies of Voll’s linked meridian points the sympathetic ANS linked acupuncture points carry the frequency 3 × 10-3 Hz and the parasympathetic ANS linked acupuncture points carry the frequency 3 × 10-1 Hz.

The possibility of stimulating the ANS with homeopathic potencies immediately opens the way to applying objective instrumentation to homeopathy and homeopathic trials. There are several techniques already available to assess the status of the ANS. For parasympathetic activity, these include the resting cardiac and cardio-respiratory coupling which can be assessed by heart rate variability analysis. The sympathetic activity can be assessed through galvanic skin responses, thermoregulatory function and the sympathetic cardio-accelerator and vasoconstrictor responses. There is now the potential to correlate brain-stem autonomic functions with electroencephalograms.

6.4 Thyroxin Potencies

I was fortunate in receiving a set of thyroxin potencies for measurement which had been prepared by Dr. Christian Endler of the Boltzmann Institute, Graz, in connection with his work with tadpoles.

Starting from the “Mother Tincture” at D-4, each potentisation had added two new higher frequencies; all the existing ones were retained. One frequency was in the phase to stimulate biological activity, the other was depressive of biological activity.

Importantly, there was no discontinuity at potency D24 which is the dilution at which not one molecule of the original substance should remain (Avogadro’s or Loschmidt’s Number). The criticism levelled at homeopathy by chemists is correct but, it is frequency and physics not chemistry that provides the theoretical basis for homeopathic potentisation.

This was demonstrated by a further experiment. Water was imprinted with the complete pattern of frequencies as previously determined for thyroxin of potency D15. This was then further potentised by serial dilutions and succussions. The frequencies measured for each synthesized potency were exactly the same as those for the potencies prepared from the “Mother Tincture” of thyroxin. Yet, these synthesized potencies had started from nothing but water “erased” of all frequencies.

6.5 “Mother Tincture” – What is being potentised?

To use homeopathy, you do not need to know the answer to this question. However, to understand what is in a homeopathic potency this is a question that must be addressed. Homeopathic potencies begin with a “Mother Tincture” which is in effect a chemical frequency template for modification by subsequent potentisation.

The “Mother Tincture” from which the potentisation of a homeopathic remedy commences is in general an inorganic or organic chemical or a biomolecule. There are exceptions such as in the potencies of magnetis, electricitas and X-ray. If potentisation does involve the generation of patterns of frequencies then it is essential to know the frequency pattern from which a potency is to be developed. In general, a chemical element has a single frequency, a salt such as sodium chloride has three frequencies, more complicated molecules have more frequencies. Holding a glass bottle containing a chemical for just one minute is sufficient to entrain an acupuncture point to the chemical; it takes about 10 minutes for the point to relax back to its endogenous frequency.

It had already been found that identical reactions could be triggered in a hypersensitive patient by chemical means and neutralised electrically or, triggered electrically and neutralised chemically. Furthermore, the clinical effects of environmental frequencies or chemicals could be reproduced by water contained in a sealed glass ampoule after its exposure to frequencies of an alternating magnetic field without any chemical contact through the sealed glass while unexposed water produced no clinical effects.

Chemicals with a trace of water have a characteristic frequency signature which can affect sensitive patients. This frequency signature in the “Mother Tincture” is the starting point for a homeopathic potentisation. Dilutions and succussions modify this frequency pattern until it has become a similiter for the patient. Illnesses have certain general characteristics in all patients so certain homeopathic potencies will have general application. However, the D, C, and M dilution ratios used in homeopathy are not finely enough graduated for allergy therapy where the patient is usually so sensitive to frequency patterns that the allergen has to be potentised specifically for the individual.

Where is the source of the bio-information that goes into a homeopathic potency?

Within a coherent system, the range of the coherence (coherence length) becomes the constant quantity instead of the velocity. This makes frequency proportional to velocity apparently without restriction so long as one remains within the coherence length. There can be many velocities each with frequencies in proportion. Because these frequencies no longer have absolute values, the system has become fractal in frequency. Consequently, the same frequency patterns and effects can occur in many different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is this which links effects of frequencies characteristic of chemical, technical and biological systems and why hypersensitive patients find environmental frequencies can mimic chemical exposure.

Fractality works upwards as well as downwards in frequency, so it is possible to make plastic stick models of molecules and measure the characteristic frequencies of the chemicals’ interaction with water. The molecular model needs to be immersed in saline to get the correct velocity of coherence propagation for the fractal frequency effect to occur. A stick model scaling length at 3cm/Ã… scales the velocities by a factor 108 from the velocity of coherence in saline 3 m/s to the velocity of light in free space. 300 Mm/s. The plastic molecular models merely produce a pattern of discontinuities at the water interface.

This was demonstrated for molecular models of n-hexane and water. The best fit for the frequencies came from the model which corresponded to n-hexane with a hydrogen-bonded water bridge extending the whole length of the molecule.

When a single frequency was imprinted into water and then diluted and succussed, all previous frequencies were retained and one further frequency is added. The first dilution gave the original frequency multiplied by the dilution ratio. Subsequent frequencies followed a logarithmic law with a change in slope at about D18 as with the thyroxin potencies. Again, there were no effects at Avogadro’s Number (D24) and no chemical was involved. Accuracy in dilution is essential. Certain dilution ratios do not potentise (e.g. prime number ratios), importantly an 11-fold dilution (1+10 dilution ratio) will not potentise.

A question which needs to be addressed is whether, and if so to what extent, does the chemistry of a pharmaceutical remedy give rise to a frequency signature that has a homeopathic activity. For example, the three frequencies in the signature of Soluble Aspirin match very closely three of the frequencies in the signature of Aconite 6C. I once had to neutralise a patient allergic to the frequency signature of a necessary pharmacological preparation, so this is not a trivial question. Any use of a syringe and needle effects a potentisation; just drawing liquid up into the syringe potentises it by vortexing whether it is homeopathic or allopathic.

6.6 What is “Remembered”? and How?

Any theory of potentisation must be able to account for the indefinite retention of frequency imprints because of the observation that one of Hahnemann’s original potencies was still clinically provable 150 years after he had prepared it. There is no point in doing clever mathematics if there in no first-order theory that gives a reasonable fit to such numbers as can be obtained by experiment. Nature seems to be using frequencies in such an extremely precise manner that all related chemical and physical parameters may well be involved with similar precision.

Living systems are sensitive to magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation even at the single quantum level and enzyme chemistry applied to living systems can differ significantly from regular chemistry even down to the DNA level. Living cells can emit highly coherent oscillations at the time of cell division which are not present during the other parts of the cell cycle and which are coherent down to the level of quantum fluctuations. Living systems can respond to magnetic resonance (NMR) conditions in the geomagnetic field.

Preparata and Del Giudice showed theoretically that water consists partly of incoherent water molecules oscillating at random as in steam but more densely packed, and partly of water as domains of coherence where all water molecules oscillate in-phase as in the laser but without any need for ‘pumping’ like a laser. Predictions from their theory are in good agreement with experimentally determined values for physical constants of liquid water.

These oscillations are fluctuations in fields. A “Classical Electromagnetic Field” is the basis of electronics and radio; it describes oscillations whose phase is well defined but for which the number of particles (quanta, photons) involved in carrying the energy is undefined. A “Quantum Field” has uncertainty in both its phase and the number of particles involved and this uncertainty is determined by the Heisenberg Relation. The more the uncertainty is taken up by fluctuation in the number of particles, the more perfect does the electromagnetic phase coherence become.

A frequency imprinted in water might be retained if the proton precession becomes coherently synchronised to an applied alternating magnetic field and the coherent protons can generate their own internal magnetic field such as to satisfy proton NMR conditions. Such an imprint should be stable unless the domain is thermally broken up by removing the stabilising geomagnetic field. There is a maximum for the number of distinct frequency imprints which a particular medium will accept presumably due to proton availability.

There is a change of pH on frequency imprinting which reverses on “erasure”. This implies that protons involved in memory do not contribute to the pH. An increase in pH corresponds to the removal of H+ ions and the generation of an equal number of OHions. A solution at pH 8.01 increased to pH 8.05 on saturation with 377 separate frequency imprints. This pH change involves 6.4×1012 protons per imprint. The critical magnetic field for the memory erasure gives 6.3×1012 coherent protons as the number required to make the NMR independent of the imprinted frequency and numbers agree within experimental error.

The Far Infra-Red (FIR) is the part of the spectrum where potentisation and memory effects should be seen. Coherence and fractality then bring these effects into other parts of the spectrum. Trace water in n-hexane has frequencies related to the H-bonding which can only arise in the FIR where hexane has a spectrum. There are many water lines in the FIR, a few [28 µm (357 cm-1), 47 µm (213 cm-1) and 78 µm (128 cm-1)] can become coherent enough to use in a water vapor laser. Assuming these should be able to provide the necessary coherence for water “memory”, the hexane frequency signatures were calculated from these spectra. When the same calculation was applied to pairs of water FIR lines in the absence of any hexane, this gave the measured frequencies of water resonances. When a frequency was imprinted into water, the FIR frequencies were replaced by two sidebands proportional to the imprinted frequency. Because of coherence, this is a fractal effect and corresponding sidebands appeared in other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Dielectric measurements on a frequency imprint in water do not fit with the premise of thermally randomized quanta but are consistent with a coherence only limited by quantum fluctuations. This must apply to homeopathic potencies too. Nature seems to be working with a frequency precision at the limits of physical possibilities. I recently had brief access to an oscillator which had a frequency resolution of one microHertz. This frequency corresponds to one cycle in 11½ days. The oscillator was set to its maximum frequency of 80.000 000 MHz. This frequency was imprinted into water and the resonance was detectable down to 79.999 346 MHz representing a bandwidth of 1,308 Hz. The theoretical bandwidth calculated by assuming that energy of quantum fluctuations in the number of coherent 80 MHz photons comes to 6,720 Hz. Although, I may only have measured the ‘tip-of-the-iceberg’, theory and experiment have at last reached the same ‘ball-park’.

6.7 Erasing a Frequency or Potency

The Earth’s magnetic field is necessary for the retention of a frequency imprint in water and the retention of the activity of a homeopathic potency. There is a precise threshold magnetic field (about 1% of the normal Earth’s magnetic field) below which all information is permanently erased. Putting a potency into a steel biscuit “tin” or a steel filing cabinet or cupboard will erase it. This is useful for making placebos since the chemistry is unchanged. It can be used to “clean” water or other materials before potentising them. The effect is instantaneous. This threshold enables the size of a coherence domain in water to be determined precisely; it comes out at 53 µm diameter.

6.8 Methods of Imprinting a Frequency

6.8.1 Contact

The information in a homeopathic potency can slowly imprint into water by contact without need for any mechanical succussion. For example, a glass tube containing ‘erased’ was placed in a beaker of water imprinted with a range of frequencies. The higher frequencies imprinted more quickly than the lower frequencies.

6.8.2 Mechanical Succussion

Potencies were originally prepared by the “Classical Hahnemanian” method of impacting a vial on the cover of a leather-bound book. Now, potencies may be prepared by vortexing, the application of magnetic fields, the use of electronic potentisers and acupuncture apparatus. Calculators, computers and electrical impulses in general including nerve pulse trains can potentise. It is even possible to potentise chemically.

There is one piece of physics which can cover all these modalities. In quantum physics, the angular momentum of an isolated particle is quantised, that is it can only exist in certain states which are integer multiples of Planck’s Constant divided by 2p.

For this, succussion must be able to change the proton angular momentum and thence its magnetic moment. A mechanical succussion experiment carried out in different magnetic field strengths confirmed that this effect existed. When water was vortexed, a higher speed of rotation (angular momentum) reduced the magnetic field required for potentising. However, the water needs to be able to flow, it was not possible to potentise water being spun in a centrifuge with a magnetic field applied from outside.

6.8.3 Magnetic Fields

A solenoid can be used to potentise a frequency into water, but it is more instructive to connect an oscillator to a toroid coil and generate a separate magnetic field with a solenoid. It is then found that the frequency of the water imprint is the frequency applied to the toroid which gives a magnetic vector potential (A-field). The solenoid gives the B-field needed for potentising which does not change with frequency until it reaches the frequency applied to the toroid, then it ceases to potentise. This means that bio-information is carried by the magnetic vector potential (A-field) from the toroid and the magnetic B-field from the solenoid performs a function analogous to that of formatting a computer disk. The magnetic vector potential affects the phase of the quantum field. It is in the direction of the current producing it. It cannot be shielded with magnetic materials.

Rings of ferrite material can be used to copy and imprint potencies. A single toroid copies the frequencies and inverts from stimulatory to depressive (or vice-versa) from one tube to another placed nearby. Two ferrite rings copy a potency exactly. This coupling between the tubes and ferrite rings is a ‘non-local’ quantum effect. Potentisation can be effected by succussing any one of the four items (N.B. use a wooden surface since the rings are ceramic and as fragile as glass). This is useful if the receiver is a patient or a plastic bottle. This technique could avoid the regulatory problems associated with the potentisation of nosodes since no chemical contact is involved in such potentisations.

6.8.4        Electrical Potentials

Potentisation also can be effected with a calculator (or a computer) by placing the potency tube and receiving tube of water beside it. The potency is copied into the receiver by small voltage pulses from the calculator. It requires seven uni-directional voltage pulses to effect this imprinting. Such a pulse train is generated in a calculator by entering ‘7’ and then pressing ‘=’ . To copy at a different potency, the procedure is to key in ‘10.’ for D potencies, ‘100.’ for C potencies and ‘1000.’ for M potencies. Then follow the decimal point by the number of the potency e.g. 10.6 for a D6 potency and finish with the ‘7=’ .

A mobile phone is as effective as a calculator. Calling-up a number with at least 7 digits will effect copying. However, it will also copy all the mobile’s frequencies into the hand and head of the user. This takes about 15 minutes to clear from the body.

The basic arithmetical operations can be performed on frequencies imprinted in water. Using somewhat similar arrangements the basic reversible logic gates and their operations can be implemented which is all that is necessary to make a computer.

6.8.5        Chemically

The potentisation of a solution of hydrogen peroxide results in a continuum of stimulating (therapeutic) frequencies which is the nearest I have found to water imprinted by a healer. The potentisation of formaldehyde results in a continuum of stress. Lead metal has an endogenous frequency which can effect potentisation. To demonstrate this, take a beaker of erased water and place in it a glass tube containing a piece of lead (or lead-tin solder), a glass tube containing a potency to be copied and a glass receiving tube containing the erased water to be potentised. Add one drop of 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide to the beaker. The potency will copy into the water in the beaker and thence into receiving tube.

6.8.6 Environmentally

The typical overhead power line comprises sets of three conductors (the “phases”). The voltages and currents oscillate at 50 Hz (60Hz in N. America) and their phases are arranged to be like the hands of a clock set at 12, 4, & 8; they cancel if everything is equal. The magnetic field (B) and the magnetic vector potential (A) are both proportional to the current. When one is far enough away from the three-phase conductors, each conductor can be regarded as at the same distance. Closer up, some are nearer than others and the B and A fields no longer cancel. This is a condition for imprinting the frequencies of all the currents on the line. This imprint is like that found when potentised water has been heated above 90ºC. It is only detectable with a Caduceus coil but, the imprint may be restored to its usual form by exposure to 7.8 Hz (which is the endogenous frequency of the heart meridian and chakra). This may be done by placing it close to a coil radiating that frequency or by holding the tube against the heart chakra.

Electromagnetic radiation (consisting of E-fields and B-fields) from a transmitter will experience the refractive index of air and propagate at the velocity of light in air. The associated magnetic vector potential (A-field) does not interact with the air and propagates at the vacuum velocity of light. At 5 km distance from a transmitter, there is a transit time difference of 5 ns between the A- and B-fields. At 100 MHz this represents a 180º phase difference between the fields and is a condition for imprinting frequencies into water or living tissues.

6.9 Double-Blinding Problems

There is no point in trying to do ‘Double-Blind’ trials of homeopathic potencies if the protocol cannot be made to work when the identity of the specimens is known. To demonstrate these problems, I took a set of 10 tubes of erased water, the odd numbers were imprinted with 1 kHz, nothing was put into the even numbered tubes.

The first measurement run was correct as far as Tube #6 but Tubes #7 and #8 were wrong. Things got even more random in subsequent runs. It was no longer possible to tell which of the 10 tubes was being measured.

On moving a tube away from the toroid, the result became correct at a distance of 39 cm. There was only a limited zone within which the measurements were anomalous. After 5 min., 20 min. and 12 hours the zone was still there but, it was possible to walk into and out of the zone without disturbing it. The experimental space had become potentised and the effect did not decay with time. A sequential measurement procedure in which many potencies are moved past each other seems to be the way to set up such an anomalous potentised zone in space. A single tube was imprinted with a set of 9 frequencies from 10-4 Hz to 10+4 Hz. All these frequencies were measured correctly and this could be repeated.

The distance 39 cm is exactly a half-wavelength of 78 cm which is the wavelength of the upper-band heart meridian frequency 384 MHz. If this is correct, the anomalous zone should resonate at 6.4× 10-2 Hz (given that the velocity of propagation of coherence in air is 0.05 m/s). Measurement gave a resonance at 6.413 × 10-2 Hz. This resonance disappeared when a fan was switched on to disturb the air. This effect also requires the air to be humid. A sealed plastic bag of ambient air can be potentised but, if some silica gel is put in the bag no potentisation is possible.

It seemed a simple idea to move the set of 10 tubes more than 39 cm away and bring them up one at a time for measurement. This gave three correct runs, but at the fourth run the anomalous zone had enlarged fourfold to encompass the new location of the tubes.

This anomalous zone also gives anomalous frequency imprinting so the effect could be very relevant to homeopathic potentisations. I set up an anomalous zone as above and then tried to imprint a tube of water at 1 kHz within it. After succussion, there was no 1 kHz but a set of three frequencies. These three frequencies were those of the Sanjiao, Heart and Nerve Degeneration acupuncture meridians (the latter being Voll’s summation point for the entire ANS). This is clearly an experimenter induced effect.

6.10 Conclusions

A homeopathic potency is a pattern of frequency resonances in water which stimulate or depress the activity of regulatory systems. Potentisation synchronises the spin of a critical number of protons in coherent water. Precession of the spin axis of this number of protons generates a local magnetic field which satisfies proton magnetic resonance conditions for any frequency being imprinted. This “memorises” the resonance of the imprinted frequency.

Life in the present chemical and electromagnetic polluted environment needs an understanding of the principles of homeopathy. Proving symptoms arise from what is in effect, mass medication by chemical and electrical pollution. Chronic exposure to a proving may result in adaptation to the point where symptoms cannot be distinguished from a disease state.

Fractality makes it possible for chemical and biological frequencies to interact. If you do not want to get electrically hypersensitive, do not acquire multiple chemical sensitivities!

For the first Chapter, Alan Schmukler gave me a list of many questions regarding homeopathy which needed to be explored. In the next Chapter, I shall continue to work my way down the list.


Cyril Smith was born in London, England, in 1930. He started work in radar in 1947; he was a Research Fellow at Imperial College, London, from 1956 under Blackett and McGee working on Medical X-ray Images. From 1964 at Salford University in the Electrical Engineering Department, his research activity included: Instrument Technology, Medical Electronics, Dielectric Liquids, Electromagnetic Effects in Living Systems and Water. In 1973, his co-operation with Herbert Froehlich, FRS commenced. In 1982, he first became involved with the diagnosis and treatment of electromagnetically hypersensitive patients. He was Secretary of The Dielectrics Society from 1972-1983. In 1989/90, his co-authored book “Electromagnetic Man” was published. That year he also took early retirement. He continues to be active in research and writing.

About the author

Cyril W. Smith

Cyril W. Smith, physicist, is the author of countless papers on the effects of subtle energies and co-author of Electromagnetic Man. He is one of the world"™s leading experts on the biological effects of subtle energies. He was Research Fellow at Imperial College, London, researched electromagnetic effects in living systems at Salford University, was Secretary of the Dielectrics Society, worked with H. Fröhlich treating electromagnetically sensitive patients and acted as a scientific consultant for the Breakspear Medical Group Ltd.

1 Comment

  • the effect of electromagnetic field on mother tinctures is wonderful as it enhances the potentisation by reducing the matter,reducing the wave length,enhancing the frequency.that means conversion of the matter into energy which results in the entry of this energy at intracellular level to treat the ill spirit to eradicate chronic diseases. WONDERS OF THE SCIENCE ALWAYS DEVELOPED WITH TIME.
    Dr.Jehanzeb Khan
    M.Sc.(Inorganic Chemistry),MD(eh),MD(am)

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